References of "Degrave, Christophe"
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See detailRelation between emission and olfactory tests
Degrave, Christophe; Romain, Anne-Claude ULg; Nicolas, Jacques ULg

Conference (2010, January 21)

At present, sensory evaluation is not yet integrated in all labels and standards. After comparison and interpretation of the weaknesses and the strengths of the several existing methods, a methodology has ... [more ▼]

At present, sensory evaluation is not yet integrated in all labels and standards. After comparison and interpretation of the weaknesses and the strengths of the several existing methods, a methodology has been elaborated. Previous experience in off-odour measurements for environmental field investigations help us to propose a methodology based on the assessment of odour intensity and hedonic tone. Various floor covering materials were tested in the lab with a self-made instrument. The sampling procedure is based on a "Field and Laboratory Emission Cell" (FLEC). The odour of the material is compared to a 8-level butanol intensity scale generated through a vaporization chamber and 8 stainless steel capillaries distributing the diluted n-butanol to 8 sniffing ports. First results shows generally a correlation between bad hedonic tone and odour intensity. On the contrary, there are no systematic relations between VOC levels and odour perception. The less odorous materials (PVC) are also the ones with the higher level of total VOC and the linoleum had a strong odour with a low level of total VOC. The explanation lies in the chemical family composition of the emission. The PVC emission contains mainly alkanes compounds (non odorous family) whereas the linoleum contains also odorous chemical families like carboxylic acids and aldehydes. [less ▲]

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See detailStatistical analysis of chamber VOCs emission data
Romain, Anne-Claude ULg; Degrave, Christophe; Nicolas, Jacques ULg

Conference (2010, January 21)

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See detailHORIZONTAL EVALUATION METHOD FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS DIRECTIVE HEMICPD
Lor, Marc; Vause, Kevin; Dinne, Karla et al

Report (2010)

A. Context One of the objectives of the European Construction Products Directive (CPD) is to harmonize the technical specifications with regard to dangerous substances and construction materials ... [more ▼]

A. Context One of the objectives of the European Construction Products Directive (CPD) is to harmonize the technical specifications with regard to dangerous substances and construction materials. Construction products could emit or contain dangerous substances that have been defined as dangerous substances under Commission directives and national regulations. In the future construction products may only be placed on the market in the European Union if they accord with the (second generation) harmonized technical specifications including health aspects and bear the CE mark. B. Objectives The goal of this research project is to improve the flow of knowledge and information vis-à-vis normalisation activities in the domain of indoor air measurements, indoor product emission testing, labeling and certification by proposing an evaluation method and standardized assessment methods for a harmonized approach relating to emissions from building materials into indoor air for implementation in Belgium. This approach will comply with current European harmonizing efforts ongoing on European level. C. Conclusions  International tendencies as well as national developments indicate the growing importance of building material emission testing  Harmonisation of governmental schemes to assess volatile organic emissions in the context of the CPD is necessary to obtain transparency  The topic of different limit values in different countries is a difficult problem to solve  It was demonstrated that it is possible with alternative methods (µ-chamber and FLEC) to achieve a qualitative and quantitative correlation with the reference method. However there is a need to extend this comparative study to more materials  The important influence of the quantification procedure on the emission results was demonstrated  The possiblity to investigate microbial resistance of building materials with the so called µ-chamber technique was demonstrated  A twofold methodology for the odour determination of building materials was developed: a quantitative method based on intensity and a qualitative method based on hedonic scale. Furthermore the basis for the development of an electronic nose specific for evaluation of building materials was laid down  A possible evaluation scheme for Belgium on the basis of AFSSET/AgBB/prEN15052 was proposed with two modifications: - Time path modification (7 or 10 days) - Prescreening with alternative method (< 20 L) D. Contribution of the project in a context of scientific support to transfer of knowledge and innovation This research project for implementation of the essential requirement “Hygiene, health and the environment” of the Construction Products Directive has besides its informative and sensitizing role also performed a supporting role in the development of new innovative low emission construction products. The research project has also ensured a Belgian input in the validation work of the draft standard "Emissions into indoor air" - WI 351009 - Construction products - Assessment of emissions of regulated dangerous substances from construction products - Determination of emissions into indoor air” in development in working group 2 of CEN/TC 351. Furthermore this research project has lead to the development of new innovative test methods tailored to the specific needs of construction products. [less ▲]

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See detailLa mesure des émissions gazeuses, et plus particulièrement des odeurs, comme outil de caractérisation de matériaux et de processus
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Romain, Anne-Claude ULg; Degrave, Christophe et al

Conference (2009, September)

La qualité d'un matériau de construction, outre ses caractéristiques physiques, est fonction de son impact sur l'environnement intérieur. Ceci pousse de plus en plus les fabricants à proposer sur le ... [more ▼]

La qualité d'un matériau de construction, outre ses caractéristiques physiques, est fonction de son impact sur l'environnement intérieur. Ceci pousse de plus en plus les fabricants à proposer sur le marché des matériaux (dont les "bio-matériaux") dont les émissions atmosphériques demeurent dans des limites acceptables. Plusieurs initiatives, essentiellement volontaires, existent au niveau européen pour évaluer ces émissions. Un des objectifs de la directive européenne des produits de construction (CPD) est d'harmoniser les méthodes d'évaluation. La comparaison de 4 chambres d'émission, de tailles différentes, l'usage de méthodes d'évaluation physico-chimiques couplées à des méthodes sensitives de mesure des odeurs et l'utilisation de la technique des nez électroniques constituent l'originalité de la démarche du projet mené par l'université de Liège en collaboration avec deux autres institutions belges. Plus généralement, le nez électronique représente un outil particulièrement bien adapté au suivi d'ambiances gazeuses au cours du temps. L'odeur émise peut ainsi servir comme "variable de process" pour suivre en continu, voire contrôler, des processus utilisant la bio dégradation de produits, comme le compostage, la bio méthanisation ou le bio séchage. [less ▲]

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