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See detailDistribution des propriétés morphologiques et chimiques d’un sol le long d’un versant forestier
Deraedt, Deborah ULg; Degré, Aurore ULg; Colinet, Gilles ULg

in Revue Forestière Française (in press)

La fertilité d’un sol conditionne la productivité des plantes, c’est pourquoi il est intéressant de connaitre la distribution des caractéristiques chimiques et morphologiques du sol afin de permettre une ... [more ▼]

La fertilité d’un sol conditionne la productivité des plantes, c’est pourquoi il est intéressant de connaitre la distribution des caractéristiques chimiques et morphologiques du sol afin de permettre une exploitation et une gestion optimales de celui-ci. Un versant forestier, en pente forte (140m de long, 40m de dénivelée), sur matériaux schisto-gréseux et sous une plantation de résineux fait l’objet d’un suivi du fonctionnement hydrodynamique et pédochimique en relation avec le développement des arbres. Au vu du contexte de forte pente, nous suspectons la présence d’apports par solifluction. La position dans le versant est souvent un facteur de différenciation des sols et, en préalable à l’étude de l’évolution temporelle des propriétés des sols et de la végétation et de l’évolution spatiale des flux d’eau, nous nous sommes attachés à la caractérisation de la distribution des propriétés morphologiques et chimiques le long du versant. Huit fosses ont été creusées et échantillonnées selon les horizons. Outre les descriptions selon un protocole standardisé, nous avons effectué des comptages racinaires, des mesures de densité apparente et de charge caillouteuse. Les analyses en laboratoire visent la caractérisation du statut nutritif : pH, teneurs échangeables (NH4Cl) en K, Mg, Na et Ca, et P assimilable (Dyer). Les résultats confirment l’importance de la différenciation verticale au sein des profils. On notera également une légère tendance à la hausse du pH et des teneurs en éléments nutritifs entre le haut et le bas du versant, à l’exception du dernier profil de la séquence. [less ▲]

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See detailÉVOLUTION DE LA TENEUR EN EAU LE LONG D’UNE TOPOSEQUENCE FORESTIERE ARGILO-LIMONEUSE
Deraedt, Deborah ULg; Colinet, Gilles ULg; Degré, Aurore ULg

in Milieux Poreux et Transferts Hydriques (in press)

For the hydrological modeling of forested watersheds, the understanding of the forest hydrodynamic is essential. This study focusses on the hydrology of a Belgian forested plot with high stoniness and ... [more ▼]

For the hydrological modeling of forested watersheds, the understanding of the forest hydrodynamic is essential. This study focusses on the hydrology of a Belgian forested plot with high stoniness and steep slope. The soil water content is monitored at several positions on the toposequence and at different depth. During rain events, peak in soil water content are observed in different depth depending on the position along the toposequence. [less ▲]

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See detailImproving soil conservation through an adapted tillage: experience from the cultivation of potatoes in Bamiléké's hills of Cameroon
Djoukeng, Henri Grisseur ULg; Tankou, Christopher Mubeteneh; Degré, Aurore ULg

Poster (2014, May 14)

The western highlands of Cameroon are an area where the population density and growth rates are the highest in the country. In this region, the main activity is agriculture, and rivers are the main source ... [more ▼]

The western highlands of Cameroon are an area where the population density and growth rates are the highest in the country. In this region, the main activity is agriculture, and rivers are the main source of safe drinking water. Lacks of arable land and especially against very complex land tenure, farmers are increasingly exploiting the hills (9-30 % slope) for the production of vegetable crops, mainly potatoes. The methods of preparation of soil found there are ridging in the direction of the slope and the culture dish. These practices promote erosion by runoff, generally compromises the multiple functions of agriculture, and in particular the environmental function (soil degradation, pollution and silting up of rivers) and the production function (incomes). In order to ensure soil stability and maintain good water quality of rivers, we put it up a new way of preparing the ground: the tied ridging. To quantify the effectiveness of the latter, we conducted tests of erosion by runoff with Wischmeier’s plots on the most exploited slopes, namely 11% and 29%. The run-off water and sediments were collected per plot and per block after every rain. The first analyses show that there is a significant difference between the culture dish or ridging along the slope and tied ridging. The major constraint of this practice lies in the increase of about 17% of the labor. Tied ridging reported losses in average land 16% lower compared with the ridging in the direction of the slope and 22% compared with the culture dish, he also presented higher yields of 65 % compared with the culture dish and the ridging in the direction of the slope. Despite the hardship, the test results have convinced the participants and some curious farmers which have adopted the technology during the next growing season. [less ▲]

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See detailModeling using the SWAT model of water flow and transport in suspension in the watershed of the valley of Wadi El-Hachem
Tadrist, Nassima ULg; DEBAUCHE, OLIVIER ULg; Degré, Aurore ULg et al

Poster (2014, May 12)

In the Maghreb, dams regularly suffer from excessive siltation due to erosion problems present in the catchment areas. The origins of this erosion are multiple: land use, deforestation, land affectation ... [more ▼]

In the Maghreb, dams regularly suffer from excessive siltation due to erosion problems present in the catchment areas. The origins of this erosion are multiple: land use, deforestation, land affectation , ... Hydrology coupled with geographic information systems allows using distributed and physically based models to predict the evolution of siltation of dams. The application of these models in Algeria will finally predict the impact of anti-erosion measures, land use patterns on the siltation of dams accurately estimating the amount of sediment produced by erosion runoff and the degree of filling. A methodology based on the map data (digital terrain model, map soil science, geology map and mapping of land use) and daily meteorological data (temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, solar radiation) is being development and testing of the dam Bourkourdane. The SWAT model is used to predict the amount of sediment accumulating in the dam, the water flow rate inbound, outbound, and the volumes of water and sediment stored in the dam. Adequate management of releases, coupled with better management of erosion upstream of the dam will extend the life of dams Algerians. Especially for Boukourdane, improved management of releases is paramount to improve groundwater recharge, fight against the intrusion of marine waters and prevent the accumulation of fine particles that reduce soil permeability. [less ▲]

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See detailCoupling X-ray microtomography and macroscopic soil measurements: a method to enhance near saturation functions?
Beckers, Eléonore ULg; Plougonven, Erwan; Gigot, Nicolas et al

in Hydrology & Earth System Sciences (2014), 18

Agricultural management practices influence soil structure, but the characterization of these modifications and consequences are still not completely understood. In this study, we aim at improving water ... [more ▼]

Agricultural management practices influence soil structure, but the characterization of these modifications and consequences are still not completely understood. In this study, we aim at improving water retention and hydraulic conductivity curves using both classical soil techniques and X-ray microtomography in the context of tillage simplification. We show a good match for retention and conductivity functions between macroscopic measurements and microtomographic information. Microtomography highlights the presence of a secondary pore system. Analysis of structural parameters for these pores appears to be significant and offers additional clues for objects differentiation. We show that relatively fast scans supply not only good results, but also enhance near saturation characterization, making microtomography a highly competitive instrument for routine soil characterization. [less ▲]

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See detailX-ray microtomography: A porosity-based thresholding method to improve soil pore network characterization?
Beckers, Eléonore ULg; Plougonven, Erwan ULg; Roisin, Christian et al

in Geoderma (2014), 219-220

X-ray microtomography, through quantification of soil structure at the microscale, could greatly facilitate the current understanding of soil hydrodynamic behaviour. However, binarisation method and ... [more ▼]

X-ray microtomography, through quantification of soil structure at the microscale, could greatly facilitate the current understanding of soil hydrodynamic behaviour. However, binarisation method and processing choices are subjective and can have a strong impact on results and conclusions. In this study, we test a new method based on the porosity detectable by X-ray microtomography, while validation is achieved through comparison of soil microtomogram information with soil physical measurements. These measurements consist of water retention and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity using two different soil populations with only structural differences. To assess the porosity-based method performances, we compare it to four other methods, namely the global method of Otsu and three recent soil-dedicated local methods. The robustness of the porosity-based method is also tested in regard to different pre-processing procedures. In this paper we demonstrate that soil segmentation through a porosity-based method is an interesting issue. Indeed, it is less demanding in terms of time and computational requirements than its alternatives, and combines robustness and performances broadly comparable with the recent local methods. [less ▲]

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See detailGISER - Gestion intégrée Sol Erosion Ruissellement - rapport d'activités année 3
Bielders, Charles; Degré, Aurore ULg; Demarcin, Pierre ULg et al

Report (2014)

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See detailIncrease in Soil Macroporosity managed with Winter Ploughing - a preliminary results
Parvin, Nargish ULg; Chelin, Marie ULg; Hiel, Marie-Pierre ULg et al

Poster (2014, February 07)

Measurement of soil water retention capacity by the conventional pressure plate technique always gives a substantial view of soil porosity distribution. The structural orientation is observed in the ... [more ▼]

Measurement of soil water retention capacity by the conventional pressure plate technique always gives a substantial view of soil porosity distribution. The structural orientation is observed in the beginning (higher water retention at 9.8 to 98 hPa water head pressure indicates greater proportion of macroporosity) of the soil moisture characteristic curve obtained from the water retention measurement. Since, tillage practices generally increase soil porosity, the correlation between soil hydraulics and porosity distribution would expect to be different for different tillage systems. In general, macroporosity increase with the adoption of conservative tillage or no tillage system but the changes can be varied with the seasonal variation. In our study, winter ploughing retains more water at the range of 9.8 to 98 hPa than Strip tillage, No-till residues in and No-till residues out. So, we can conclude that there is certainly increase in macroporosity in ploughing than other conservation practices of reduced tillage and no tillage. [less ▲]

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See detailThe evaluation of unmanned aerial systems-based photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning to generate DEMs of agricultural watersheds
Ouedraogo, Mohamar ULg; Degré, Aurore ULg; Debouche, Charles ULg et al

in Geomorphology (2014)

Agricultural watersheds tend to be places of intensive farming activities that permanently modify their microtopography. The surface characteristics of the soil vary depending on the crops that are ... [more ▼]

Agricultural watersheds tend to be places of intensive farming activities that permanently modify their microtopography. The surface characteristics of the soil vary depending on the crops that are cultivated in these areas. Agricultural soil microtopography plays an important role in the quantification of runoff and sediment transport because the presence of crops, crop residues, furrows and ridges may impact the direction of water flow. To better assess such phenomena, 3-D reconstructions of high-resolution agricultural watershed topography is essential. Fine-resolution topographic data collection technologies can be used to discern highly detailed elevation variability in these areas. Knowledge of the strengths and weaknesses of existing technologies used for data collection on agricultural watersheds may be helpful in choosing an appropriate technology. This study assesses the suitability of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and unmanned aerial system (UAS) photogrammetry for collecting the fine-resolution topographic data required to generate accurate, high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) in a small watershed area (12 ha). Because of farming activity, 14 TLS scans (≈ 25 points m− 2) were collected without using high-definition surveying (HDS) targets, which are generally used to mesh adjacent scans. To evaluate the accuracy of the DEMs created from the TLS scan data, 1,098 ground control points (GCPs) were surveyed using a real time kinematic global positioning system (RTK-GPS). Linear regressions were then applied to each DEM to remove vertical errors from the TLS point elevations, errors caused by the non-perpendicularity of the scanner’s vertical axis to the local horizontal plane, and errors correlated with the distance to the scanner’s position. The scans were then meshed to generate a DEMTLS with a 1 × 1 m spatial resolution. The Agisoft PhotoScan and MicMac software packages were used to process the aerial photographs and generate a DEMPSC (Agisoft PhotoScan) and DEMMCM (MicMac), respectively, with spatial resolutions of 1 × 1 m. Comparing the DEMs with the 1,098 GCPs showed that the DEMTLS was the most accurate data product, with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 4.5 cm, followed by the DEMMCM and the DEMPSC, which had RMSE values of 9.0 and 13.9 cm, respectively. The DEMPSC had absolute errors along the border of the study area that ranged from 15.0 to 52.0 cm, indicating the presence of systematic errors. Although the derived DEMMCM was accurate, an error analysis along a transect showed that the errors in the DEMMCM data tended to increase in areas of lower elevation. Compared with TLS, UAS is a promising tool for data collection because of its flexibility and low operational cost. However, improvements are needed in the photogrammetric processing of the aerial photographs to remove non-linear distortions. [less ▲]

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See detailDEM time series of an agricultural watershed
Pineux, Nathalie ULg; Lisein, Jonathan ULg; Swerts, Gilles ULg et al

in Geophysical Research Abstracts (2014), 16

the field data come from plot scale studies, the watershed scale seems to be more appropriate to understand them. Currently, small unmanned aircraft systems and images treatments are improving. In this ... [more ▼]

the field data come from plot scale studies, the watershed scale seems to be more appropriate to understand them. Currently, small unmanned aircraft systems and images treatments are improving. In this way, 3D models are built from multiple covering shots. When techniques for large areas would be to expensive for a watershed level study or techniques for small areas would be too time consumer, the unmanned aerial system seems to be a promising solution to quantify the erosion and deposition patterns. The increasing technical improvements in this growth field allow us to obtain a really good quality of data and a very high spatial resolution with a high Z accuracy. In the center of Belgium, we equipped an agricultural watershed of 124 ha. For three years (2011-2013), we have been monitoring weather (including rainfall erosivity using a spectropluviograph), discharge at three different locations, sediment in runoff water, and watershed microtopography through unmanned airborne imagery (Gatewing X100). We also collected all available historical data to try to capture the “long-term” changes in watershed morphology during the last decades: old topography maps, soil historical descriptions, etc. An erosion model (LANDSOIL) is also used to assess the evolution of the relief. Short-term evolution of the surface are now observed through flights done at 200m height. The pictures are taken with a side overlap equal to 80%. To precisely georeference the DEM produced, ground control points are placed on the study site and surveyed using a Leica GPS1200 (accuracy of 1cm for x and y coordinates and 1.5cm for the z coordinate). Flights are done each year in December to have an as bare as possible ground surface. Specific treatments are developed to counteract vegetation effect because it is know as key sources of error in the DEM produced by small unmanned aircraft systems. The poster will present the older and more recent changes of relief in this intensely exploited watershed and notably show how unmanned airborne imagery might be of help in DEM dynamic modelling to support soil conservation research. [less ▲]

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See detailWhich measurement strategies to improve spatial erosion and deposition patterns modelling?
Pineux, Nathalie ULg; Maugnard, Alexandre; Swerts, Gilles ULg et al

in Geophysical Research Abstracts (2014), 16

Validation of the erosion models requires field data. To date, many authors continue to highlight the paucity of accurate field observations and long-term enough studies. The fields observations are often ... [more ▼]

Validation of the erosion models requires field data. To date, many authors continue to highlight the paucity of accurate field observations and long-term enough studies. The fields observations are often put aside because these measures are difficult to obtain: weighty experimental devices, climatic dependence, . . . Hence the models are evolving and propose refined calculation procedures including for instance the calculation of landscape evolution. The need of field data therefore increases and new measuring strategies should arise. In the centre of Belgium we choose an agricultural watershed quite representative of the local context. It covers 124 ha of loamy soil with more than 90% of arable land and a weak proportion of forest and artificial lands. The slope ranges between 0 and 9%. Instrumentation on the watershed includes meteorological observations and discharge measurement coupled with water sampling at different outlets. The weather data (radiation, temperature, wind velocity, relative humidity and rainfall) and discharge measurement (comparison between Doppler and pressure sensors) will allow us to model the hydrological behaviour of the catchment. Rainfall readings (tipping buckets) are completed with erosivity readings (disdrometer). Erosivity, together with soil data, land use and agricultural practices observations on field, will be used as entry in the Landsoil model. The sediment samplings at 3 points in the catchment will give an insight of the sediment delivery of 3 subcatchments. The Landsoil model calculates the evolution of the DTM through time. This cannot be compared to measurements at the outlet and requires further data collection. Older elevation data and/or archaeological data are a possible source of information even if their precision remains scarce in our context. 1950’s soil surveys are on the contrary really informative since they detail the horizons depth in a spatial way and can be compared to new observation across the watershed. Coupled with unmanned aerial system, they should allow us to test the model performances and improve our knowledge of the spatial patterns of erosion and deposition. [less ▲]

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See detailReprésentation du couvert forestier dans la modélisation hydrologique : Comparaison de dix modèles
Deraedt, Deborah ULg; Colinet, Gilles ULg; Claessens, Hugues ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(1), 83-96

There are many hydrological models, some of which can be used for forested environments. This review aims to compare ten of them (BILJOU, EPIC, BROOK90, SWAT, RHESSys, MIKE SHE, SHETRAN, WaSiM ETH, DHSVM ... [more ▼]

There are many hydrological models, some of which can be used for forested environments. This review aims to compare ten of them (BILJOU, EPIC, BROOK90, SWAT, RHESSys, MIKE SHE, SHETRAN, WaSiM ETH, DHSVM et Hydrus) to guide the choice. The compared fluxes are the interception, the transpiration and the root water uptake, the root distribution, the undercover effect, the tree growth and the model validation. The review underlines that each model deals with the forest fluxes in different ways. Most of the time, interception is similarly dealt by the models and the root distribution is used in the process of root water uptake. Understory and growth are seldom considered. [less ▲]

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See detailUncertainty assessment of ephemeral gully identification, characteristics and topographic threshold when using aerial photographs in agricultural settings
Maugnard, Alexandre; Cordonnier, Hélène; Degré, Aurore ULg et al

in EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS (2014)

Manual digitizing on aerial photographs is still commonly used for characterizing gully erosion over large areas. Even when automated detection procedures are implemented, manual digitizing is frequently ... [more ▼]

Manual digitizing on aerial photographs is still commonly used for characterizing gully erosion over large areas. Even when automated detection procedures are implemented, manual digitizing is frequently being resorted to in order to constitute reference datasets used for training and validation. In both cases, manual digitizing entails some subjective decisions on behalf of the operator, which introduces uncertainty into the resulting datasets. To assess the magnitude of this uncertainty, 11 experienced operators were asked to digitize and classify ephemeral gullies (EGs) on cropland following a standardized methodology. The resulting 11 datasets were compared in terms of number, type and location of EGs. Furthermore, for EGs located on a welldefined runoff flow concentration axis, the slope versus contributing area topographic thresholds required for initiating gully channels were assessed using four thresholding methods, and compared across the 11 datasets. The operators identified 259 different EGs. However, the number (52–139) and sum total length (8.9–23.7 km) of EGs varied widely across operators. Only 34% of the EGs were digitized by more than half of the operators, and 7% were identified by all. Identification of EGs located on a well-defined flow concentration axis proved least subjective. The longer the EG and the more fields the EG crossed, the larger the number of operators that were able to identify it. EGs were also most easily identified when located in sugar beet fields as compared to other crops. EG classification and topographic threshold lines were also found to be strongly operator-dependent. Quantile regression appeared to be one of the most robust thresholding methods. Operator subjectivity when digitizing EGs on orthophotographs introduces uncertainty that should be taken into account in future remote sensing-based studies of EG erosion whenever they rely, in part or in full, on manual photograph interpretation. [less ▲]

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See detailConcepts d’efficience et de productivité de l’eau (synthèse bibliographique)
Kambou, Donkora ULg; Xanthoulis, Dimitri ULg; Ouattara, Korodjouma et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(1),

Water efficiency and productivity indicators are used in many scientific disciplines, usually to account for water losses that occur during its use, or products generated per unit of water consumed. The ... [more ▼]

Water efficiency and productivity indicators are used in many scientific disciplines, usually to account for water losses that occur during its use, or products generated per unit of water consumed. The interpretation of these indicators is very diverse in the literature. However, the majority of definitions consider water efficiency as a measure of the effectiveness of irrigation, and view water productivity as a measure of the effectiveness of the physiological processes of both biomass production and crop yield formation, linked to the actual consumption of water by the crops. Thus, the consensus seems to be for water application efficiency (Ea) to be considered as the ratio of actual evapotranspiration to the water applied and productivity as the ratio of yield to actual evapotranspiration. The point of divergence relates fundamentally to the understanding of the constituent expressions of productivity (PE, product/“water consumed”) and efficiency of water application (Ea, “water consumed”/“applied water”). Indeed, the term “water consumed” is referred to variously by several authors as “actual evapotranspiration”, “gross irrigation plus rainfall”, “evapotranspiration plus water lost at the plot but beneficial to other users”, etc. Furthermore, while providing more details on the concepts of efficiency and water productivity, this review shows that the factors affecting these indicators have not yet been sufficiently elucidated. Thus, one of the axes of investigation could be to model the application efficiency of water firstly, according to water management practices and secondly, in terms of productivity levels in relation to the crop establishment period. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing the influence of crop management strategies on the distribution of soil water content by ERT
Chelin, Marie ULg; Parvin, Nargish ULg; Hiel, Marie-Pierre ULg et al

Poster (2013, December 20)

Amongst other functions, cover crops are known to increase the stability of the soil structure. Commonly, their suppression is realized by using conventional tillage, but that it has been demonstrated to ... [more ▼]

Amongst other functions, cover crops are known to increase the stability of the soil structure. Commonly, their suppression is realized by using conventional tillage, but that it has been demonstrated to damage the soil structure, which directly impacts the soil water content. The proposed alternatives vary in terms of date, depth and type of tillage. As the soil water content is a major factor in agriculture, it is essential to better understand the influence of the cover crop management on its spatio-temporal distribution. Recent studies demonstrated the relevancy of the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) to estimate the three-dimensional soil water content distribution. However, only a few of them were performed under field conditions. This study aims at (i) validating the use of the ERT method to estimate the soil water content distribution under field conditions (ii) quantifying the influence of cover crop management on the dynamic of soil water content along the growing season of a maize crop and on Belgian soil types. Three types of cover crop management content will be daily monitored: strip tillage, spring tillage and winter tillage. In order to assess the impact of plants on the soil water distribution, an additional plot will be burned after winter tillage. ERT will be used on a surface of 2 m² for each cover crop management. The validation of the average soil water content will be attended by using Time Domain Reflectrometers (TDR) and suction cups. The water stock obtained by ERT will be validated by using data from a weather station for the estimation of the evapotranspiration and rainfall and minirhizotrons for the assessment of the root water uptake. [less ▲]

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See detailSoil infrastructure evolution and its effect on water transfer processes under contrasted tillage systems with preliminary results of soil moisture sensor calibration
Parvin, Nargish ULg; Degré, Aurore ULg; Garré, Sarah ULg et al

Poster (2013, December 05)

The heterogeneity of soil structure and porosity are highly influenced by external factors like tillage systems and other land management approaches. The aim of this project is to investigate the effect ... [more ▼]

The heterogeneity of soil structure and porosity are highly influenced by external factors like tillage systems and other land management approaches. The aim of this project is to investigate the effect of soil tillage along with residue management on the changing pattern of soil structure. This investigation will help to emphasize the different water flow dynamics especially the preferential flow processes through the soil that are influenced by the changes in structural distribution in the soil profile. Mostly the preferential flow of water is addressed by the apparent velocity through the soil but this study will focus on soil structure along with soil moisture dynamics at aggregate scale or more specifically at pedon scale. The experimentation has been started from June 2013 in the research field known as Solcouvert (objects: strip-till (ST) versus winter ploughing (WP)) and Solresidus (objects: no-till with organic matter restitution (NI) versus no-till without organic matter restitution (NO)). Soil profile description has been carried out in the four objects of land management. Soil sampling has been done in different depths of soil according to the soil profile description. Soil samples will be used for the measurement of water retention capacity, hydraulic conductivity and x-ray microtomography. In addition, there will be soil moisture sensors (Decagon 10HS, 5TM and ML3 Thetaprobe) in the field under four different trials. The soils from the different trials and also from different depths (0-15, 25-30 and 50-60 cm) were calibrated with the sensors. The calibration results were significantly (p<0.05) different between Solcouvert and Solresidus and there was also significant (p<0.05) difference among depths of same field especially between 0-15 and 50-60 cm. Soil bulk density and textural differences are the main reason for the differences of moisture content of different sites and depths measured by the moisture probes. In addition, the results were inconsistent along with overestimation of moisture content if the manufacturer based equation is used for the calibration. In our study, to capture the total soil moisture networks, the moisture sensors will be in the field in winter to spring and summer to autumn. All the experiments will be repeated twice a year. For the specific spatio-temporal comparison, the monitoring results from electrical resistance tomography will be available from the collaborated project of the same faculty. [less ▲]

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See detailSoil infrastructure evolution and its effect on water transfer processes under contrasted tillage systems
Parvin, Nargish; Degré, Aurore ULg; Garré, Sarah ULg et al

Poster (2013, December 05)

The heterogeneity of soil structure and porosity are highly influenced by external factors like tillage systems and other land management approaches. The aim of this project is to investigate the effect ... [more ▼]

The heterogeneity of soil structure and porosity are highly influenced by external factors like tillage systems and other land management approaches. The aim of this project is to investigate the effect of soil tillage along with residue management on the changing pattern of soil structure. This investigation will help to emphasize the different water flow dynamics especially the preferential flow processes through the soil that are influenced by the changes in structural distribution in the soil profile. Mostly the preferential flow of water is addressed by the apparent velocity through the soil but this study will focus on soil structure along with soil moisture dynamics at aggregate scale or more specifically at pedon scale. The experimentation has been started from June 2013 in the research field known as Solcouvert (objects: strip-till versus winter ploughing) and Solresidus (objects: no-till with organic matter restitution versus no-till without organic matter restitution). Soil profile description has been carried out in the four objects of land management. Soil sampling has been done in different depths of soil according to the soil profile description. Soil samples will be used for the measurement of water retention capacity, hydraulic conductivity and x-ray microtomography. In addition there will be soil moisture sensors (Decagon 10HS, 5TM and ML3 Thetaprobe) in the field under four different trials. The soils from the different trials and also from different depths (0-15, 25-30 and 50-60 cm) were calibrated with the sensors. The calibration results were significantly (p<0.05) different between Solcouvert and Solresidus and there was also significant (p<0.05) difference among depths of same field especially between 0-15 and 50-60 cm. Soil bulk density and textural differences are the main reason for the differences of moisture content of different sites and depths measured by the moisture probes. In addition, the results were inconsistent along with overestimation of moisture content if the manufacturer based equation is used for the calibration. We conclude that, site and depth wise calibration of low cost sensors is very essential for the interpretation of results. In our study, to capture the total soil moisture networks, the moisture sensors will be in the field during the crop season. All the experiments will be repeated twice a year. For the specific spatio-temporal comparison, the monitoring results from electrical resistance tomography will be available from the collaborated project of the same faculty. [less ▲]

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See detailÉlaboration du référentiel de compétences du master bioingénieur en Sciences et Technologies de l'Environnement
Colaux-Castillo-Bocanegra, Catherine ULg; Colinet, Gilles ULg; Debouche, Charles ULg et al

in Poulin, Richard (Ed.) Séminaire CITEF 2013 La liaison formation-emploi : l'approche compétences et la formation tout au long de la vie (2013, October 18)

Le département des Sciences et Technologies de l’Environnement (STE) de Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech faculté de l’Université de Liège a profité d’un changement d’intitulé de son diplôme de bioingénieur pour ... [more ▼]

Le département des Sciences et Technologies de l’Environnement (STE) de Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech faculté de l’Université de Liège a profité d’un changement d’intitulé de son diplôme de bioingénieur pour réviser son programme des études. Pour ce faire, il a adopté l’approche compétence. Afin de préparer au mieux ses futurs diplômés aux attentes du monde professionnel actuel et à venir, des anciens diplômés et des employeurs potentiels ont participé à la validation du référentiel de compétences associé à cette formation. Cette publication reprend les étapes clés de la création du référentiel de compétences et son exploitation dans la conception d’un programme des études cohérent. [less ▲]

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See detailContribution of an Agro-Hydrological Model
Degré, Aurore ULg; Sohier, Catherine ULg

Scientific conference (2013, September 13)

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