References of "Daube, Georges"
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See detailMultilocus sequence typing analysis and antibiotic resistance of Clostridium difficile strains isolated from retail meat and humans in Belgium
Rodriguez Diaz, Cristina ULg; Taminiau, Bernard ULg; Avesani, Véronique et al

in Food Microbiology (2014), 42

Clostridium difficile has been isolated from food animals and meat, specially ground pork and ground beef. The recovered isolates were closely related to C. difficile human strains, indicating that ... [more ▼]

Clostridium difficile has been isolated from food animals and meat, specially ground pork and ground beef. The recovered isolates were closely related to C. difficile human strains, indicating that animals and food are possible transmission routes of human C. difficile infection. The main objective of this study was to characterize C. difficile isolates from retail meat and to compare with human isolates recovered from hospital patients in Belgium. Raw meat (beef and pork) was obtained from the retail trade. C. difficile was recovered from 2.3% of the beef samples and from 4.7% of the pork samples. A total of 4 different PCR-ribotypes were identified with a large percentage of types 078 and 014. Resistance to moxifloxacin and erythromycin was detected. The multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) analysis showed that meat and human isolates cluster in the same lineage. This study reveals the presence of toxigenic C. difficile in retail meat in Belgium with predominance PCR-ribotypes 078 and 014, which are among the four most prevalent ribotypes of C. difficile isolated from humans in Europe. [less ▲]

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See detailCOMPARISON AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF ANIMAL AND HUMAN CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE STRAINS
Rodriguez Diaz, Cristina ULg; Taminiau, Bernard ULg; Korsak Koulagenko, Nicolas ULg et al

Poster (2014, May 07)

The main objective of this study was to characterize and compare animal and human C. difficile strains with respect to the PCR-ribotype and the antibiotic resistance. Multilocus sequence typing analysis ... [more ▼]

The main objective of this study was to characterize and compare animal and human C. difficile strains with respect to the PCR-ribotype and the antibiotic resistance. Multilocus sequence typing analysis (MLST) was performed in order to study clonal relationships of the isolates. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of the microbial flora of steak tartare by metagenomic approach
Korsak Koulagenko, Nicolas ULg; Delhalle, Laurent ULg; Nezer, Carine et al

Poster (2014, May 06)

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See detailA review of the microbiological hazards of raw milk from animal species other than cows
Verraes, Claire; Claeys, Wendy; Cardoen, Sabine et al

in International Dairy Journal (2014), sous presse

This review concentrates on information concerning the microbiological hazards that can be present in raw milk from animal species other than cows. Total bacterial counts of raw milk are described for ... [more ▼]

This review concentrates on information concerning the microbiological hazards that can be present in raw milk from animal species other than cows. Total bacterial counts of raw milk are described for several animal species, indicating the quality of the milk, then frequencies of occurrence of several human pathogenic microorganisms are considered and, finally, human cases of illness and outbreaks due to the consumption of raw milk from non-bovine species are covered. Only raw milk from goats and camels has so far been reported to be associated with outbreaks. Raw milk from horse and donkey may have a higher microbiological quality than raw milk from other animal species, although human pathogenic strains of Streptococcus are considered as a microbiological hazard for such milk. For raw milk from other animal species, the main microbiological hazards seem to be human pathogenic Escherichia coli, Campylobacter spp., tick-borne encephalitis virus and Brucella spp. [less ▲]

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See detailPrevalence of Campylobacter among goats and retail goat meat in Congo
Kabwang a Mpalang, Rosette; BOREUX, Raphaël ULg; Melin, Pierrette ULg et al

in Journal of Infection in Developing Countries [=JIDC] (2014), 8

Background: The prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli was determined in goat and goat meat sold at retail outlets in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo). Methodology: A ... [more ▼]

Background: The prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli was determined in goat and goat meat sold at retail outlets in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo). Methodology: A total of 644 samples, including 177 goat meat, 86 goat stomachs, 139 ready to eat (RTE) goat skewers, and 242 goat faecal samples were examined for the presence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli using polymerase chain reaction. Results: Overall, Campylobacter spp. were found in 34.6% of the examined samples. C. jejuni was isolated in 10.1% and C. coli in 26.7% of samples. Only 2.2% of all samples were positive for both species. There was a significant association between the prevalence of C. coli and the type of sample (p < 0.05). The overall prevalence of Campylobacter in different sample groups was 41.2%, 37.2%, 23.7%, and 35.1% for goat meat, goat stomachs, RTE goat skewers, and goat faecal samples, respectively. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the prevalence observed in the rainy season (16.7%) and the dry season (20.0%). Moreover, the overall prevalence of Campylobacter in slaughter sites, open-air markets, warehouses, and semi-open-air markets was 28.2%, 34.2%, 35.4%, and 42.9%, respectively. Statistically, there was no influence of the sample collection site on the frequency of isolation of Campylobacter (p > 0.05). Conclusion: This study shows that, considering the relatively high prevalence of this [less ▲]

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See detailCarriage and acquisition rates of Clostridium difficile in hospitalized horses, including molecular characterization, multilocus sequence typing and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates
Rodriguez Diaz, Cristina ULg; Taminiau, Bernard ULg; Brévers, Bastien et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (2014)

lostridium difficile has been identified as a significant agent of diarrhoea and enterocolitis in both foals and adult horses. Hospitalization, antibiotic therapy or changes in diet may contribute to the ... [more ▼]

lostridium difficile has been identified as a significant agent of diarrhoea and enterocolitis in both foals and adult horses. Hospitalization, antibiotic therapy or changes in diet may contribute to the development of C. difficile infection. Horses admitted to a care unit are therefore at greater risk of being colonized. The aim of this study was to investigate the carriage of C. difficile in hospitalized horses and the possible influence of some risk factors in colonization. During a seven-month period, faecal samples and data relating the clinical history of horses admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital were collected. C. difficile isolates were characterized through toxin profiles, cytotoxicity activity, PCR-ribotyping, antimicrobial resistance and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Ten isolates were obtained with a total of seven different PCR-ribotypes, including PCR-ribotype 014. Five of them were identified as toxinogenic. A high resistance to gentamicin, clindamycin and ceftiofur was found. MLST revealed four different sequencing types (ST), which included ST11, ST26, ST2 and ST15, and phylogenetic analysis showed that most of the isolates clustered in the same lineage. Clinical history suggests that horses frequently harbour toxigenic and non-toxigenic C. difficile and that in most cases they are colonized regardless of the reason for hospitalization; the development of diarrhoea is more unusual. [less ▲]

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See detailIsolation and identification of dominant osmophilic Leuconostoc strains from traditional date product “Btana”
Abekhti, Abdelkader; Daube, Georges ULg; Kihal, M.

in International Food Research Journal [=IFRJ] (2014), 21(4), 1261-1268

The current study aimed to isolate and identify dominant osmophilic bacteria associated with a traditional date product named “Btana”, produced in south region of Maghreb countries. Samples were randomly ... [more ▼]

The current study aimed to isolate and identify dominant osmophilic bacteria associated with a traditional date product named “Btana”, produced in south region of Maghreb countries. Samples were randomly collected after two month of storage from tow villages (Mtarfat and Abani) in the Algerian southern department “Adrar”. A high osmotic pressure medium (MSE) was used for isolation of osmophilic bacteria, which were purified and examined for macroscopic and microscopic shape, Gram stain, catatalse, oxydase, acetoine and ADH production, reduction of nitrate, and motility. Isolates were then subculture on MRS medium for production of dextran, gas from glucose, growth in the presence of NaCl (3, 6.5 %) and sucrose (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 %), pH tolerance (4.8, 6.5), growth temperature (10, 37, and 45°C) and thermo resistance (55°C for 15 min), enzymatic activity (proteolytic, lipolytic, hemolysis). Isolates were identified to specie’s level by sugar fermentation. Their growth and acidification kinetic were also studied. Results identified two species of Leuconostoc; Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum. They show a high antibacterial activity against four indicator bacteria; Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of agricultural practices on soil microbial communities in Belgium
Degrune, Florine ULg; Taminiau, Bernard ULg; Dufrêne, Marc ULg et al

Poster (2013, December 11)

The use of fertilizers in agricultural soils is becoming a real environmental issue (an obvious example is eutrophication caused by leaching of phosphorus and nitrates). Much research has focused on ... [more ▼]

The use of fertilizers in agricultural soils is becoming a real environmental issue (an obvious example is eutrophication caused by leaching of phosphorus and nitrates). Much research has focused on finding ways to reduce the use of chemicals, and investigating microbial life may lead to solutions. We know that bacteria and fungi are deeply involved in nutrient cycles. Recently the emergence of massive parallel sequencing has enabled us to realize that microbial diversity is huger than we expected. With such a tool it should be possible to study how soil management practices affect the microbial diversity of agricultural soils. A few such studies have been conducted, most of them focusing on bacteria. For Belgium in particular, there is a lack of data on this topic. Here the aim was to see how residue management and tillage practices affect communities of both bacteria and fungi in Belgian agricultural soils. For this we used 454 pyrosequencing of 16S bacterial and 28S fungal rRNA genes. Soil samples came from an experiment in which faba beans were grown with four soil management practices (tillage and no tillage, with and without crop residues), each repeated four times in a Latin square. Several chemical and physical characteristics were measured on each sample. The results show that fungi and bacteria are both impacted by Tillage practices. The main soil drivers are Magnesium and Phosphorus for Fungi communities, and Phosphorus and Potassium for bacteria communities. Finally, the fungi variance observed between plots is explained at 38% by Tillage, Magnesium and phosphorus. And the bacteria variance is explained at 28% by Tillage, Phosphorus and Potassium. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of the bacterial diversity and its evolution during storage of fresh beef from British and Belgian origins under different atmosphere and temperature conditions
Didimo Imazaki, Pedro Henrique ULg; Tahiri, Assia ULg; Taminiau, Bernard ULg et al

Conference (2013, December 10)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bacterial diversity and its evolution during storage of fresh beef, depending on its origin, packaging and storage temperature, by using a metagenomic ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bacterial diversity and its evolution during storage of fresh beef, depending on its origin, packaging and storage temperature, by using a metagenomic approach. Metagenomic analyzes revealed that the origin, atmosphere and temperature conditions influenced the selection of the predominant flora. Vacuum-packaged British samples presented higher concentrations of Lactobacillus algidus at the begging of the experiment than Belgian samples. Furthermore, the development of Lactobacillus algidus was favored in British and Belgian samples preserved under vacuum at −1 °C, while a predominance of Lactococcus piscium was observed for samples stored at +4 °C. These microorganisms have already been isolated from beef, but taking into account that the knowledge about these two species is currently limited, it is still not possible to state if the conservability of the tested samples was influenced by the presence of these bacteria. Moreover, storage under modified atmosphere favored the development of Leuconostoc gasicomitatum in both British and Belgian samples. This specie is often associated with spoilage of cold-stored modified-atmosphere-packaged (MAP) nutrient-rich foods. This result can partially explain the short shelf-life of the samples once they are stored under this condition. Metagenomics showed to be a useful tool to study the microbial population of a complex matrix since some of the identified genera could not have grown or have grown slowly in culture media commonly used. In addition, it helped to clarify the evolution of the bacterial ecosystem associated to meat during its storage. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrobial, biochemical and sensorial quality assessment of Algerian farmed tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) stored at 4 and 30°C
Dergal, Nadir; Abi-Ayad, S.M.E.-A.; Degand, Guy ULg et al

in African Journal of Food Science (2013), 7(12), 498-507

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See detailClostridium difficile: an emerging zoonotic pathogen ?
Rodriguez Diaz, Cristina ULg; Taminiau, Bernard ULg; Avesani, Véronique et al

Conference (2013, November 21)

Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium that remains the main cause of nosocomial diarrhoea in humans after use of antibiotics. C. difficile has also been described in other ... [more ▼]

Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium that remains the main cause of nosocomial diarrhoea in humans after use of antibiotics. C. difficile has also been described in other environments outside of hospitals, such as soil, river and seawater samples (Pasquale et al., 2011) and in animals, in which it can also cause enteric disease (Songer and Anderson, 2006). The possibility of transmission of C. difficile pathogenic isolates between animals, environments and humans has been suggested (Janezic et al., 2012). In recent years, the interest in C. difficile in food and in food animals has increased, leading to studying animals as a possible reservoir and a potential risk for food borne infections linked to C. difficile. Studies in various countries have determined differences in the prevalence of C. difficile in animals just before slaughter (Houser et al., 2012; Rodriguez et al., 2012) as well as in retail meat (Houser et al., 2012). In addition, many types, including PCR-ribotype 078, are present in humans, animals and meat (Janezic et al.; Weese et al., 2009). The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of C. difficile at the slaughterhouse and in retail meat. Intestinal and carcass samples were collected from pigs and cattle at a single slaughterhouse. Raw meat (beef and pork) was obtained from the retail trade. C. difficile was isolated in 1% and 9.9% of the pig and cattle intestinal contents and in 7.9% and 7% of cattle and pig carcass samples respectively. From retail meat, C. difficile was recovered from 2.3% of the beef samples and from 4.7% of the pork samples. A total of 21 different PCR-ribotypes were identified with a large percentage of types 078 and 014. This study confirms that animals are carriers of C. difficile at slaughter, and that carcass contamination occurs inside the slaughterhouse. Furthermore the results obtained also reveal the presence of toxigenic C. difficile in retail meat in Belgium with a predominance of isolates correlated with the PCR-ribotypes involved in human C. difficile infections. [less ▲]

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See detailSe nourrir de microbes : la solution pour une bonne santé
Daube, Georges ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2013)

L'humanité a longtemps payé un lourd tribu aux maladies infectieuses et notamment à celles transmises par l'alimentation ; le choléra, la fièvre typhoïde et la dysenterie n'en sont que trois exemples ... [more ▼]

L'humanité a longtemps payé un lourd tribu aux maladies infectieuses et notamment à celles transmises par l'alimentation ; le choléra, la fièvre typhoïde et la dysenterie n'en sont que trois exemples parmi les plus connus. C'est essentiellement l'hygiène qui a fait s'éloigner ces grands fléaux de nos sociétés favorisées mais malheureusement pas encore des pays plus pauvres. Cependant, les infections gastro-intestinales restent très fréquentes chez nous et sont souvent transmises par des aliments contaminés par des germes portés par les animaux producteurs de denrées alimentaires. Des stratégies de préventions de plus en plus sophistiquées sont mises en œuvre pour lutter contre elles; cela va de la vaccination des animaux ou des consommateurs à la mise en place de nouvelles technologies de traitement de nos aliments en passant par le développement de techniques innovantes pour la conservation de ceux-ci. Pour certains agents biologiques, les progrès sont spectaculaires pour d'autres c'est beaucoup plus difficile. La course en avant contre les micro-organismes a ses limites. Si nous voulons préserver notre alimentation variée, naturelle et riche en nutriments et en vitamines, nous ne pourrons détruire tous les germes dangereux, notamment dans les aliments crus. Il est temps d'envisager des alternatives. L'une des plus prometteuse est de lutter contre le mal par le mal, à savoir favoriser dans nos aliments des micro-organismes qui vont lutter contre ceux qui peuvent nous rendre malade mais aussi contre ceux qui vont dégrader la qualité de nos aliments et en provoquer le gaspillage. Le problème est que, pour mettre en œuvre cette stratégie du futur, il faut pouvoir avoir une vue globale de tous les organismes vivants qui, par milliards, occupent notre assiette. Jusque très récemment c'était techniquement impossible et donc très risqué. Les technologies basées sur l'étude d'un élément commun à tous les êtres vivants, à savoir leur patrimoine génétique, ouvre des perspectives extraordinaire pour mieux comprendre et essayer de maîtriser l'écologie de nos aliments et leur devenir dans notre tube digestif. Actuellement, en deux ou trois jours, on peut obtenir une liste presque exhaustive des centaines de membres différents d'un écosystème et on commence à associer certains avec le maintien d'une bonne santé. Il reste à les favoriser, notamment via l'ingestion de prébiotiques, nutriments spécifiques, ou même de probiotiques, micro-organismes sélectionnés, via des compléments alimentaires ou, mieux, d'aliments complets, alliant nutrition équilibrée et symbiotiques, combinaison des deux premiers cités. La boucle est ainsi bouclée. Le but est de montrer, via cet exposé, que le futur n'est pas à l'ingestion de conserves stériles additionnées d'additifs et de compléments divers en vue de prévenir les toxi-infections d'origine alimentaires mais à une alimentation riche et variée dont la flore est maîtrisée pour garantir la qualité des aliments et la santé de leurs consommateur, tout en ne négligeant pas l'hygiène qui restera toujours la base de la santé publique. [less ▲]

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See detailASSOCIATION OF CLASSICAL MICROBIOLOGY AND TARGETED METAGENOMIC ANALYSIS TO EVALUATE THE PRESENCE OF CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE IN A BELGIAN NURSING HOME
Rodriguez Diaz, Cristina ULg; Taminiau, Bernard ULg; Korsak Koulagenko, Nicolas ULg et al

Conference (2013, October 22)

Increasing age, several co-morbidities, environmental contamination, antibiotic exposure and other intestinal perturbations appear to be the greatest risk factors for C. difficile infection (CDI ... [more ▼]

Increasing age, several co-morbidities, environmental contamination, antibiotic exposure and other intestinal perturbations appear to be the greatest risk factors for C. difficile infection (CDI). Therefore, elderly care home residents are considered particularly vulnerable to CDI. The main objective of this study was to evaluate and follow the prevalence of C. difficile in a Belgian nursing home. During a 4-month period, stool samples from a group of 23 elderly care home residents were collected weekly. A C. difficile microbiological detection scheme was performed along with an overall microbial biodiversity study of the faeces content by Targeted Metagenomic analysis. Surfaces and diary meals were also sampled in order to determinate the possible role of environmental and food contamination in the acquisition of CDI. Culture of samples was performed in a selective medium cycloserine cefoxitin fructose cholate. An identification of the isolated colonies was done by PCR detection of tpi, tcdA, tcdB and cdtA genes. Toxic activity was confirmed by a cytotoxic immunoassay. Further characterization was performed by PCR ribotyping. The Metagenomic analysis was targeted on the v1-v3 hyper-variable region of 16S rDNA. The taxonomical assignment of the populations was performed with MOTHUR and Blast algorithms. C. difficile was not detected in any of the tested meals or surfaces samples. For the stools samples, 6 of the 23 controlled residents were identified as C. difficile carriers. The isolates belonged to 4 different PCR ribotypes, including types 020 and 027. This unique association of classical microbiology protocol with pyrosequencing allowed to follow C. difficile in patients and to identify several other bacterial populations whose abundance is correlated with C. difficile. [less ▲]

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See detailBacterial diversity and its evolution during storage of fresh beef from different origins under different atmosphere and temperature conditions
Didimo Imazaki, Pedro Henrique ULg; Tahiri, Assia ULg; Taminiau, Bernard ULg et al

Poster (2013, October 11)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bacterial diversity and its evolution during storage of fresh beef, depending on its origin, packaging and storage temperature. Two batches of three vacuum ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bacterial diversity and its evolution during storage of fresh beef, depending on its origin, packaging and storage temperature. Two batches of three vacuum packed striploins from United Kingdom and Belgium were obtained from a food wholesaler located in the Walloon Region. Fifteen days after slaughter, the striploins were sliced and individually kept under vacuum for 30 days: i) at −1 °C; ii) at +4 °C and iii) at −1 °C for 15 days and then at +4 °C for 15 days. The bacterial diversity was evaluated by metagenomic approach 15, 30 and 45 days after slaughter. Furthermore, each 15 days part of the vacuum packed striploin slices were repacked under modified atmosphere (70 % O2/30 % CO2), stored at +4 °C for 2 days and at +8 °C for 5 days, and then analyzed. Metagenomic analysis revealed a selection of the initial flora depending on atmosphere and temperature conditions. The development of Lactobacillus algidus was favored in samples preserved under vacuum at −1 °C, while a predominance of Lactococcus piscium was observed for samples stored at +4 °C. Moreover, storage under modified atmosphere favored the development of Leuconostoc gasicomitatum. These microorganisms have already been isolated from beef, but no study has evaluated their role in food conservation. The next step of this study will be to isolate and characterize strains of Lactobacillus algidus from meat and to assess their bioprotective potential. [less ▲]

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See detailBacteriological assessment of smoked game meat in Lubumbashi, D.R.C.
Kabwang a Mpalang, Rosette; Kakubu a Mpalang, Mireille; Mukeng Kaut, Clarence et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2013), 17

The bacteriological quality of smoked game meat in Lubumbashi has not been studied much to date. The present study focused on the analysis of 182 samples of smoked game meat from three species, Syncerus ... [more ▼]

The bacteriological quality of smoked game meat in Lubumbashi has not been studied much to date. The present study focused on the analysis of 182 samples of smoked game meat from three species, Syncerus caffer (n = 63), Phacochoerus aethiopicus (n = 60) and Sylvicapra grimmia (n = 59), sold at retail outlets in Lubumbashi. The isolation of Escherichia coli from 81.3% of samples (mean 4.87 ± 0.6 log10 CFU.g-1 of sample) confirms significant faecal contamination of smoked game meat. The study has determined by culture prevalences of 0.0%, 4.3% [CI95% 1.4-7.4], 3.8% [CI95% 1.1-6.6] and 14.2% [CI95% 9.2-19.4] respectively for Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC), Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Using Polymerase Chain Reaction, these prevalences were of 2.2% [IC95% 0.1-4.3], 6.0% [IC95% 2.6-9.5], 3.8% [IC95% 1.1-6.6] and 15.9% [IC95% 10.6-21.3] respectively for STEC, Salmonella spp., C. jejuni and C. coli. Syncerus caffer was established as a potential vehicle of STEC carrying stx1 gene (3.2%), stx2 gene (1.6%) and the combination of stx2 and eae genes (1.6%). On the basis of these data, we suggested the need for developing monitoring plans of the production, preparation, handling and distribution of smoked game meat in Lubumbashi. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrobiological and Physico-Chemical Quality of Smoked Shrimp, An Expanding Food Condiment in Beninese Local Markets
Kpoclou, Euloge Y.; Anihouvi, Victor B.; Azokpota, Paulin et al

in Food and Public Health (2013), 3(6), 277-283

Entire Smoked Shrimp (ESS) and Smoked Shrimp Powder (SSP) are two food condiments widely used in Beninese local cooking practices. Twelve samples of each product collected from local markets were ... [more ▼]

Entire Smoked Shrimp (ESS) and Smoked Shrimp Powder (SSP) are two food condiments widely used in Beninese local cooking practices. Twelve samples of each product collected from local markets were evaluated for safety assessment using standard methods. Regarding the microbiological status of the samples, the Enterobacteriaceae were detected in 83% and 75% of ESS and SSP respectively, whereas 25% of samples of each product were found to contain E. coli. Pathogenic bacteria such as S. aureus and Salmonella were absent. Except 8% and 17% of SSP sample exceeding the maximal limit of 106 UFC/g for Aerobic Mesophilic Bacteria and 104 UFC/g Enterobacteriaceae respectively, all the other samples were within the acceptable limits. Water activity values were low, ranging between 0.54±0.01 for SSP and 0.61±0.01 for ESS, showing a potential microbial stability. Considering the chemical hazards, 15 EU priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) were detected in the samples examined with median Benzo(a) pyrene and PAH4 contents (91 μg kg-1 and 490 μg kg-1respectively) exceeding the European maximal limit (5.0 μg kg-1 and 30 μg kg-1). This study showed that smoked shrimps may be generally safe from a microbiological point of view, but they constitute a large source of exposure to possible carcinogenic PAHs. [less ▲]

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