References of "Dardenne, Benoît"
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See detailSpecificity of Gender Role Orientation, Biological Sex and Trait Emotional Intelligence in Child Anxiety Sensitivity: A Moderated Mediation Analysis.
Stassart, Céline ULg; Dardenne, Benoît ULg; Etienne, Anne-Marie ULg

in Personality and Individual Differences (2014), 71

The present study evaluates gender role theory as an explanation for the observed gender differences in anxiety sensitivity (AS) symptoms among children, and emotional intelligence (EI) as a protective ... [more ▼]

The present study evaluates gender role theory as an explanation for the observed gender differences in anxiety sensitivity (AS) symptoms among children, and emotional intelligence (EI) as a protective factor in the relation between gender role orientation and AS. Specifically, these two hypotheses are investi- gated in a moderated mediation analysis. The sample comprises 200 children, aged 9–13 years (95 boys, 105 girls). Results reveal that Masculinity (M) and EI are negatively associated with AS while Femininity (F) is positively associated with AS. Gender role orientation mediates the relation between biological gen- der and AS scores and EI moderates the relation between M (but not F) and overall AS symptoms. Findings support gender role orientation as an explanation for the observed gender disparity in AS; in the case of masculine orientation, the protective effect also depends on high emotional intelligence. This study pro- vides valuable insights for understanding the emotional socialization of children, as well as preventing or treating AS symptoms. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of benevolent sexism on assessment of dangerousness by novice and expert policemen: a study by eye tracking
Blavier, Adelaïde ULg; Cardyn, Perrine; Gelon, Emilie et al

Conference (2013, May 28)

Our aim was to study how professional expertise may influence both visual perception of a scene and verbal judgment and how these 2 components interact and are influenced by benevolent sexism attitude. We ... [more ▼]

Our aim was to study how professional expertise may influence both visual perception of a scene and verbal judgment and how these 2 components interact and are influenced by benevolent sexism attitude. We studied how stereotype (here, benevolent sexism) influences both the eye movements and the verbal judgment according to the expertise. 3 groups of subjects (10 expert policemen-policewomen, 10 novice policemen-policewomen and 10 control subjects) answered to ASI questionnaire and assessed dangerousness of 15 images of domestic violence (individually and randomly presented). Eye movements were recorded while subjects looked at the domestic violence images. Our results showed the more benevolent sexist are the subjects (particularly the women), the more they looked at the victim and the lower they assessed the dangerousness. Moreover, novices answered more slowly and assessed ambiguous situations as more dangerous than experts. The differences between novices and experts were more important for women than for men, suggesting that professional experience has a stronger impact on women than men. Our findings confirm our main hypothesis suggesting sexism influences the visual analysis of a scene and thus the judgment attributed to the scene. Moreover, it seems professional experience does not modify the stereotype, particularly for benevolent sexist men. The discussion of all our results emphasizes their implication for a better understanding of our visual cognitive system (particularly the interaction between low-level visual analysis by eye movements and verbal judgment) and for the training of policemen (by taking into account the importance of their stereotype in complex interventions). [less ▲]

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See detailGender Role Orientation, Emotional Intelligence and Anxiety Symptoms in Children
Stassart, Céline ULg; Dardenne, Benoît ULg; Etienne, Anne-Marie ULg

Poster (2013, April 18)

According to Gender Role Theory, girls and boys learn to develop interests and attitudes consistent with their gender, resulting in behaviors and characteristics known as “masculine” and “feminine” ... [more ▼]

According to Gender Role Theory, girls and boys learn to develop interests and attitudes consistent with their gender, resulting in behaviors and characteristics known as “masculine” and “feminine” (Golombok & Fivush, 1994). Several authors have claimed that gender role, more than sex (male vs. female), explains the higher prevalence of anxiety in girls than in boys (e.g., Palapattu, Kingery, & Ginsburg, 2006). The expression of fear and anxiety is accepted and even encouraged among girls but is inconsistent with the masculine gender role: Boys are expected to face their fears and use adaptive behavior to handle the situation (Bem, 1981). Although the link between anxiety and gender role is well known for adults, empirical evidence concerning children is much scarcer (Palapattu et al., 2006). In this study, we first examine the importance of gender role in children’s anxiety. We also investigate the influence of a possible moderator in the relation between anxiety and gender role: emotional intelligence (EI). EI has been shown to protect against the development of anxiety in children (Williams, Daley, Burnside, & Hammond-Rowley, 2010). Our sample included 200 Belgian children (105 girls) aged 9 to 13 years old. The questionnaires used were the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC; Spielberger, 1973), the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Child Form (TEIQue-CSF; Mavrovelli & Petrides, 2008), and the Children’s Personal Attributes Questionnaire (CPAQ; Hall & Halberstadt, 1980). The latter questionnaire is composed of three subscales: Masculinity (M, male-stereotyped traits but socially desirable in both sexes, e.g., leadership), Femininity (F, female-stereotyped traits but socially desirable in both sexes, e.g., kindness), Masculinity-Femininity (M-F, traits socially more acceptable for one sex or the other, e.g., emotional vulnerability for females and aggressiveness for males). High scores on the M-F scale indicate tendencies toward masculinity. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to investigate the effect of gender role on the STAIC score beyond biological sex and EI as a moderator in relations between gender role and anxiety. Results indicated that gender role explains the anxiety score better than biological sex. Also, EI and the interaction between EI and M-F scores (TEIQue-CSF*M-F) were significant predictors of anxiety score. The children with low M-F scores and low EI had significantly higher levels of anxiety, while those with high M-F scores and high EI had the lowest levels of anxiety. These findings reveal not only the effect of gender role in the development of anxiety, but also the moderating effect of EI. [less ▲]

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See detailA longitudinal test of the Job Demands-Resources model using perveived stigma and social identity
Barbier, Marie; Dardenne, Benoît ULg; Hansez, Isabelle ULg

in European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology (2013), 22(5), 532-546

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See detailBenevolent sexism alters executive brain responses
Dardenne, Benoît ULg; Dumont, Murielle; Sarlet, Marie et al

in Neuroreport (2013), 24(10), 572-577

Benevolence is widespread in our societies. It is defined as considering a subordinate group nicely but condescendingly, that is, with charity. Deleterious consequences for the target have been reported ... [more ▼]

Benevolence is widespread in our societies. It is defined as considering a subordinate group nicely but condescendingly, that is, with charity. Deleterious consequences for the target have been reported in the literature. In this experiment, we used functional MRI (fMRI) to identify whether being the target of (sexist) benevolence induces changes in brain activity associated with a working memory task. Participants were confronted by benevolent, hostile, or neutral comments before and while performing a reading span test in an fMRI environment. fMRI data showed that brain regions associated previously with intrusive thought suppression (bilateral, dorsolateral,prefrontal, and anterior cingulate cortex) reacted specifically to benevolent sexism compared with hostile sexism and neutral conditions during the performance of the task. These findings indicate that, despite being subjectively positive, benevolence modifies task-related brain networks by recruiting supplementary areas likely to impede optimal cognitive performance. [less ▲]

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See detailBenevolent sexism, Men's adventages and the prescription of warmth to women
Delacollette, N; Dumont, M; Sarlet, M et al

in Sex Roles (2013), 68

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See detailYou’re not my dad, you’re my coach! When Paternalism Impairs Agility Performance
Silvestre, Aude ULg; Dardenne, Benoît ULg

Poster (2012, August 21)

Objectives: We were interested in the impacts of coach’s paternalistic motivational speech on young high performance sportsmen and sportswomen. We suggested that their motor performance (agility test ... [more ▼]

Objectives: We were interested in the impacts of coach’s paternalistic motivational speech on young high performance sportsmen and sportswomen. We suggested that their motor performance (agility test) would be diminished. Design: We used a 2 (paternalism: presence vs. absence) X 2 (valence: positive vs. negative) design to create four types of motivational speech. Methods: 60 participants read a description of an invented collective sport, followed by the coach’s motivational speech. After reading those texts, they were asked to do a motor agility test. They also had to complete an emotional measure on a 7-point Likert scale. We used linear regression as well double mediation macros in order to test the impacts of the coach’s paternalistic motivational speech on agility performance. Results: The results revealed direct effects of paternalism and valence on two measures of agility performance. Agility performance was worse when the speech was paternalistic (vs. no paternalistic) as well as when the speech was negative (vs. positive). When we compared negative paternalistic speech with the 3 others, we found that the direct effect of negative paternalism on performance is serially mediated, first by anxiety and, second by feeling of (in)competence. Conclusions: Acting in a fatherlike attitude might look like a good idea to motivate a sport team, using a little bit of father authority. But by doing so, in a negative way, the risk is that the team might perform badly instead. [less ▲]

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See detailGentlemen, Bring out Your Wallet, It’s Time to Pay: Benevolent Sexism and Women’s Economic Behaviour
Silvestre, Aude ULg; Sarlet, Marie ULg; Dardenne, Benoît ULg

Conference (2012, May 11)

Some women want to be flattered, cherished and protected by men more than others. We tested the hypothesis that this belief, that is, the personal endorsement of Benevolent Sexism (BS) as well as the ... [more ▼]

Some women want to be flattered, cherished and protected by men more than others. We tested the hypothesis that this belief, that is, the personal endorsement of Benevolent Sexism (BS) as well as the perceived BS of the men, would lead women to take economic decisions which fit traditional gender roles depicting men as women’s financial providers. In Study 1 (Ultimatum Game) and after answering to a BS scale, female participants were proposed fair, quite fair, and very unfair financial offers made by 39 male's faces that varied in perceived BS. When the financial proposition contradicted their beliefs about men as providers (when the offers were very unfair), more offers were rejected by high BS individuals and for high BS faces compared to their low BS counterparts. However, when the financial propositions were more fair, more offers were accepted by high BS individuals and for high BS faces. In Study 2 (Dictator Game), women high (vs. low) in BS propose more unfair offers to men. Moreover, women propose more unfair offers to men with high (vs. low) BS facial characteristics. Economic decisions are shaped by interpersonal as well as individual beliefs about how gender relationships ought to be. [less ▲]

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See detailSuccéder en Contexte Postcolonial Africain: l'ambigüité chiffrée au travers de l'exemple camerounais
Bomda, Joseph ULg; Fonkeng Epah, George; Dardenne, Benoît ULg et al

in Revue Européenne de Psychologie et de Droit (2012)

En matière culturelle, l’Africain postcolonial est partagé entre les normes traditionnelles (ou ancestrales) et modernes (ou héritées du colon). Si la description de cette dualité abonde dans la ... [more ▼]

En matière culturelle, l’Africain postcolonial est partagé entre les normes traditionnelles (ou ancestrales) et modernes (ou héritées du colon). Si la description de cette dualité abonde dans la littérature, la question du taux de connaissance de cette dualité, de son acceptation et de sa défense préoccupe très peu. Pourtant, elle devrait permettre de connaitre l’étendue de l’ambigüité qui anime les populations. Cet article répond à ce déficit et présente un état des lieux auprès de 1013 victimes du choc de normes successorales (tradition vs. modernité) en contexte postcolonial camerounais. Au préalable, les 6 points d’opposition entre les deux normes sont présentés. L’historique de la dualité juridique à l’origine de ces contrastes et le fondement psycho-anthropologique des visions du monde fondatrices de l’une et l’autre norme permettent de cerner l’irréductibilité des oppositions. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Emotional Side of Paternalism: Do People Share What They Feel?
Silvestre, Aude ULg; Dardenne, Benoît ULg

Poster (2012, January 28)

We were interested in the kind of emotions felt and socially shared after experiencing paternalism (when A acts toward B with a fatherlike attitude) or blatant hostility. Participants had to read either a ... [more ▼]

We were interested in the kind of emotions felt and socially shared after experiencing paternalism (when A acts toward B with a fatherlike attitude) or blatant hostility. Participants had to read either a paternalist, hostile or factual version of the welcome speech of their new boss. They then were asked to write a text about how this day was going (social sharing measure). The results revealed that being the target of paternalism or hostility is an emotional episode which leads to social sharing of emotion. Hostility is a clearly negative episode, leading to negative social sharing. Paternalism is more ambiguous. Participants felt positive emotions (except for distrust) but they shared both positive and negative ones. Paternalism can be perceived as positive but seems to lead to negative outcomes. Our further step would be to test its negative effects on performance (reading span test). [less ▲]

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See detailPrescription of protective paternalism for men in romantic and work contexts
Sarlet, Marie ULg; Dumont muriel; Delacollette Nathalie et al

in Psychology of Women Quarterly (2012), 36

Behavioral prescription specifies how people ought to act. Five studies investigated prescription for men of protective paternalism, a particular form of benevolent sexism, depending on contextual and ... [more ▼]

Behavioral prescription specifies how people ought to act. Five studies investigated prescription for men of protective paternalism, a particular form of benevolent sexism, depending on contextual and individual factors. In Studies 1 and 2, female participants prescribed for men more protective paternalistic behavior toward women in a romantic than in a work context. In Study 3, male participants prescribed the same level of protective paternalistic behavior as female participants did. Conversely, more gender egalitarianism was prescribed for men in a work than in a romantic context (Studies 1–3). In Study 4, the same protective paternalistic behavior was labeled as intimacy in a romantic context but was identified to the same extent as intimacy and as sexism in a work context. In Study 5, female participants’ benevolent sexist beliefs predicted their prescription of protective paternalistic behavior for men in both contexts. These studies demonstrated that prescription of protective paternalism for men is a complex phenomenon because it depends on contextual as well as individual variables. These findings need to be added to the list of factors explaining how this particular form of sexism is maintained within gender relationships and how it contributes to women’s subordination. [less ▲]

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See detailLe sexisme bienveillant comme processus de maintien des inégalités sociales entre les genres
Sarlet, Marie ULg; Dardenne, Benoît ULg

in Année Psychologique (L') (2012), 112

L’idée que le sexisme puisse s’exprimer sous forme de bienveillance peut paraître surprenante. En effet, la représentation que nous avons habituellement d’une personne sexiste est celle d’un homme aux ... [more ▼]

L’idée que le sexisme puisse s’exprimer sous forme de bienveillance peut paraître surprenante. En effet, la représentation que nous avons habituellement d’une personne sexiste est celle d’un homme aux attitudes clairement hostiles à l’égard des femmes. Le but de cette revue de littérature est de mettre en évidence une forme plus subtile de sexisme, le sexisme bienveillant, qui renvoie à des attitudes sexistes subjectivement positives, teintées de galanterie et de condescendance. Plus précisément, ce travail insiste sur la nécessité de prendre en compte cette forme insidieuse de sexisme dans la compréhension des relations entre les genres et de la considérer comme un véritable processus de maintien des inégalités sociales entre les hommes et les femmes. [less ▲]

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See detailQualité de vie et comportements de santé en Wallonie. Perspective développementale
Etienne, Anne-Marie ULg; Dardenne, Benoît ULg; Bourgeois, Emmanuelle ULg

in Germain, Marc; Robaye, René (Eds.) L'état de la Wallonie 2011 : portrait d'un pays et de ses habitants (2011)

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See detailMood and positive testing in social interaction
Dardenne, Benoît ULg; Dumont, Muriel ULg; Sarlet, Marie ULg et al

in European Journal of Social Psychology (2011), 41

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See detailStéréotypes prescriptifs et avantages des groupes dominants
Delacollette, Nathalie ULg; Dardenne, Benoît ULg; Dumont, Muriel ULg

in Année Psychologique (L') (2010), 110

The prescriptive component of stereotypes is defined as a set of beliefs about the characteristics group members should possess. It has mainly been studied regarding gender stereotypes. We believe that ... [more ▼]

The prescriptive component of stereotypes is defined as a set of beliefs about the characteristics group members should possess. It has mainly been studied regarding gender stereotypes. We believe that the main function of this prescriptive component is to allow dominant group members to maintain subordinate group members in an advantageous position for themselves. To illustrate our proposal, we present several theoretical and empirical papers, showing that the relative status of social groups is a determinant of which characteristics are prescribed to the members of these groups; that subordinates who fail to conform to the prescription are sanctioned; and that dominants prescribe to subordinates characteristics they see as beneficial to their own group. [less ▲]

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See detailBe Too Kind to a Woman, She’ll Feel Incompetent: Benevolent Sexism Shifts Self-construal and Autobiographical Memories Toward Incompetence
Dumont, Muriel ULg; Sarlet, Marie ULg; Dardenne, Benoît ULg

in Sex Roles (2010), 62

The present study investigated how benevolent (BS) and hostile sexism (HS) shift women’s self-construal and autobiographical memory. Belgian undergraduates (only women, N=45, mean age=21.8) were ... [more ▼]

The present study investigated how benevolent (BS) and hostile sexism (HS) shift women’s self-construal and autobiographical memory. Belgian undergraduates (only women, N=45, mean age=21.8) were confronted either by BS, HS or neutral comments in the context of a job interview. After performing a cognitive task, participants reported the intrusive thoughts that came to their mind during the task. Later, autobiographical memory for self-incompetence was assessed. Performance response latencies were slower after BS than HS. Also, BS generated more disturbing mental intrusions related to the idea of being incompetent than HS. Autobiographical memory similarly indicated greater access for incompetence after BS. Although HS was more aggressive in tone, it did not shift women’s self-construal and autobiographical memories toward incompetence. [less ▲]

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