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See detailGenotype contribution to the chemical composition of banana rachis and implications for thermo/biochemical conversion
Tiappi Deumaga, Mathias Florian; Happi Emaga, Thomas; Tchokouassom, Raphael et al

in Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery (in press)

Chemical composition of banana rachis from three varieties (Grande naine, Pelipita, and CRBP969) was ana- lyzed, and the genotype contribution to composition variabil- ity was investigated. Wet chemistry ... [more ▼]

Chemical composition of banana rachis from three varieties (Grande naine, Pelipita, and CRBP969) was ana- lyzed, and the genotype contribution to composition variabil- ity was investigated. Wet chemistry and instrumental analysis procedures (X-ray diffraction, 31P NMR spectroscopy, and thermogravimetry) were used. Some significant differences were found among the three genotypes: GN-AAA genotype was found to be significantly the highest in ash fraction (30.16 %) and the lowest in acid insoluble lignin (6.58 %) at 95 % confidence level. It showed also the highest content in potassium (43.5 % in ash). Implication of compositional dif- ferences on valorization efficiency by biochemical or thermo- chemical pathways was investigated. For this purpose, corre- lation coefficients between compositional characteristics and yields in volatile compounds from pyrolysis and glucose yields from enzymatic saccharification were analyzed. Ash content was revealed to be the main drawback parameter for volatile yields from pyrolysis (r = −0.93), while for glucose yields during saccharification were limited mainly by the con- tent in guaiacyl units of the lignin fraction (r = −0.98). How- ever, a strong and positive correlation was established be- tween the volatiles yield and the acid insoluble lignin content (r = 0.98) Thus, according to these observations and based on their compositional significant differences, GN-AAA was the better candidate for bioconversion pathway while PPT-ABB and CRBP969-AAAB samples were shown to be better can- didates for thermochemical conversion pathway. This work gives important preliminary information for considering ba- nana rachis as an interesting feedstock candidate for biorefinery. [less ▲]

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See detailFoamability and Foam Stability of Male and Female Date Palm Sap (Phoenix dactylifera L.) During the Collection Period
Makhlouf-gafsi, Ines; Mokni-ghribi, Abir; Bchir, Brahim et al

in Food Biophysics (2015)

This work aimed to study the influence of date palm sex on the surface properties of date palm sap (DPS) (Phoenix dactylifera L.) during the collection period. The behavior at the interface and foaming ... [more ▼]

This work aimed to study the influence of date palm sex on the surface properties of date palm sap (DPS) (Phoenix dactylifera L.) during the collection period. The behavior at the interface and foaming properties were evaluated via equilibrium surface tension (drop volume) and bubbling method, respectively. Unlike male sap, the female sap was unable to produce foam due to its low rate of adsorption, low average hydrophobicity values, and low bulk viscosity values throughout the collection period. For male sap, there are significant differences (p<0.05) on foaming properties throughout the collection period. In fact, the last 3 weeks of sap collection were characterized by a decrease pace of surface tension which explains the enhancement of both foam capacity and stability. The last week of collection period present the best foam power (0.9). To explain these differences, the interactions of several factors and their affects on foaming properties were examined. Results showed a positive correlation between foam capacity and average hydrophobicity values. In the other hand, foam stability exhibits a positive correlation with the increase of protein concentration and bulk viscosity. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of enzymatic hydrolysis on conformational and functional properties of chickpea protein isolate
Ghribi, Abir Mokni; Maklouf Gafsi, Ines; Sila, Assaâd et al

in Food Chemistry (2015), 187

The impact of enzymatic hydrolysis by Alcalase on the conformational and functional properties of chickpea protein isolate (CPI) was investigated. The physicochemical, interfacial tension and surface ... [more ▼]

The impact of enzymatic hydrolysis by Alcalase on the conformational and functional properties of chickpea protein isolate (CPI) was investigated. The physicochemical, interfacial tension and surface characteristics of CPI and their hydrolysates (CPH) according to the degree of hydrolysis (DH) were also determined. These parameters were then related to the changes in the emulsification activity (EAI) and stability (ESI). The enzymatic hydrolysis was found to improve protein recovery and solubility, leading to a reduction in the molecular weight bands with a concomitant increase in the intensity and appearance of protein bands having apparent molecular mass below 20 kDa. The interfacial tension decreased from _66.5 mN m_1 for CPI to _59.1 mN m_1 for CPH. A similar trend was observed for the surface charge which declined from _27.55 mV to _16.4 mV for the CPI and CPH, respectively. These changes were found to have a detrimental effect on the EAI and ESI values. [less ▲]

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See detailEffets de l'hydrolyse enzymatique sur propriétés fonctionnelles et conformationnelles des isolats proteiques de pois chiches
Mokni Ghribi, Abir; Maklouf Gafsi, Ines; Sila, Assaad et al

Conference (2015, March 16)

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See detailPhysicochemical properties and thermal behaviour of African wild mango (Irvingia gabonensis) seed oil.
Yamoneka, Juste; Malumba Kamba, Paul ULg; Blecker, Christophe ULg et al

Poster (2015, March 15)

African wild mango (lrvingia gabonensis) is now recognized for its numerous food and medicinal uses. This plant produces seeds rich in fat, which is traditionally used as a soup thickener. in the present ... [more ▼]

African wild mango (lrvingia gabonensis) is now recognized for its numerous food and medicinal uses. This plant produces seeds rich in fat, which is traditionally used as a soup thickener. in the present study, the proximate composition of seeds from lrvingia gabonensis is reported. The oil from the seeds was then solvent extracted; its fatty acid (FA) and triacylglycerol (TG) profiles were determined. Besides this chemical characterization, the melting and crystallization behaviour of the extracted fat was studied by pNMR, DSC and X-ray diffraction. The result of this investigation showed that the seeds from lrvingia gabonensis (IG) represent an important source of lipids (69-75%), rich in myristic (49.8%) and lauric acid (37%). This fat can be classified among "lauric fats". IG oil presents a good oxidative stability due to its low content in unsaturated fatty acid. The melting profiles of IG oil indicates that a high amount of fat remains solid at temperatures up to 30°C; the complete melting was detected at around 40C. The most stable polymorph of this fat is the β'1 -form. [less ▲]

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See detailFood Compounds from Meadow Grasshoppers
Paul, Aman ULg; Frederich, Michel ULg; Uyttenbroeck, Roel ULg et al

Poster (2015, March 15)

Eating insects as food, particularly grasshopper is practiced in many cultures throughout the world. Meadow grasshopper (Chorthippus parallelus) is commonly found in Europe and some part of Asia. It is ... [more ▼]

Eating insects as food, particularly grasshopper is practiced in many cultures throughout the world. Meadow grasshopper (Chorthippus parallelus) is commonly found in Europe and some part of Asia. It is already known that grasshoppers of Chorthippus species are consumed as food in countries such as Thailand. With the aim of evaluating the nutritional potential of this insect species the proximate nutritional composition of grasshoppers caught from the local fields was realized. Besides this, the fatty acid profile of extracted lipids, amino acid profile and mineral composition of the insect was also revealed. Results suggest that meadow grasshopper is an excellent source of protein and essential amino acids. Lipids extracted from the grasshopper have an interesting fatty acid composition. Also the grasshopper contains some minerals that are important for body. With such protein content, amino acid profile, fatty acid profile of the lipids and mineral content this grasshopper species could present an interesting alternate to conventional protein sources. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysicochemical properties and thermal behaviour of African wild mango (Irvingia gabonensis) seed oil.
Yamoneka, Juste; Malumba Kamba, Paul ULg; Blecker, Christophe ULg et al

Poster (2015, March 15)

Plants belonging Dacryodes and lrvingia genus have great economic importance in Central and West Africa. lrvingia gabonensis (IG) produces a seed rich in fats, traditionally used as a soup thickener ... [more ▼]

Plants belonging Dacryodes and lrvingia genus have great economic importance in Central and West Africa. lrvingia gabonensis (IG) produces a seed rich in fats, traditionally used as a soup thickener. Fruit of Dacryodes edulis (DS) contains a pulp how are also rich in fat. Its seed constitute a big waste problem in towns and village remains not exploitable by local people however that may be valued as a resource for various components. Some study shows that this seed contented a proportion of oils that would be an alternative in the substitution of diesel relevant to their physicochemical properties. Despite the potential of two different oils, theirs scientific data still lack. In this work, thermo-physical behaviour of those two oils is compared in the aim to improving knowledge about properties of those oils that will promote their valorisation in industry scale. The result of this investigation showed that IGO have a highest proportion of oil content with 72.38% compared to DSO (14.64%). IGO is rich in myristic (49.8%) and lauric fatty acid (37%) but DSO sample was found to possess a higher proportion of linoleic acid (35.13%), palmitic (32.67%), oleic (17.70%) but lower proportion of stearic (9.97%). SFC of IGO was the highest at all temperatures. IGO is solid at room temperature with a complete melting at 40°C but DSO is liquid at room temperature. The polymorphism profile of IGO and DSO shows the 13' form stable during heating and a transition to liquid state without passage at β form. [less ▲]

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See detailAnhydrous Milk Fat enrichment with 13C-­triacylglycerol tracers: effects on thermal and structural behavior.
Danthine, Sabine ULg; Vors, Cécile; Blecker, Christophe ULg et al

Poster (2015, March 15)

Dietary lipids are incorporated in food products under different types of structures, e.g., as dispersed lipid droplets (in oil -in -water emulsions, like creams) or as a continuous lipid phase (in water ... [more ▼]

Dietary lipids are incorporated in food products under different types of structures, e.g., as dispersed lipid droplets (in oil -in -water emulsions, like creams) or as a continuous lipid phase (in water -in -oil emulsions, like butter for example). The crystallization, melting behavior and polymorphic stability of fats are determined by the behavior of the TAGs they contain. In clinical studies, there is a need to add some 13C TAGs as tracers to the ingested fats in order to track their metabolic fate. However, this procedure could modify the physicochemical properties of the fat. The present study was conducted in the framework of a clinical trial aiming at highlighting the effect of the physical structure of a fat (droplets in 0/W emulsion or bulk) in a meal on the absorption, chylomicron transport and further metabolic handling of dietary fatty acids (1). We therefore monitored the thermal and polymorphic behavior of anhydrous milk fat (AMF) enriched in tracers (a mixture of tripalmitin, triolein and tricaprylin; at 2 different concentrations: 1.5 and 5.7 wt%) using DSC and XRD and further compared it to the native AMF. The addition of 13C TAGs modified the AMF melting profile, especially at high concentration. The enriched AMF was completely melted at around 37°C, i.e. close to the body temperature. However, under some conditions, the AMF enriched in high 13C TAGs concentration remained crystallized at 37°C. Similar trends were observed in both systems (bulk vs emulsified). Moreover, AMF polymorphic behavior was also modified upon tracer addition. While only β’ form was observed in the native AMF, the 13 -form was detected in the AMF containing high 13C TAGs concentration. Importantly, low concentration of tracers should not have high impact on human digestive physiology. However more attention should be paid to physicochemical structure when high concentrations are added. (1) Vors et al. 2013. Modulating absorption and postprandial handling of dietary fatty acids by structuring fat in the meal: a randomized cross -over clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr, 97(1): 23-36. [less ▲]

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See detailThermal and structural behavior of two lauric fats compared to AMF in bulk and oil-in-water emulsion states
Petrut, Raul Flaviu ULg; Anihouvi, Prudent Placide; Blecker, Christophe ULg et al

Poster (2015, March 15)

In a previous study the thermal and polymorphic behavior of four different industrial lauric fats which are sold under the same commercial description, was compared (1). According to the findings the four ... [more ▼]

In a previous study the thermal and polymorphic behavior of four different industrial lauric fats which are sold under the same commercial description, was compared (1). According to the findings the four fats were split in two groups based on the similarities found at polymorphic level. In the present paper two of these industrial lauric fats (F1 and F2, one from each group) were incorporated into oil -in -water emulsions. The objective of this study was to point out the differences in the crystallization and polymorphic behavior between bulk and emulsified fat. Moreover anhydrous milk fat (AMF) was used in the same way for comparison. For that purpose, the fats were investigated for their thermal and polymorphic behavior by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), both in bulk and emulsified state. The DSC and X -Ray investigations made possible the observation of the differences in the crystallization behavior and kinetics that occurred for those fats in the bulk and emulsified state. 1. Anihouvi, P.P., C. Blecker, A. Dombree, S. Danthine, Comparative Study of Thermal and Structural Behavior of Four Industrial Lauric Fats, Food Bioprocess Technol. 6:3381-3391 (2013) [less ▲]

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See detailTECHNICAL CHALLENGES IN CHOLESTEROL REMOVAL FROM DAIRY PRODUCTS
Malik, Priyanka ULg; Danthine, Sabine ULg; Paul, Aman ULg et al

Poster (2015, March 15)

Milk is a natural complex system present as oil in water emulsion. The natural organisation of milk fat globules is stabilized by the presence of a natural membrane, called the milk fat globule membrane ... [more ▼]

Milk is a natural complex system present as oil in water emulsion. The natural organisation of milk fat globules is stabilized by the presence of a natural membrane, called the milk fat globule membrane. It has tripartite structure consisting of a monolayer facing the inner triacylglycerol core and an external bilayer. Apart from giving the nutritive value, milk fat globule membrane also contributes towards the techno-functional properties of the dairy products. The milk fat globule membrane is composed of both polar lipids and proteins. Cholesterol is also present in milk fat globule membrane and accounts for about 2% of milk fat globule membrane. Increased consumer awareness has created a perceived demand for low cholesterol products. The World Health Organization and American Heart Association has also recommended that consumers reduce their consumption of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol to lower the risk of coronary heart disease. Therefore, many researchers have developed different methods for reducing cholesterol in dairy and food products. These methods include physical process (vacuum steam distillation, short path molecular distillation and supercritical fluid extraction), biological process (cholesterol reductase and cholesterol oxidase), complexation method (adsorption with saponin, digitonin and cyclodextrin) and chemical process. Most of these methods are very efficient in process of cholesterol removal. However, most of these methods have various drawbacks for application in dairy industry like, formation of toxic oxidation products, denaturation of proteins, loss of low molecular weight triglycerides, loss of volatile components, loss of flavour compounds etc. This leads to loss of nutritive value of dairy products. Thus, the objectives of cholesterol removal from milk and milk products should be, firstly focusing on the maximum cholesterol removal, secondly maintaining the nutritional quality comparable to the control and thirdly the process of cholesterol removal should not compromise the techno functional properties of the dairy products. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude morphologique de l'effet de l'irradiation gamma sur les amidons de blé, de maïs et de pomme de terre
Atrous, Hager; Ben Bettaïeb, Nasreddine; Danthine, Sabine ULg et al

Poster (2015, March 15)

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See detailStructural, functional, and ACE inhibitory properties of water-solublepolysaccharides from chickpea flours
Mokni Ghribi, abir; Sila, Assaâd; Maklouf Gafsi, Ines et al

in International Journal of Biological Macromolecules (2015), 75

tThe present study aimed to characterize and investigate the functional and angiotensin-I convertingenzyme (ACE) inhibition activities of chickpea water-soluble polysaccharides (CPWSP). Physico ... [more ▼]

tThe present study aimed to characterize and investigate the functional and angiotensin-I convertingenzyme (ACE) inhibition activities of chickpea water-soluble polysaccharides (CPWSP). Physico-chemicalcharacteristics were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis, and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Functional properties (waterholding capacity: WHC, water solubility index: WSI, swelling capacity: SC, oil holding capacity: OHC,foaming, and emulsion properties) and ACE activities were also investigated using well-established pro-cedures. The FT-IR spectra obtained for the CPWSP revealed two significant peaks, at about 3500 and500 cm−1, which corresponded to the carbohydrate region and were characteristic of polysaccharides.All spectra showed the presence of a broad absorption between 1500 and 670 cm−1, which could beattributed to C−H, C−O, and O−H bands in the polysaccharides. CPWSP had an XRD pattern that wastypical for a semi-crystalline polymer with a major crystalline reflection at 19.6◦C. They also displayedimportant techno-functional properties (SWC, WSI, WHC, and OHC) that can be modulated accordingto temperature. The CPWSP were also noted to display good anti-hypertensive activities. Overall, theresults indicate that CPWSP have attractive chemical, biological, and functional properties that makethem potential promising candidates for application as alternative additives in various food, cosmetic,and pharmaceutical preparations. [less ▲]

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See detailUtility of removing cholesterol from an industrial by-product- Buttermilk powder
Malik, Priyanka ULg; Danthine, Sabine ULg; Paul, Aman ULg et al

Poster (2015, January 30)

Almost 16% of milk produced in European Union is being converted to butter. Buttermilk, is a low cost by-product from butter manufacture and available in large quantities but has been considered ... [more ▼]

Almost 16% of milk produced in European Union is being converted to butter. Buttermilk, is a low cost by-product from butter manufacture and available in large quantities but has been considered invaluable for many years. When cream is churned to butter the stable oil in water emulsion is destabilized and milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) is disrupted which is released in buttermilk. Thus, over the last two decades it has gained considerable attention due to its specific composition (proteins and polar lipids) attributed towards the MFGM. In account to this composition of buttermilk powder, it finds application in food industry as a natural stabilizing and emulsifying agent. It also finds application as a source of total solids and is commercially being added upto 10% in many food products. However, it has limitation in such applications due to the presence of cholesterol (approx. 80mg/100g). Cholesterol is also an integral part of MFGM and is released into buttermilk with MFGM. The most suitable techniques to remove cholesterol from buttermilk powder are using β-cyclodextrin and cholesterol oxidase enzyme. To valorize this abundantly produced industrial by-product of butter industry and increase its application in health food industry, as well as extend its application in pharmaceutical industry and preparation of liposomes, it is important to remove cholesterol from buttermilk. [less ▲]

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See detailLangmuir film balance- A technique to study the interaction of β-cyclodextrin with cholesterol in milk fat globule membrane monolayers
Malik, Priyanka ULg; Danthine, Sabine ULg; Paul, Aman ULg et al

Poster (2015, January 30)

Milk is a natural complex system present as oil in water emulsion. The natural organisation of milk fat globules is stabilized by the presence of a natural membrane, called the milk fat globule membrane ... [more ▼]

Milk is a natural complex system present as oil in water emulsion. The natural organisation of milk fat globules is stabilized by the presence of a natural membrane, called the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM). It has tripartite structure consisting of a monolayer facing the inner triacylglycerol core and an external bilayer. This MFGM accounts for 2-6% of fat globule. The MFGM is composed of both polar lipids and proteins. Cholesterol is also present in MFGM and accounts for about 2% of MFGM. Langmuir film balance is a technique to study monolayers and is a useful tool to examine the effect of cholesterol removal on surface properties of MFGM. β-cyclodextrin has no surface activity of its own and is thus a useful tool to study the effect of cholesterol desorption on surface properties in membrane. The removal of monolayer cholesterol to the sub-phase is proportional to the area decrease of the monolayer at a constant surface pressure. Amount of cholesterol removed can also be calculated as a function of mean molecular area at a given pressure, time and temperature. Using the monolayer technique, it is possible to study the interactions between β-cyclodextrin and MFGM film as well as effect of cholesterol removal in altering the surface properties MFGM. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of Enzymatic Remediation on Compositional and Thermal Properties of Palm Oil and Palm Oleins from Dry Fractionation
Maes, J; Kodali, S; Danthine, Sabine ULg et al

in Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society (2015), 92

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See detailEffect of enzymatic treatment on rheological properties, glass temperature transition and microstructure of date syrup
Abbès, Fatma; Masmoudi, Manel; Kchaou, Wissal et al

in LWT - Food Science and Technology (2015), 60

A knowledge of rheological properties is of importance in processing, handling, process design, product development and quality control. This study investigates the effect of commercial hydrolytic enzymes ... [more ▼]

A knowledge of rheological properties is of importance in processing, handling, process design, product development and quality control. This study investigates the effect of commercial hydrolytic enzymes (pectinase and cellulase) on rheological properties and glass temperature transition of date syrup. Date syrups obtained by enzymatic extraction exhibited a quasi Newtonian behaviour. The enzyme-treated date syrups showed the highest values of activation energy (Ea). Therefore, these syrups showed the most temperature dependency. Dynamic shear results revealed viscous behaviour for date syrups indicating that both syrups displayed liquid-like behaviour. Temperature significantly affected both (G') and (G''). The glass transition temperature (Tg) of date syrups varied between -39.56 and -45.74 °C depending on their composition. Glass transition temperature of date syrups decreased linearly with an increase in water content. [less ▲]

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See detailRoasted Sunflower Kernel Paste (Tahini) Stability: Storage Conditions and Particle Size Influence
Muresan, Vlad; Danthine, Sabine ULg; Bolboaca, Sorana D. et al

in Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society (2015)

Sunflower tahini faces quality problems due to the tendency of oil to exudate, causing accelerated rancidity and low marketability. In this study, the colloidal and oxidative stability of different ... [more ▼]

Sunflower tahini faces quality problems due to the tendency of oil to exudate, causing accelerated rancidity and low marketability. In this study, the colloidal and oxidative stability of different trimodal particle size distributions of sunflower tahini (cumulative volume percentages of small, middle and large class populations of 9.61–16.67, 43.03–55.03 and 47.36–28.3) was evaluated during storage at three different temperatures. Decreasing sample particle size decreased the sunflower tahini colloidal stability. The coarsest prototype, being the most stable tahini in terms of oil separation, was included in the oxidative stability storage test together with a commercial tahini. The peroxide values of the studied sunflower tahini samples increased significantly (p < 0.05) with storage time, irrespective of storage temperature, while the p-anisidine values showed an irregular pattern. Considering 30-meq O2/kg as a PV limit, the commercial tahini showed good oxidative stability as it was under this when stored 3 months at 4 °C, 2 months at room temperature and 1 month a 40 °C. The coarsest tahini sample was under the limit when stored 2 months at 4 °C, 1 month at room temperature and 2 weeks at 40 °C. Particle size was shown to be an essential parameter for controlling sunflower tahini’s overall stability. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimization of a cheap and residential small-scale production of edible crickets with local by-products as an alternative protein-rich human food source in Ratanakiri Province (Cambodia)
Caparros Megido, Rudy ULg; Alabi, Taofic ULg; Nieus, Clément et al

in Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture (2015)

Background - Health status of the indigenous people of the Ratanakiri Province, Cambodia, is significantly lower compared to the rest of the nation. The domestication and mass production of insects may ... [more ▼]

Background - Health status of the indigenous people of the Ratanakiri Province, Cambodia, is significantly lower compared to the rest of the nation. The domestication and mass production of insects may represent a sustainable, cost effective and high quality alternative source of protein to traditional livestock. This study aimed to optimise a cheap and residential cricket breeding system based on unused wild resources. The cricket development, Teleogryllus testaceus (Walker), under seven diets composed of taro aerial parts, young cassava leaves, young cashew leaves and brown rice flour (with or without banana slices), versus a traditionally used broiler feed diet was studied. Results - Cricket mortality was low in all diets, except the two cashew-based diets. Total biomass was significantly higher under the broiler feed, in addition to the two diets containing a combination of cassava leaf powder and brown rice. Yet, crickets fed with the taro diet had the highest percentage of protein. Concerning the breeding system cost, units using cassava leaves were the cheapest ones. Conclusion – Diets based of cassava leaves seems to be the most promising ones. Nevertheless, to produce crickets with a high body mass and a high protein level, a new experiment must be realised in which the cassava leaf maturity will be adapted to fit with the cricket growth stage. Moreover, to reduce the cost of the breeding units, handmade local products should be used instead of purchased components. [less ▲]

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See detailTexture and Stability of Sunflower Halva Produced from Different Particle Size Tahini
Mureșan, Vlad; Cuibus, Lucian; Olari, Anna et al

Conference (2014, September 26)

The aim of this work was to assess the influence of tahini particle size on sunflower halva texture ans stability.

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See detailLe secret des crèmes foisonnées
Petrut, Raul Flaviu ULg; Danthine, Sabine ULg; Blecker, Christophe ULg

Poster (2014, September 26)

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