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See detailFungi occurring on water hyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Solms-Laubach] in Niger River in Mali and their evaluation as mycoherbicides
Dagno, Karim ULg

in Journal of Aquatic Plant Management (2012), 50

One hundred sixteen fungal isolates in seven genera were recovered from water hyacinth plants having pronounced blight symptoms collected in Mali. Isolation frequency of the genera was: Curvularia (60.32 ... [more ▼]

One hundred sixteen fungal isolates in seven genera were recovered from water hyacinth plants having pronounced blight symptoms collected in Mali. Isolation frequency of the genera was: Curvularia (60.32%), Fusarium (42.92%), Alternaria (11.6%), Coniothyrium (11.6%), Phoma (3.48%), Stemphylium (3.48%), and Cadophora (1.16%). On the basis of in vivo pathogenicity tests in which the diseased leaf area percentage and disease severity were visually estimated using a disease severity index, three isolates, Fusarium sp. Mln799, Cadophora sp. Mln715 and Alternaria sp. Mlb684 caused severe disease. These were later identified as Gibberella sacchari Summerell & J.F. Leslie, Cadophora malorum (Kidd & Beaumont) W. Grams, and Alternaria sp. respectively. This is the first report to highlight of C. malorum as a candidate biocontrol agent against water hyacinth. Neither C. malorum Mln715 nor Alternaria sp. Mlb684 in host specificity tests showed any pathogenicity towards 17 crop plants of economic importance in Mali. [less ▲]

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See detailSelection, efficacy, ecological characterization and formulation of fungal control agents against water hyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Solms] in Mali
Dagno, Karim ULg

Doctoral thesis (2011)

Rice and irrigated orchards are considered as the most important food and economical sources in Mali, which watered from Niger River. However, stable productions of rice and orchards products have been ... [more ▼]

Rice and irrigated orchards are considered as the most important food and economical sources in Mali, which watered from Niger River. However, stable productions of rice and orchards products have been limited by many disease, insects, and weeds. Recently, water hyacinth infestation in river of Niger has increased drastically and as affected by the decrease of water flow due to clogging dams and irrigation work. Biological control of weeds is an alternative approach to chemical herbicide use, focusing on the use of native fungal to control or reduce the population of water hyacinth. From 2006 to 2007, 1000 samples consisting of infected parts of water hyacinth were collected from the River Niger (District of Bamako, Segou and Niono with GPS coordinates “12° 40’ N, 7° 59’ W” ; “13° 26’ N, 6° 15’ W” and “14° 15’ N, 5° 59’ W” respectively) in Mali. Fungal belonging to seven genera (116 isolates in all) were recovered from surface-sterilized water hyacinth parts with pronounced blight symptoms. On the basis of in vivo pathogenicity tests in which the diseased leaf area percentage was estimated visually and disease severity was estimated (by calculating a disease severity index), three isolates emerged as causing severe disease: Fusarium sp. isolate Mln799 (DS = 70%), Cadophora sp. isolate Mln715 (70%), and Alternaria sp. isolate Mlb684 (71%), identified respectively as Gibberella sacchari (Anamorph. Fusarium sacchari), Cadophora malorum, and Alternaria sp. This is the first report to highlight C. malorum as a candidate biocontrol agent for water hyacinth. Influence of ecological parameter, water activity (0.880 - 0.960aw modified par glycerol) and temperature (15-35°C) on viable conidia and mycelial growth rate of Alternaria sp. (isolate Mlb684), F. sacchari (isolate Mln799) and C. malorum (isolate Mln715) were evaluated. Germination and mycelial growth dropped as aw of the medium decreased. Results showed a significant effect of aw, temperature and their interaction on mycelial growth (P < 0.0001). Growth models for F. sacchari (isolate Mln799), C. malorum (isolate Mln715) and Alternaria sp. (isolate Mlb684) differed slightly, with R2 values of 93.40, 85.89 and 77.31% respectively. Mycelial growth models, no different between predicted and experimental values was observed. Results confirm the previous finding that aw has greater influence on growth of F. sacchari (isolate Mln799), C. malorum (isolate Mln715) and Alternaria sp. (isolate Mlb684) than temperature. Analyse of 5 target regions of isolate Mlb684 genome (18 and 28S ribosomal RNA genes, Elongation factor-1 alpha gene, calmodulin gene and actin gene) allowed identifying this isolate as new specie in Alternaria genus. The strain has been deposited under accession number MUCL 53159 in the Industrial Fungal & Yeast Collection (BCCMTM/MUCL, Belgium) and DNA sequences have been deposited in GenBank. We have named it “Alternaria jacinthicola Dagno & M.H. Jijakli”. It was the first sequenced of calmodulin gene reported in Alternaria genus. Water hyacinth, paddy and wheat substrates for mass production of these biocontrol agents were evaluated. Greater sporulation of C. malorum (isolate Mln715) was observed on water hyacinth substrate (4.08 x 107 spores ml-1) following by wheat (1.06 x 107 spores ml-1). Biocontrol efficacy of fungal isolates found to be enhanced with unrefined Carapa procera (L) oil and refined palm oil supplemented with soybean lecithin in greenhouse. Applying C. malorum (isolate Mln715) and A. jacinthicola (MUCL 53159 strain) in vegetable oil emulsion [Carapa procera (L) and palm oils] caused 87.02 to 93.13% of damage severity on water hyacinth 6 weeks after treatment. Field trials showed lower efficacy control than greenhouse tests. In host specificity tests, neither C. malorum isolate Mln715 nor Alternaria sp. isolate Mlb684 showed any pathogenicity towards any member of a panel of 17 crop plants of economic importance in Mali. [less ▲]

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See detailAlternaria jacinthicola, a new fungal species causing blight leaf disease on water hyacinth [Eichhornia
Dagno, Karim; Dagno, Karim ULg

in Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research (2011), 2(7), 99-105

Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) causes environmental, agricultural and health problems in Mali. This is particularly severe in the District of Bamako and the irrigation systems of the “Office du ... [more ▼]

Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) causes environmental, agricultural and health problems in Mali. This is particularly severe in the District of Bamako and the irrigation systems of the “Office du Niger” area. During two years survey for fungal pathogens of water hyacinth infested areas, isolate Mlb684 was collected from diseased plant. This fungal isolate was identified as a potential mycoherbicide for sustainable management for water hyacinth. The aim of this study was to characterize isolate Mlb684. The characterization was based on a morphological description and a DNA sequence analysis. Various genes amplified from isolate Mlb684 were compared to those existing in Genbank. These genes were 18S ribosomal rDNA gene, ITS rDNA gene, elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1a) gene, calmodulin and actin genes. DNA sequence comparisons and morphological description provided enough evidences to show that isolate Mlb684 belonged to the Alternaria genus and was distinct from any other known Alternaria species. Based on these evidences, the new fungal isolate was called “Alternaria jacinthicola Dagno & M.H. Jijakli”. A specimen culture has been deposited in the Gembloux Agro Bio Tech Plant Pathology unit fungal collection, with Mlb684 reference and in the Industrial Fungal and Yeast Collection (BCCM/MUCL, Belgium) under the accession number: MUCL 53159 and all DNA sequences were deposited in GenBank (NCBI). [less ▲]

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See detailAlternaria jacinthicola, a new fungal species causing blight leaf disease on water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Solms-Laubach)
Dagno, Karim ULg; Crovadore, Julien; Lefort, François et al

in Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research (2011), 2(7), 99-105

Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) causes environmental, agricultural and health problems in Mali. This is particularly severe in the District of Bamako and the irrigation systems of the “Office du ... [more ▼]

Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) causes environmental, agricultural and health problems in Mali. This is particularly severe in the District of Bamako and the irrigation systems of the “Office du Niger”area. During two years survey for fungal pathogens of water hyacinth infested areas, isolate Mlb684 was collected from diseased plant. This fungal isolate was identified as a potential mycoherbicide for sustainable management for water hyacinth. The aim of this study was to characterize isolate Mlb684. The characterization was based on a morphological description and a DNA sequence analysis. Various genes amplified from isolate Mlb684 were compared to those existing in Genbank. These genes were 18S ribosomal rDNA gene, ITS rDNA gene, elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1a) gene, calmodulin and actin genes. DNA sequence comparisons and morphological description provided enough evidences to show that isolate Mlb684 belonged to the Alternaria genus and was distinct from any other known Alternaria species. Based on these evidences, the new fungal isolate was called “Alternaria jacinthicola Dagno & M.H. Jijakli”. A specimen culture has been deposited in the Gembloux Agro Bio Tech Plant Pathology unit fungal collection, with Mlb684 reference and in the Industrial Fungal and Yeast Collection (BCCM/MUCL, Belgium) under the accession number: MUCL 53159 and all DNA sequences were deposited in GenBank (NCBI). [less ▲]

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See detailProduction and oil-emulsion formulation of Cadophora malorum and Alternaria jacinthicola, two biocontrol agents against Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)
Dagno, Karim ULg; Lahlali, Rachid; Diourté, Mamourou et al

in African Journal of Microbiology Research [=AJMR] (2011), 5(8), 924-929

Cadophora malorum isolate Mln715 and Alternaria jacinthicola strain MUCL 53159 are under <br />development as biocontrol agents against Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in Mali. Production of spores ... [more ▼]

Cadophora malorum isolate Mln715 and Alternaria jacinthicola strain MUCL 53159 are under <br />development as biocontrol agents against Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in Mali. Production of spores of these agents on locally available substrates (Water Hyacinth, powdered paddy rice chaff, wheat semolina) was assessed with a view to mass production. The C. malorum isolate sporulated best on Water Hyacinth (4.08 × 107 spores ml-1), followed by wheat (1.06 ×107 spores ml-1), whereas A. jacinthicola produced more spores on paddy rice chaff and wheat (0.24 x 107 spores ml-1). The severity of the damage caused by each pathogen was evaluated in the greenhouse and in the field. Under both greenhouse and field conditions, the biocontrol efficacy of the fungal isolates was improved with (unrefined) Carapa procera (L.) oil or (refined) palm oil, supplemented with soybean lecithin and Tween 20. When such a formulation was used, the incubation time was 4 to 5 days in the greenhouse and 7 to 9 days on the field, and the damage severity (DS) recorded 6 weeks after treatment varied from 87.02 to 93.13% in the greenhouse and from 59.11 to 63.00% in the field. For unformulated C. malorum and A. jacinthicola respectively, the incubation times were longer and the DS values were only 22.11 and 29.05% in the greenhouse and 12.05 and 15.15% on the field. Our results highlight good substrates for mass production of these mycoherbicides and demonstrate the ability of vegetable oil formulations to improve their efficacy. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of temperature and water activity on spore germination and mycelial growth of three fungal biocontrol agents against water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)
Dagno, Karim ULg; Lahlali, Rachid; Diourté, M. et al

in Journal of Applied Microbiology (2011), 110

The fungi were grown in vitro on plates containing potato dextrose agar medium at different aw values (glycerol being added to adjust the aw). The percentage of viable conidia and radial growth rate ... [more ▼]

The fungi were grown in vitro on plates containing potato dextrose agar medium at different aw values (glycerol being added to adjust the aw). The percentage of viable conidia and radial growth rate decreased with decreasing water activity. Statistical analysis showed a significant effect of aw, temperature and the aw temperature interaction on mycelial growth (P < 0Æ0001). Water activity emerged as the factor exerting the greatest influence. Differences were observed between the fungi tested, the C. malorum appearing more tolerant to low aw and the F. sacchari more tolerant to high temperature (35 C). Growth models predicting the combined effect of aw and temperature were developed and response surfaces generated, showing fairly good agreement with the experimental values. Conclusions: Our results confirm the previous finding that aw has a greater influence than temperature on fungal growth. Under most conditions, variation of environmental factors has a detrimental influence on the percentage of viable conidia and mycelial growth rate of fungal isolates. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthèse bibliographique : problématique de la jacinthe dʼeau, Eichhornia crassipes, dans les régions tropicales et subtropicales du monde, notamment son éradication par la lutte biologique au moyen des phytopathogènes
Dagno, Karim ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2007), 11(4), 299-311

Water hyacinth, probably originating from South America, grows between 35th North and South parallels of the planet. It was introduced into several regions of the world as ornamental plant, where it ... [more ▼]

Water hyacinth, probably originating from South America, grows between 35th North and South parallels of the planet. It was introduced into several regions of the world as ornamental plant, where it became later one of the most dangerous world water weed. Its infestation can be controlled by physical and chemical treatments. However, these methods are expensive and dangerous for human health and environment. Moreover, following Western legislations example, those of developing countries are highly restrictive against authorised chemical molecules. Consequently, a growing interest was given to alternative solutions, such as biological control. That control using insects, fi shes and mammiferes against water hyacinth could be strengthened with the application of mycoherbicides. These mycoherbicides are more respectful for environment and public health and seem to constitute an additional realistic alternative for water hyacinth durable management. [less ▲]

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