References of "Cox, Cédric"
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See detailVenus nitric oxide nightglow mapping from SPICAV nadir observations.
Stiepen, Arnaud ULg; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Dumont, Maïté ULg et al

in Icarus (2013)

Nitric oxide δ (190-240 nm) and γ (255-270 nm) emissions on the Venus nightside have been observed with Venus Express SPICAV instrument operated in the nadir mode. These ultraviolet emissions arise from ... [more ▼]

Nitric oxide δ (190-240 nm) and γ (255-270 nm) emissions on the Venus nightside have been observed with Venus Express SPICAV instrument operated in the nadir mode. These ultraviolet emissions arise from the desexcitation of excited NO molecules created by radiative recombination of O(3P) and N(4S) atoms. These atoms are produced on the dayside of the planet through photodissociation of CO2 and N2 molecules and are transported to the nightside by the global subsolar to antisolar circulation. We analyze a wide dataset of nadir observations obtained since 2006 to determine the statistical distribution of the NO nightglow and its variability. Individual observations show a great deal of variability and may exhibit multiple maxima along latitudinal cuts. We compare this global map with the results obtained during the Pioneer-Venus mission and with the recent O2(a1Δg) nightglow map. The NO airglow distribution shows a statistical bright region extending from 01:00 and 03:30 local time and 25°N to 10°S, very similar to the Pioneer result obtained 35 years earlier during maximum solar activity conditions. The shift from the antisolar point and the difference with the O2 airglow indicate that superrotating zonal winds are statistically weak near 97 km, but play an important role in the lower thermosphere. We compare these results with other evidence for superrotation in the thermosphere and point out possible sources of momentum transfer. [less ▲]

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See detailThe vertical distribution of the Venus NO nightglow: limb profiles inversion and one-dimensional modeling
Stiepen, Arnaud ULg; Soret, Lauriane ULg; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg et al

in Icarus (2012), 220

Ultraviolet (UV) spectra of the δ (190-240 nm) and γ (225-270 nm) bands of the nitric oxide (NO) molecule have been measured on the nightside of the atmosphere of Venus with the Spectroscopy for ... [more ▼]

Ultraviolet (UV) spectra of the δ (190-240 nm) and γ (225-270 nm) bands of the nitric oxide (NO) molecule have been measured on the nightside of the atmosphere of Venus with the Spectroscopy for Investigation of Characteristics of the Atmosphere of Venus (SPICAV) instrument on board Venus Express (VEX). Excited NO molecules on the nightside of the planet are created by radiative recombination of O(3P) and N(4S) atoms. The atoms are produced by photodissociation of CO2 and N2 molecules on the dayside and then transported on the nightside by the global circulation. We analyze all nightside limb profiles obtained since 2006 and provide a statistical study of the nitric oxide airglow layer and its variability. We also apply a spatial deconvolution and an Abel inversion method to the limb profiles to retrieve and quantify the volume emission rate distribution and its dependence on several factors. We also show that about 10% of the limb profiles exhibits a secondary peak located above or below the main airglow peak. Furthermore, a one-dimensional chemical-diffusive model is used to simultaneously model the globally averaged NO and O2(a1Δg) airglow vertical distributions using CO2 and O density profiles rooted in VIRTIS and SPICAV observations. We find that a downward flux of 2×10 9 N(4S) atoms cm−2s−1 and a eddy diffusion coefficient equal to 1 x10 11/sqrt(n) cm−2s−1, where n is the total number density, provide the best set of values to parametrize the one-dimensional representation of the complex 3-D dynamical processes. [less ▲]

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See detailInversion of Venus NO nightglow limb profiles
Stiepen, Arnaud ULg; Soret, Lauriane ULg; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg et al

Conference (2012, July)

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See detailTwo-dimensional time-dependent model of the transport of minor species in the Venus night side upper atmosphere
Collet, Arnaud ULg; Cox, Cédric ULg; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg

in Planetary and Space Science (2010), 58

We present a numerical tool developed to quantify the role of processes controlling the spatio-temporal distribution of the NO ultraviolet and O2 infrared nightglows in the Venus night side upper ... [more ▼]

We present a numerical tool developed to quantify the role of processes controlling the spatio-temporal distribution of the NO ultraviolet and O2 infrared nightglows in the Venus night side upper atmosphere, observed with the VIRTIS and SPICAV instruments on board Venus Express. This numerical tool consists in a two-dimensional chemical-transport time-dependent model which computes in a hypothetical rectangular solving domain the spatio-temporal distributions of the number densities of the four minor species at play in these two nightglow emissions. The coupled nonlinear system of the four partial differential equations, describing the spatio-temporal variations of the minorspecies, has been solved using a finite volume method with a forward Euler method for the time integration scheme. As an application, we have first simulated a time-constant supply of atoms through the upper boundary of the solving domain. The fluxes are inhomogeneous relative to its horizontal direction, in order to simulate regions of enhanced downward flow of oxygen and nitrogen giving rise to NO and O2 brightening. Given that these two emissions show large time variations, we have also simulated a time-dependent downward flux of O and N atoms. It results from these simulations that the lack of correlation between the NO and O2 nightglows largely result from to the coupling between horizontal and vertical transport processes and the very different chemical lifetimes of the two species. In particular,we have quantified the role of each process generating spatio-temporal de-correlations between the NO and O2 nightglows. [less ▲]

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See detailThe NO Venus nightglow: SPICAV observations and implications on transport in the lower thermosphere
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Cox, Cédric ULg; Bertaux, J.-L.

Conference (2010, June 22)

A new set of 725 NO limb profiles has been analyzed. The profiles have been deconvolved and inverted to get volume emission rates. Updates mean VER peak altitude is 115 km, in excellent agreement with PV ... [more ▼]

A new set of 725 NO limb profiles has been analyzed. The profiles have been deconvolved and inverted to get volume emission rates. Updates mean VER peak altitude is 115 km, in excellent agreement with PV results obtained 30 years ago. The corresponding average vertical intensity is 1.2 kR. The altitude of emission occurs at a higher altitude near the bright spot region than at larger distances (by about 7 km). The location of the statistical bright spot is the same as observed with PV (that is shifted dawnward by 2 hrs and slightly south of AS point). The nightside mean vertical intensity is between 0.4 and 1.8 kR, which brackets the values derived from the limb profiles. These results, coupled with other airglow measurements, provide constraints on global atmospheric circulation and vertical transport [less ▲]

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See detailMars ultraviolet dayglow variability: SPICAM observations and comparison with airglow model
Cox, Cédric ULg; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Hubert, Benoît ULg et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Planets (2010), 115

Dayglow ultraviolet emissions of the CO Cameron bands and the CO[SUB]2[/SUB][SUP]+[/SUP] doublet in the Martian atmosphere have been observed with the Spectroscopy for Investigation of Characteristics of ... [more ▼]

Dayglow ultraviolet emissions of the CO Cameron bands and the CO[SUB]2[/SUB][SUP]+[/SUP] doublet in the Martian atmosphere have been observed with the Spectroscopy for Investigation of Characteristics of the Atmosphere of Mars on board the Mars Express spacecraft. A large amount of limb profiles has been obtained which makes it possible to analyze variability of the brightness as well as of the altitude of the emission peak. Focusing on one specific season (Ls = [90,180] °), we find that the average CO peak brightness is equal to 118 ± 33 kR, with an average peak altitude of 121.1 ± 6.5 km. Similarly, the CO[SUB]2[/SUB][SUP]+[/SUP] emission shows a mean brightness of 21.6 ± 7.2 kR with a peak located at 119.1 ± 7.0 km. We show that the brightness intensity of the airglows is mainly controlled by the solar zenith angle and by solar activity. Moreover, during Martian summer of year 2005, an increase of the airglow peak altitude has been observed between Ls = 120° and 180°. We demonstrate that this variation is due to a change in the thermospheric local CO[SUB]2[/SUB] density, in agreement with observations performed by stellar occultation. Using a Monte Carlo one-dimensional model, we also show that the main features of the emission profiles can be reproduced for the considered set of data. However, we find it necessary to scale the calculated intensities by a fixed factor. [less ▲]

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See detailUltraviolet aurorae and dayglow in the upper atmospheres of terrestrial planets
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Hubert, Benoît ULg; Gustin, Jacques ULg et al

in 38th COSPAR Scientific Assembly (2010)

Since its discovery in 2005 with the SPICAM spectrograph on board Mars Express, the Mars aurora has been further investigated. It is caused by sporadic soft electron precipitation whose signature is ... [more ▼]

Since its discovery in 2005 with the SPICAM spectrograph on board Mars Express, the Mars aurora has been further investigated. It is caused by sporadic soft electron precipitation whose signature is clearly observed in the FUV nightglow spectrum. The characteristics of the auroral electrons have been documented with parallel observations. Dayglow UV spectra have been collected with SPICAM over several seasons. The dependence of the intensity and peak altitude of the CO Cameron bands and CO2 + doublet emissions on latitude, local time and solar activity level have been investigated and compared with the results of a FUV Mars dayglow model. Far and Extreme ultraviolet spectra have been collected with the UVIS instrument during the flyby of Venus by Cassini, in a period a high solar activity. Their analysis shows the presence of OI, OII, NI, CI, CO and CO2 + emissions, some of them not previously identified in the Venus spectrum. The intensities will be compared with those observed with the HUT spectrograph during a period of low solar activity. The excitation processes of the observed features will be discussed. Scans of the intensity variation of several EUV bright emissions such as OII 83.4 nm, OI 98.9 nm and NI 120.0 nm multiplets across the sunlit disc will be compared with the calculations of a Venus dayglow model, including multiple scattering of optically thick transitions. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Mars ultraviolet dayglow variability: SPICAM observations and model comparison
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Cox, Cédric ULg; Bougher, S. W. et al

Conference (2009, September 16)

Limb profiles of the CO Cameron and CO2+ doublet airglow have been observed over different conditions (latitude, season, SZA, F10.7). They have been individually modelled using currently accepted cross ... [more ▼]

Limb profiles of the CO Cameron and CO2+ doublet airglow have been observed over different conditions (latitude, season, SZA, F10.7). They have been individually modelled using currently accepted cross sections, and outputs from the MTGCM. They have been shown to co-vary, with a ICO/ICO2+ ratio of about 4.7, less than the modelled ratio.The peak brightness varies linearly with the F10.7 solar flux proxy, in a way compatible with the Mariner 6 and 7 observations. The intensity of both emissions is overestimated by the model (but large uncertainties exist in excitation cross sections). An increase of the altitude of both emissions has been observed during the 2005 summer season. It is a consequence of the dust load, followed by an increased thermospheric CO2 density observed with SPICAV during the same period. This density enhancement is partly predicted by GCM models. [less ▲]

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See detailConcurrent observations of the ultraviolet nitric oxide and infrared O[SUB]2[/SUB] nightglow emissions with Venus Express
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Cox, Cédric ULg; Soret, Lauriane ULg et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Planets (2009), 114

Two prominent features of the Venus nightside airglow are the nitric oxide delta and gamma bands produced by radiative association of O and N atoms in the lower thermosphere and the O[SUB]2[/SUB] infrared ... [more ▼]

Two prominent features of the Venus nightside airglow are the nitric oxide delta and gamma bands produced by radiative association of O and N atoms in the lower thermosphere and the O[SUB]2[/SUB] infrared emission generated by three-body recombination of oxygen atoms in the upper mesosphere. The O[SUB]2[/SUB] airglow has been observed from the ground, during the Cassini flyby, and with VIRTIS on board Venus Express. It now appears that the global structure of the two emissions shows some similarities, but the statistical location of the region of strongest emission is not coincident. The Spectroscopy for Investigation of Characteristics of the Atmosphere of Venus (SPICAV) ultraviolet spectrograph has collected a large number of spectra of the Venus nitric oxide nightside airglow. Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer (VIRTIS) images have been obtained at the limb and in the nadir-viewing mode and have provided new information on the horizontal and vertical distribution of the emission. We present the first concurrent observations of the two emissions observed with Venus Express. We show that nadir observations generally indicate a low degree of correlation between the two emissions observed quasi-simultaneously at a common location. A statistical study of limb profiles indicates that the altitude and the brightness of the two airglow layers generally do not covary. We suggest that this lack of correlation is explained by the presence of strong horizontal winds in the mesosphere-thermosphere transition region. They carry the downflowing atoms over large distances in such a way that regions of enhanced NO emission generally do not coincide with zones of bright O[SUB]2[/SUB] airglow. [less ▲]

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See detailThe ultraviolet nitric oxide emission in the nightside atmospheres of Venus and Mars
Cox, Cédric ULg; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Bertaux, J. L.

Conference (2009, May)

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See detailDistribution of the ultraviolet nitric oxide Martian night airglow: Observations from Mars Express and comparisons with a one-dimensional model
Cox, Cédric ULg; Saglam, Adem ULg; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research (2008), 113

Limb observations with the SPICAM ultraviolet spectrometer on board the Mars Express orbiter revealed ultraviolet nightglow emission in the delta (190–240 nm) and gamma (225–270 nm) bands of nitric oxide ... [more ▼]

Limb observations with the SPICAM ultraviolet spectrometer on board the Mars Express orbiter revealed ultraviolet nightglow emission in the delta (190–240 nm) and gamma (225–270 nm) bands of nitric oxide. This emission arises from radiative recombination between O(3P) and N(4S) atoms that are produced on the day side and form excited NO molecules on the night side. In this study, we analyze the night limb observations obtained during the MEX mission. In particular, we describe the variability of the emission brightness and its peak altitude. We examine possible correlations with latitude, local time, magnetic field strength or solar activity. We show that the altitude of maximum emission varies between 55 and 92 km while the brightness is in the range 0.2 to 10.5 kR. The total vertical emission rate ranges from 8 to 237 R with an average value of 36 ± 52 R. The observed topside scale height of the emission profile varies between 3.8 and 11.0 km, with a mean value of 6 ± 1.7 km. We use a chemical-diffusive atmospheric model where the eddy coefficient, whose value in the Mars thermosphere is uncertain, is a free parameter to match the observed peak altitude of the emission. The model solves the continuity equation for O(3P), N(4S), and NO using a finite volume method on a one-dimensional grid. We find that the downward flux of N atoms at 100 km varies by two orders of magnitude, ranging from 10E7 to 10E9 atoms cm-2 s-1. [less ▲]

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See detailLimb observations of the ultraviolet nitric oxide nightglow with SPICAV on board Venus Express
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Cox, Cédric ULg; Saglam, Adem ULg et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Planets (2008), 113

Limb observations of the spectrum of nightglow emission in the delta (190-240 nm) and gamma (225-270 nm) bands of nitric oxide have been made with the Spectroscopy for Investigation of Characteristics of ... [more ▼]

Limb observations of the spectrum of nightglow emission in the delta (190-240 nm) and gamma (225-270 nm) bands of nitric oxide have been made with the Spectroscopy for Investigation of Characteristics of the Atmosphere of Venus (SPICAV) ultraviolet spectrometer on board Venus Express. These emissions arise from radiative recombination between O([SUP]3[/SUP]P) and N([SUP]4[/SUP]S) atoms that are produced on the dayside and recombine to form excited NO molecules on the nightside. No other emission feature has been identified. The mean altitude of the emission layer is located at 113 km, but it varies between 95 and 132 km. The mean brightness of the total NO emission at the limb is 32 kR, but it is highly variable with limb intensities as large as 440 kR observed at low latitude and values below 5 kR seen at northern midlatitudes. No systematic dependence of the brightness with latitude is observed, but the mean altitude of the emission maximum statistically drops with increasing latitude between 6° and 72°N. Typical observed limb profiles are compared with simulations based on a one-dimensional chemical-diffusive atmospheric model. From model fits to observed profiles, we find that the downward flux of N atoms at 130 km typically varies between 1 × 10[SUP]8[/SUP] to 4 × 10[SUP]9[/SUP] atoms cm[SUP]-2[/SUP] s[SUP]-1[/SUP]. Comparisons of observed airglow topside scale heights with modeled profiles smoothed by the instrumental field of view indicate that the observations are compatible with a downward flow of O and N atoms by molecular and turbulent transport above the peak of emission. The K coefficient deduced from comparisons to limb profiles is less than that determined from the observations made with the Pioneer Venus UV spectrometer at low latitude during periods of high solar activity. [less ▲]

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See detailMonte Carlo model of electron transport for the calculation of Mars dayglow emissions
Shematovich, V. I.; Bisikalo, D. V.; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Planets (2008), 113

A model of the photoelectron collision-induced component of the Mars dayglow using recent cross sections and solar flux is described. The calculation of the photoelectron source of excitation is based on ... [more ▼]

A model of the photoelectron collision-induced component of the Mars dayglow using recent cross sections and solar flux is described. The calculation of the photoelectron source of excitation is based on a stochastic solution of the Boltzmann equation using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. The neutral atmosphere is taken from outputs of a global circulation model, and recent inelastic collision cross sections are adopted. The calculated vertical profiles of the CO Cameron bands and CO[SUB]2[/SUB] [SUP]+[/SUP] doublet emissions integrated along the line of sight compare well with the Spectroscopy for the Investigation of the Characteristics of the Atmosphere of Mars (SPICAM) limb profiles observed with the SPICAM spectrograph on board Mars Express made at Ls = 166° during the summer season at northern midlatitudes. The comparison shows agreement to within the uncertainties of the excitation cross sections. Seasonal changes in the brightness and the altitude of the emission peaks are predicted with intensity variations in the range 15-20%. [less ▲]

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See detailDistribution of the O[SUB]2[/SUB] infrared nightglow observed with VIRTIS on board Venus Express
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Saglam, Adem ULg; Piccioni, G. et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2008), 35

We present characteristics of the statistical horizontal distribution of the O[SUB]2[/SUB] infrared nightglow over most of the southern hemisphere observed with the VIRTIS instrument over a period ... [more ▼]

We present characteristics of the statistical horizontal distribution of the O[SUB]2[/SUB] infrared nightglow over most of the southern hemisphere observed with the VIRTIS instrument over a period spanning nearly 11 months of low solar activity. We show that the distribution is inhomogeneous with the regions of brightest emission reaching ~3 MegaRayleighs (MR) located at low latitude near and dawnward of the midnight meridian. The hemispherically averaged nadir brightness is 1.3 MR, in very good agreement with earlier ground based observations. We show that the dayside supply of O atoms is sufficient to produce the observed global O[SUB]2[/SUB] nightglow if approximately 50% of the dayside O production is carried to the nightside by the subsolar to antisolar global circulation. Limb profiles observed at northern mid-latitudes exhibit large intensity variations over short time periods. Calculations with a one-dimensional chemical diffusive model produce an airglow peak at 96 km, in agreement with the limb observations. The atomic oxygen density derived from the best fits to O[SUB]2[/SUB] airglow limb profiles reaches a maximum of 1.8-3.5 × 10[SUP]11[/SUP] cm[SUP]-3[/SUP] at 104 km. [less ▲]

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See detailVenus night airglow and implications for thermospheric composition and dynamics
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Saglam, Adem ULg; Cox, Cédric ULg et al

Conference (2008)

Spatially resolved spectra of the NO delta and gamma ultraviolet bands have been obtained from 80 to 130 km on the Venus night side with the SPICAV instrument on board Venus Express. This NO airglow ... [more ▼]

Spatially resolved spectra of the NO delta and gamma ultraviolet bands have been obtained from 80 to 130 km on the Venus night side with the SPICAV instrument on board Venus Express. This NO airglow emission results from radiative recombination of oxygen and nitrogen atoms created on the dayside and transported by the subsolar to antisolar global circulation. Spectral images of the O2 (1 â delta g ) at 1.27 µm have also been made with the VIRTIS-M instrument both at nadir and at the limb. The O2 (1 â g ) emission is produced by three-body recombination of O atoms giving rise to an airglow layer near 96 km. The brightness of both emissions changes by over an order of magnitude. They also show variations in the altitude of the peak emission, with larger variability of the NO airglow. The characteristics of both airglows and their implications on global circulation and vertical transport on the nightside will be discussed. Concurrent observations of both limb airglows will be described. It will be shown that limb observations of the vertical and latitudinal distribution of the 1.27 µm emission make it possible to remotely determine the density of atomic oxygen in the upper mesosphere and improve current atmospheric models. One-dimensional models of the O and N distributions will be presented and global properties of the 1-D parameterization of turbulent transport will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailVenus Express observations of the Venus O2 and NO nightglow: distribution and constraints on vertical transport
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Cox, Cédric ULg; Saglam, Adem ULg et al

Conference (2007, April)

Observations have been carried out in the infrared with VIRTIS and the ultraviolet with SPICAV to measure the distribution of the O2 (1 g) nightglow emission at 1.27 μm and the nitric oxide gamma and ... [more ▼]

Observations have been carried out in the infrared with VIRTIS and the ultraviolet with SPICAV to measure the distribution of the O2 (1 g) nightglow emission at 1.27 μm and the nitric oxide gamma and delta bands between 190 and 300 nm. These observations were collected in the tangent limb mode, which maximizes the time period spent by the line of sight through the airglow layer. The O2 (1 g) emission is excited by three-body recombination of O atoms produced on the day side and carried by the general thermospheric circulation to the night side. It is very variable in brightness and has a peak located between 95 and 100 km. The NO airglow is produced by radiative recombination of O atoms with N(4S) resulting from N2 photodissociation and reaches a maximum near 110 km.We combine the altitude and brightness information from the two emissions with simulations of a chemical diffusive model to determine the values of the vertical fluxes of O and N atoms and the strength of the eddy mixing which carries both types of atoms from above the turbopause into the recombination layer.We find that O fluxes on the order of a few 1012 atoms/cm2 s and N fluxes about 1010 atoms/cm2 s can reproduce the observations. The variability of the airglow emissions and the altitude-brightness relation will also be discussed and compared with model predictions. [less ▲]

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See detailThe NO Martian Nightglow observed with the SPICAM UV Spectrometer and comparison with a one-dimensional model.
Cox, Cédric ULg; Saglam, A.; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg et al

Conference (2007, April)

Observations in the 108-317 nm wavelength range have been performed with the SPICAM ultraviolet spectrometer aboard the Mars Express (MEX) mission. SPICAM has observed the ultraviolet nightglow emission ... [more ▼]

Observations in the 108-317 nm wavelength range have been performed with the SPICAM ultraviolet spectrometer aboard the Mars Express (MEX) mission. SPICAM has observed the ultraviolet nightglow emission in the δ (190-240 nm) and γ (225-270 nm) bands of nitric oxide (Bertaux et al. 2005). This emission arises from the recombination between O(3P) and N(4S) atoms that are produced on the day side to form NO in the night side. We present a summary of the night limb observations performed during the MEX mission. In particular, we describe the variability of the brightness and peak altitude. We find that the altitude of maximum emission varies between 55 and 90 km and the brightness is in the range 0.2 to 4.5 kR. We compare these observations with the results of a chemical-diffusive atmospheric model which solves the continuity equation for O, N(4S) and NO continuity equation using the finite volume method on one dimensional grid. The eddy coefficient, whose value is very uncertain, is a free parameter adjusted to match the observational data. [less ▲]

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