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See detailAthena+: The first Deep Universe X-ray Observatory
Barret, D.; Nandra, K.; Barcons, X. et al

in Cambresy, L.; Martins, F.; Nuss, E. (Eds.) et al SF2A-2013: Proceedings of the Annual meeting of the French Society of Astronomy and Astrophysics (2013, November 01)

The Advanced Telescope for High-energy Astrophysics (Athena+) is being proposed to ESA as the L2 mission (for a launch in 2028) and is specifically designed to answer two of the most pressing questions ... [more ▼]

The Advanced Telescope for High-energy Astrophysics (Athena+) is being proposed to ESA as the L2 mission (for a launch in 2028) and is specifically designed to answer two of the most pressing questions for astrophysics in the forthcoming decade: How did ordinary matter assemble into the large scale structures we see today? and how do black holes grow and shape the Universe? For addressing these two issues, Athena+ will provide transformational capabilities in terms of angular resolution, effective area, spectral resolution, grasp, that will make it the most powerful X-ray observatory ever flown. Such an observatory, when opened to the astronomical community, will be used for virtually all classes of astrophysical objects, from high-z gamma-ray bursts to the closest planets in our solar neighborhood. In this paper, we briefly review the core science objectives of Athena+, present the science requirements and the foreseen implementation of the mission, and illustrate its transformational capabilities compared to existing facilities. [less ▲]

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See detailORIGIN: metal creation and evolution from the cosmic dawn
den Herder, Jan-Willem; Piro, Luigi; Ohashi, Takaya et al

in Experimental Astronomy (2012), 34

ORIGIN is a proposal for the M3 mission call of ESA aimed at the study of metal creation from the epoch of cosmic dawn. Using high-spectral resolution in the soft X-ray band, ORIGIN will be able to ... [more ▼]

ORIGIN is a proposal for the M3 mission call of ESA aimed at the study of metal creation from the epoch of cosmic dawn. Using high-spectral resolution in the soft X-ray band, ORIGIN will be able to identify the physical conditions of all abundant elements between C and Ni to red-shifts of z = 10, and beyond. The mission will answer questions such as: When were the first metals created? How does the cosmic metal content evolve? Where do most of the metals reside in the Universe? What is the role of metals in structure formation and evolution? To reach out to the early Universe ORIGIN will use Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) to study their local environments in their host galaxies. This requires the capability to slew the satellite in less than a minute to the GRB location. By studying the chemical composition and properties of clusters of galaxies we can extend the range of exploration to lower redshifts ( z ˜0.2). For this task we need a high-resolution spectral imaging instrument with a large field of view. Using the same instrument, we can also study the so far only partially detected baryons in the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM). The less dense part of the WHIM will be studied using absorption lines at low redshift in the spectra for GRBs. The ORIGIN mission includes a Transient Event Detector (coded mask with a sensitivity of 0.4 photon/cm[SUP]2[/SUP]/s in 10 s in the 5-150 keV band) to identify and localize 2000 GRBs over a five year mission, of which ˜65 GRBs have a redshift >7. The Cryogenic Imaging Spectrometer, with a spectral resolution of 2.5 eV, a field of view of 30 arcmin and large effective area below 1 keV has the sensitivity to study clusters up to a significant fraction of the virial radius and to map the denser parts of the WHIM (factor 30 higher than achievable with current instruments). The payload is complemented by a Burst InfraRed Telescope to enable onboard red-shift determination of GRBs (hence securing proper follow up of high-z bursts) and also probes the mildly ionized state of the gas. Fast repointing is achieved by a dedicated Controlled Momentum Gyro and a low background is achieved by the selected low Earth orbit. [less ▲]

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See detailUpdated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Comparative Data on Colposuspensions, Pubovaginal Slings, and Midurethral Tapes in the Surgical Treatment of Female Stress Urinary Incontinence.
Novara, G.; Artibani, W.; Barber, M. D. et al

in European Urology (2010)

CONTEXT: Burch colposuspension, pubovaginal sling, and midurethral retropubic tape (RT) and transobturator tape (TOT) have been the most popular surgical treatments for female stress urinary incontinence ... [more ▼]

CONTEXT: Burch colposuspension, pubovaginal sling, and midurethral retropubic tape (RT) and transobturator tape (TOT) have been the most popular surgical treatments for female stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been published comparing the different techniques, with conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy, complication, and reoperation rates of midurethral tapes compared with other surgical treatments for female SUI. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic review of the literature was performed using the Medline, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science databases, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Thirty-nine RCTs were identified. Patients receiving midurethral tapes had significantly higher overall (odds ratio [OR]: 0.61; confidence interval [CI]: 0.46-0.82; p=0.00009) and objective (OR: 0.38; CI: 0.25-0.57; p<0.0001) cure rates than those receiving Burch colposuspension, although they had a higher risk of bladder perforations (OR: 4.94; CI: 2.09-11.68; p=0.00003). Patients undergoing midurethral tapes and pubovaginal slings had similar cure rates, although the latter were slightly more likely to experience storage lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) (OR: 0.31; CI: 0.10-0.94; p=0.04) and had a higher reoperation rate (OR: 0.31; CI: 0.12-0.82; p=0.02). Patients treated with RT had slightly higher objective cure rates (OR: 0.8;CI: 0.65-0.99; p=0.04) than those treated with TOT; however, subjective cure rates were similar, and patients treated with TOT had a much lower risk of bladder and vaginal perforations (OR: 2.5; CI: 1.75-3.57; p<0.00001), hematoma (OR: 2.62; CI: 1.35-5.08; p=0.005), and storage LUTS (OR: 1.35; CI: 1.05-1.72; p=0.02). Meta-analysis demonstrated similar outcomes for TVT-O (University of Liege, Liege, Wallonia, Belgium) and Monarc (AMS, Minnetonka, MN, USA). CONCLUSIONS: Patients treated with RT experienced slightly higher continence rates than those treated with Burch colposuspension, but they faced a much higher risk of intraoperative complications. RT and pubovaginal slings were similarly effective, although patients with pubovaginal slings were more likely to experience storage LUTS. The use of RT was followed by objective cure rates slightly higher than TOT, but subjective cure rates were similar. TOT had a lower risk of bladder and vaginal perforations and storage LUTS than RT. The strength of these findings is limited by the heterogeneity of the outcome measures and the short length of follow-up. [less ▲]

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