References of "Collins, T"
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See detailIsolation of novel hydrolytic genes from an Antarctic metagenomic library
Pipers, D.; Berlemont, R.; Power, P. et al

Poster (2008)

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See detailFundamentals of Cold-Adapted Enzymes
Collins, T.; Roulling, Frédéric ULg; Piette, Florence ULg et al

in Margesin, R.; Schinner, F.; Gerday, Charles (Eds.) et al Psychrophiles: from Biodiversity to Biotechnology (2008)

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See detailCold-Adapted Enzymes
Collins, T.; D'Amico, Salvino ULg; Marx, J. C. et al

in Gerday, Charles; Glansdorff, N. (Eds.) Physiology and biochemistry of extremophiles (2007)

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See detailAdaptation strategies and uses of cold adapted enzymes in biotechnological processes
Gerday, Charles ULg; D'Amico, Salvino ULg; Collins, T. et al

in JAMSTEC ERC (Ed.) Proceedings of the International Symposium on Extremophiles and their Applications 2005 (2007)

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See detailA novel family 8 psychrophilic xylanase: fundamentals and application
Collins, T.; Hoyoux, A.; Van Petegem, F. et al

in JAMSTEC E.R.C (Ed.) Proceedings of the International Symposium on Extremophiles and their Applications 2005 (2007)

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See detailCold-adapted enzymes from marine antarctic microorganisms
Marx, J. C.; Collins, T.; D'Amico, Salvino ULg et al

in Marine Biotechnology (2007), 9(3, May-Jun), 293-304

The Antarctic marine environment is characterized by challenging conditions for the survival of native microorganisms. Indeed, next to the temperature effect represented by the Arrhenius law, the ... [more ▼]

The Antarctic marine environment is characterized by challenging conditions for the survival of native microorganisms. Indeed, next to the temperature effect represented by the Arrhenius law, the viscosity of the medium, which is also significantly enhanced by low temperatures, contributes to slow down reaction rates. This review analyses the different challenges and focuses on a key element of life at low temperatures: cold-adapted enzymes. The molecular characteristics of these enzymes are discussed as well as the adaptation strategies which can be inferred from the comparison of their properties and three-dimensional structures with those of their mesophilic counterparts. As these enzymes display a high specific activity at low and moderate temperatures associated with a relatively high thermosensitivity, the interest in these properties is discussed with regard to their current and possible applications in biotechnology. [less ▲]

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See detailA nondetergent sulfobetaine prevents protein aggregation in microcalorimetric studies
Collins, T.; D'Amico, Salvino ULg; Georlette, D. et al

in Analytical Biochemistry (2006), 352(2), 299-301

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See detailOligosaccharide binding in family 8 glycosidases: Crystal structures of active-site mutants of the beta-1,4-xylanase pXyl from Pseudoaltermonas haloplanktis TAH3a in complex with substrate and product
De Vos, D.; Collins, T.; Nerinckx, W. et al

in Biochemistry (2006), 45(15), 4797-4807

The structures of inactive mutants D144A and E78Q of the glycoside hydrolase family 8 (GH-8) endo-beta-1,4-D-Xylanase (pXyl) from the Antarctic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAH3a in complex ... [more ▼]

The structures of inactive mutants D144A and E78Q of the glycoside hydrolase family 8 (GH-8) endo-beta-1,4-D-Xylanase (pXyl) from the Antarctic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAH3a in complex with its substrate xylopentaose (at 1.95 angstrom resolution) and product xylotriose (at 1.9 angstrom resolution) have been determined by X-ray crystallography. A detailed comparative analysis of these with the apoenzyme and with other GH-8 structures indicates an induced fit mechanism upon ligand binding whereby a number of conformational changes and, in particular, a repositioning of the proton donor into a more catalytically competent position Occurs. This has also allowed for the description of protein-ligand interactions in this enzyme and for the demarcation of subsites -3 to +3. An in-depth analysis of each of these subsites gives an insight into the structure-function relationship of this enzyme and the basis of xylose/glucose discrimination in family 8 glycoside hydrolases. Furthermore, the structure of the -1/+1 subsite spanning complex reveals that the substrate is distorted from its ground state conformation. Indeed, structural analysis and in silico docking Studies indicate that substrate hydrolysis in GH-8 members is preceded by a conformational change, away from the substrate ground-state chair conformation, to a pretransition state local minimum S-2(O) conformation. [less ▲]

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See detailPsychrophilic microorganisms: challenges for life
D'Amico, Salvino ULg; Collins, T.; Marx, J. C. et al

in EMBO Reports (2006), 7(4), 385-389

The ability of psychrophiles to survive and proliferate at low temperatures implies that they have overcome key barriers inherent to permanently cold environments. These challenges include: reduced enzyme ... [more ▼]

The ability of psychrophiles to survive and proliferate at low temperatures implies that they have overcome key barriers inherent to permanently cold environments. These challenges include: reduced enzyme activity; decreased membrane fluidity; altered transport of nutrients and waste products; decreased rates of transcription, translation and cell division; protein cold- denaturation; inappropriate protein folding; and intracellular ice formation. Cold- adapted organisms have successfully evolved features, genotypic and/ or phenotypic, to surmount the negative effects of low temperatures and to enable growth in these extreme environments. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge of these adaptations as gained from extensive biochemical and biophysical studies and also from genomics and proteomics. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of glycoside hydrolase family 8 xylanases in baking
Collins, T.; Hoyoux, A.; Dutron, A. et al

in Journal of Cereal Science (2006), 43(1), 79-84

Xylanases have long been used in the baking industry for improving dough stability and flexibility and for increasing bread volume and crumb structure. Only xylanases from glycoside hydrolase families 10 ... [more ▼]

Xylanases have long been used in the baking industry for improving dough stability and flexibility and for increasing bread volume and crumb structure. Only xylanases from glycoside hydrolase families 10 and I I appear to have been tested in this application and only those from the latter family have as yet found application. Interestingly, enzymes with a putative xylanase activity are also found in glycoside hydrolase families 5, 7, 8 and 43, but apparently these have not, as yet, been tested in baking. Baking trials were used to determine the effectiveness of a psychrophilic and a mesophilic family 8 xylanolytic enzyme as well as a psychrophilic family 10 xylanase and a currently used family 11 commercial mesophilic xylanase. The potential of family 8 xylanases as technological aids in baking was clearly demonstrated as both the psychrophilic enzyme from Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAH3a and the mesophilic enzyme from Bacillus halodurans C-125 had a positive effect on loaf volume. In contrast, the psychrophilic family 10 enzyme from Cryptococcus adeliae TAE85 was found to be ineffective. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of the active site residues of a glycoside hydrolase family 8 xylanase
Collins, T.; De Vos, D.; Hoyoux, A. et al

in Journal of Molecular Biology (2005), 354(2), 425-435

Site-directed mutagenesis and a comparative characterisation of the kinetic parameters, pH dependency of activity and thermal stability of mutant and wild-type enzymes have been used in association with ... [more ▼]

Site-directed mutagenesis and a comparative characterisation of the kinetic parameters, pH dependency of activity and thermal stability of mutant and wild-type enzymes have been used in association with crystallographic analysis to delineate the functions of several active site residues in a novel glycoside hydrolase family 8 xylanase. Each of the residues investigated plays an essential role in this enzyme: E78 as the general acid, D281 as the general base and in orientating the nucleophilic water molecule, Y203 in maintaining the position of the nucleophilic water molecule and in structural integrity and D144 in sugar ring distortion and transition state stabilization. Interestingly, although crystal structure analyses and the pH-activity profiles clearly identify the functions of E78 and D281, substitution of these residues with their amide derivatives results in only a 250-fold and 700-fold reduction in their apparent k(cat) values, respectively. This, in addition to the observation that the proposed general base is not conserved in all glycoside hydrolase family 8 enzymes, indicates that the mechanistic architecture in this family of inverting enzymes is more complex than is conventionally believed and points to a diversity in the identity of the mechanistically important residues as well as in the arrangement of the intricate microenvironment of the active site among members of this family. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailXylanases, xylanase families and extremophilic xylanases
Collins, T.; Gerday, Charles ULg; Feller, Georges ULg

in FEMS Microbiology Reviews (2005), 29(1), 3-23

Xylanases are hydrolytic enzymes which randomly cleave the beta 1,4 backbone of the complex plant cell wall polysaccharide xylan. Diverse forms of these enzymes exist, displaying varying folds, mechanisms ... [more ▼]

Xylanases are hydrolytic enzymes which randomly cleave the beta 1,4 backbone of the complex plant cell wall polysaccharide xylan. Diverse forms of these enzymes exist, displaying varying folds, mechanisms of action, substrate specificities, hydrolytic activities (yields, rates and products) and physicochemical characteristics. Research has mainly focused on only two of the xylanase containing glycoside hydrolase families, namely families 10 and 11, yet enzymes with xylanase activity belonging to families 5, 7, 8 and 43 have also been identified and studied, albeit to a lesser extent. Driven by industrial demands for enzymes that can operate under process conditions, a number of extremophilic xylanases have been isolated, in particular those from thermophiles, alkaliphiles and acidiphiles, while little attention has been paid to cold-adapted xylanases. Here, the diverse physicochemical and functional characteristics, as well as the folds and mechanisms of action of all six xylanase containing families will be discussed. The adaptation strategies of the extremophilic xylanases isolated to date and the potential industrial applications of these enzymes will also be presented. [less ▲]

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See detailExtreme catalysts from low-temperature environments
Hoyoux, A.; Blaise, Vinciane ULg; Collins, T. et al

in Journal of Bioscience & Bioengineering (2004), 98(5), 317-330

Cold-loving or psychrophilic organisms are widely distributed in nature as a large part of the earth's surface is at temperatures around 0 degrees C. To maintain metabolic rates and to prosper in cold ... [more ▼]

Cold-loving or psychrophilic organisms are widely distributed in nature as a large part of the earth's surface is at temperatures around 0 degrees C. To maintain metabolic rates and to prosper in cold environments, these extremophilic organisms have developed a vast array of adaptations. One main adaptive strategy developed in order to cope with the reduction of chemical reaction rates induced by low temperatures is the synthesis of cold-adapted or psychrophilic enzymes. These enzymes are characterized by a high catalytic activity at low temperatures associated with a low thermal stability. A study of protein adaptation strategies suggests that the high activity of psychrophilic enzymes could be achieved by the destabilization of the active site, allowing the catalytic center to be more flexible at low temperatures, whereas other protein regions may be destabilized or as rigid as their mesophilic counterparts. Due to these particular properties, psychrophilic enzymes offer a high potential not only for fundamental research but also for biotechnological applications. [less ▲]

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See detailA perspective on cold enzymes: Current knowledge and frequently asked questions
Marx, J. C.; Blaise, Vinciane ULg; Collins, T. et al

in Cellular and Molecular Biology (2004), 50(5), 643-655

Studies on psychrophilic enzymes to determine the structural features important for cold-activity have attracted increased attention in the last few years. This enhanced interest is due to the attractive ... [more ▼]

Studies on psychrophilic enzymes to determine the structural features important for cold-activity have attracted increased attention in the last few years. This enhanced interest is due to the attractive properties of such proteins, i.e. a high specific activity and a low thermal stability, and thus, these enzymes constitute a tremendous potential for fundamental research and biotechnological applications. This review examines the impact of low temperatures on life, the diversity of adaptation to counteract these effects and gives an overview of the features proposed to account for low thermal stability and cold-activity, following the chronological order of the catalytic cycle phases. Moreover, we present an overview of recent techniques used in the analysis of the flexibility of a protein structure which is an important concept in cold-adaptation; an overview of biotechnological potential of psychrophilic enzymes and finally, a few frequently asked questions about cold-adaptation and their possible answers. [less ▲]

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See detailSome like it cold: biocatalysis at low temperatures
Georlette, D.; Blaise, Vinciane ULg; Collins, T. et al

in FEMS Microbiology Reviews (2004), 28(1), 25-42

In the last few years, increased attention has been focused on a class of organisms called psychrophiles. These organisms, hosts of permanently cold habitats, often display metabolic fluxes more or less ... [more ▼]

In the last few years, increased attention has been focused on a class of organisms called psychrophiles. These organisms, hosts of permanently cold habitats, often display metabolic fluxes more or less comparable to those exhibited by mesophilic organisms at moderate temperatures. Psychrophiles have evolved by producing, among other peculiarities, "cold-adapted" enzymes which have the properties to cope with the reduction of chemical reaction rates induced by low temperatures. Thermal compensation in these enzymes is reached, in most cases, through a high catalytic efficiency associated, however, with a low thermal stability. Thanks to recent advances provided by X-ray crystallography, structure modelling, protein engineering and biophysical studies, the adaptation strategies are beginning to be understood. The emerging picture suggests that psychrophilic enzymes are characterized by an improved flexibility of the structural components involved in the catalytic cycle, whereas other protein regions, if not implicated in catalysis, may be even more rigid than their mesophilic counterparts. Due to their attractive properties, i.e., a high specific activity and a low thermal stability, these enzymes constitute a tremendous potential for fundamental research and biotechnological applications. (C) 2003 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailActivity, stability and flexibility in Glycosidases adapted to extreme thermal environments
Collins, T.; Meuwis, Marie-Alice ULg; Gerday, Charles ULg et al

in Journal of Molecular Biology (2003), 328(2), 419-428

To elucidate the strategy of low temperature adaptation for a cold-adapted family 8 xylanase, the thermal and chemical stabilities, thermal inactivation, thermodependence of activity and conformational ... [more ▼]

To elucidate the strategy of low temperature adaptation for a cold-adapted family 8 xylanase, the thermal and chemical stabilities, thermal inactivation, thermodependence of activity and conformational flexibility, as well as the thermodynamic basis of these processes, were compared with those of a thermophilic homolog. Differential scanning calorimetry, fluorescence monitoring of guanidine hydrochloride unfolding and fluorescence quenching were used, among other techniques, to show that the cold-adapted enzyme is characterized by a high activity at low temperatures, a poor stability and a high flexibility. In contrast, the thermophilic enzyme is shown to have a reduced low temperature activity, high stability and a reduced flexibility. These findings agree with the hypothesis that cold-adapted enzymes overcome the quandary imposed by low temperature environments via a global or local increase in the flexibility of their molecular edifice, with this in turn leading to a reduced stability. Analysis of the guanidine hydrochloride unfolding, as well as the thermodynamic parameters of irreversible thermal unfolding and thermal inactivation shows that the driving force for this denaturation and inactivation is a large entropy change while a low enthalpy change is implicated in the low temperature activity. A reduced number of salt-bridges are believed to be responsible for both these effects. Guanidine hydrochloride unfolding studies also indicate that both family 8 enzymes unfold via an intermediate prone to aggregation. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailThe structure of a cold-adapted family 8 xylanase at 1.3 angstrom resolution - Structural adaptations to cold and investigation of the active site
Van Petegem, F.; Collins, T.; Meuwis, Marie-Alice ULg et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2003), 278(9), 7531-7539

Enzymes from psychrophilic organisms differ from their mesophilic counterparts in having a lower thermo-stability and a higher specific activity at low and moderate temperatures. The current consensus is ... [more ▼]

Enzymes from psychrophilic organisms differ from their mesophilic counterparts in having a lower thermo-stability and a higher specific activity at low and moderate temperatures. The current consensus is that they have an increased flexibility, enhancing accommodation and transformation of the substrates at low energy costs. Here we describe the structure of the xylanase from the Antarctic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis at 1.3 Angstrom resolution. Xylanases are usually grouped into glycosyl hydrolase families 10 and 11, but this enzyme belongs to family 8. The fold differs from that of other known xylanases and can be described as an (alpha/alpha)(6) barrel. Various parameters that may explain the cold-adapted properties were examined and indicated that the protein has a reduced number of salt bridges and an increased exposure of hydrophobic residues. The crystal structures of a complex with xylobiose and of mutant D144N were obtained at 1.2 and 1.5 A resolution, respectively. Analysis of the various substrate binding sites shows that the +3 and -3 subsites are rearranged as compared to those of a family 8 homolog, while the xylobiose complex suggests the existence of a +4 subsite. A decreased acidity of the substrate binding cleft and an increased flexibility of aromatic residues lining the subsites may enhance the rate at which substrate is bound. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrocalorimetry as applied to psychrophilic enzymes
D'Amico, Salvino ULg; Georlette, D.; Collins, T. et al

in Ladbury, J. E. (Ed.) Biocalorimetry 2: Application of Calorimetry in the Biological Sciences (2003)

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See detailA novel family 8 xylanase, functional and physicochemical characterization
Collins, T.; Meuwis, Marie-Alice ULg; Stals, I. et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2002), 277(38), 35133-35139

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See detailCrystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a xylanase from the psychrophile Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis
Van Petegem, F.; Collins, T.; Meuwis, Marie-Alice ULg et al

in Acta Crystallographica Section D-Biological Crystallography (2002), 58(Part 9), 1494-1496

The 46 kDa xylanase from the Antarctic microorganism Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis is an enzyme that efficiently catalyzes reactions at low temperatures. Here, the crystallization of both the native ... [more ▼]

The 46 kDa xylanase from the Antarctic microorganism Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis is an enzyme that efficiently catalyzes reactions at low temperatures. Here, the crystallization of both the native protein and the SeMet-substituted enzyme and data collection from both crystals using synchrotron radiation are described. The native data showed that the crystals diffract to 1.3 Angstrom resolution and belong to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 50.87, b = 90.51, c = 97.23 Angstrom. SAD data collected at the peak of the selenium absorption edge proved to be sufficient to determine the heavy-atom configuration and to obtain electron density of good quality. [less ▲]

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