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See detailComparison between player specialization, anthropometric characteristics and jumping ability in top-level volleybal players
Ciccarone, Guido; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Fontani, G. et al

in Medicina dello Sport : Rivista di Fisiopatologia dello Sport (2008), 61

Aim. Volleyball is an open skill sport with predominant anaerobic alactic acid power. At higher skill levels, performance characteristics are mainly determined by speed and vertical jumping ability. The ... [more ▼]

Aim. Volleyball is an open skill sport with predominant anaerobic alactic acid power. At higher skill levels, performance characteristics are mainly determined by speed and vertical jumping ability. The aim of this study was to compare anthropometric parameters and jumping ability in a group of elite male volleyball players in relation to technical skills required by player position. Methods. The study population included 36 elite male volleyball players (coming from the Italian First and Second Division Championships). Subjects were grouped by playing position on the court: setters (7); blockers (10); hitters (16); liberos (3). Assessment included anthropometric parameters such as height, weight, body mass index (weight in kg/height in m2), indirect calculation of body fat mass by means of the Katch method (%BFM), measurement of reach with one hand (R1) and two hands (R2); and indirect measurement of explosive strength by means of the Bosco method: squat jump, countermovement jump (CMJ), CMJ with arm swing (CMJas), and repeated jumps for 15 s (R15”); measurement of motor coordination and jumping ability by means of the Vertec test combined with specific offense (Vertec attack [VA]) and defense (Vertec block [VB]) skills. Results. Significant differences were observed between player specialization and anthropometric parameters (height, weight, BMI, R1 and R2). Results of the Bosco (SJ, CMJ, CMJas) and Vertec tests (VA and VB) also differed significantly among the player groups. Conclusion. Functional assessment protocols that evaluate anthropometric characteristics and jumping ability by means of two different unrelated methods, confirming that the two measure different aspects of the same performance, provide more complete indications for selecting players, workload planning and monitoring of player development during training. [less ▲]

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See detailMuscular and physical features correlated with ball velocity during the volleyball spike
Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Ciccarone, Guido et al

in Computer Methods in Biomechanics & Biomedical Engineering (2005, September), 8(Supp 1), 105-106

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See detailAnalisi delle caratteristiche antropometriche e delle capacità di salto di giovani pallavolisti d'alto livello
Ciccarone, Guido; Fontani, Giuliano; Albert, Adelin ULg et al

in Medicina Dello Sport (2005), 58(1), 1-15

Aim. The volleyball is a situational sport classified among activities laying on alternative aerobe and anaerobe processes, with an important participation of the muscular mass and an accentuated ... [more ▼]

Aim. The volleyball is a situational sport classified among activities laying on alternative aerobe and anaerobe processes, with an important participation of the muscular mass and an accentuated prevalence of the alactacid anaerobe process. Within a population of young top volleyball athletes, the goal of the study was to compare several anthropometrical and functional variables according to the role of the player during the game. Methods. Data were collected by 42 volleyball players which trained with the Italian national junior team, divided into four groups: 1) side spikers (n=14; age=18.5 +/- 1.4 y.); 2) centre spikers (n=15; age 18.1 +/- 11.1 y.); (3) setters (n=7; age=18.4 +/- 1.3 y), and; 4) universal spikers (n=6; age=17.5 +/- 0.8 y.). Morphological data were height, weight, body mass index (BMI), indirect ratio of body fat determined by the method of Katch (%BF), reach with 1 (R1) or 2 (R2) hands. The explosive force was measured with the method of Bosco [1] : squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ), CMJ with arms (CMJas) and repeated jumps during 15 seconds (RJ15). The ability to jump was measured with the Vertec test in two conditions: spike (Vertec attack, VA) and block (Vertec block, VB). Jumping performance was determined through the difference between VA and R1 (running spring, RS) and VB and R2 (standing spring, SS). Results. Significant differences were pointed out for the height (F=4,75; p < 0,006), R1 (F=3,6; p < 0,02) and R2 (F=3,66; p < 0,02). For the three anthropological variables, centre spikers (C) were significantly higher than setters (S). Comparing players' performance at the Bosco test, no significant differences appeared between groups. Results of Vertec test showed significant differences in VA (F = 7.29; p < 0.001) where group C performed better than groups S and U (universal spikers), and in VB (F = 3.95; p < 0.05) where group C achieved significantly better then setters. Analysis of the correlation matrix showed that height and weight were strongly correlated between them and with R1 and R2. Performances at Bosco test and at Vertec test were respectively correlated between them but no correlation was observed between results of Bosco and Vertec test. With Bosco test gathered information provide an assessment of the jumping ability without connection to the specific skills while Vertec test provide more specific information about the athlete's ability to use spring in specific conditions. A high correlation was identified between anthropometrics variables and the results of the Vertec test. Multiple regression analysis confirmed that, excepted %BF which is only (inversely) correlated to Vertec performances, all groups of variables were correlated between them. Conclusion. Results pointed out that in junior top level volleyball, the anthropometrical profile of the players is directly related to specific variables which must be used to select talented athletes and to plan training in connection with specific role of the player in the game. Because of the reduced duration of the game episodes and to the increasing intensity of the game rhythm, the modern volleyball involve increasingly the alactacid anaerobe component. It is for all above reasons that top level volleyball needs always more muscular powerful athletes who are also fast and able to use high jumping abilities. For that reason, assessment, training and follow up of the jumping abilities become some of the most determinant aspects of the player's effectiveness. Data underline the interest of the use of specific tests to identify the jumping ability of volleyball athletes. The protocol developed in that study can provide determinant information during the first phase of athletes' selection. [less ▲]

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See detailFactors correlated with volleyball spike velocity.
Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Ciccarone, Guido et al

in American Journal of Sports Medicine (2005), 33(10), 1513-9

BACKGROUND: Spike effectiveness represents a determining element in volleyball. To compete at a high level, the player must, in particular, produce a spike characterized by a high ball velocity ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Spike effectiveness represents a determining element in volleyball. To compete at a high level, the player must, in particular, produce a spike characterized by a high ball velocity. HYPOTHESIS: Some muscular and physical features could influence ball velocity during the volleyball spike. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive laboratory study. METHODS: A total of 19 male volleyball players from the 2 highest Belgian national divisions underwent an isokinetic assessment of the dominant shoulder and elbow. Ball velocity performance (radar gun) during a spike test, morphological feature, and jump capacity (ergo jump) of the player were measured. We tested the relationship between the isokinetic parameters or physical features and field performances represented by spike velocity. We also compared first-division and second-division player data. RESULTS: Spike velocity correlated significantly with strength performance of the dominant shoulder (internal rotators) and of the dominant elbow (flexors and extensors) in the concentric mode. Negative correlations were established with the concentric external rotator on internal rotator ratio at 400 deg/s and with the mixed ratio (external rotator at 60 deg/s in the eccentric mode on internal rotator at 240 deg/s in the concentric mode). Positive correlations appeared with both the volleyball players' jump capacity and body mass index. First-division players differed from second-division players by higher ball velocity and increased jump capacity. CONCLUSION: Some specific strength and physical characteristics correlated significantly with spike performance in high-level volleyball practice. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Our results could provide useful information for training management and propose some reflections on injury prevention. [less ▲]

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See detailFacteurs influençant la performance de terrain en volley-ball
Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Ciccarone, Guido et al

in Actes du XIVe Congrès National Scientifique de la Société Française de Médecine du Sport (2004, November)

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See detailAnalysis of the volleyball spike: relationships between several parameters and the speed of the ball
Cloes, Marc ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Barsin, M. et al

in Proceedings of the 2004 Pre-Olympic Congress Sport Science through the Ages (2004, August)

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See detailAnalysis of the volleyball spike: relationships between several parameters and the speed of the ball
Cloes, Marc ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Barsin, M. et al

Poster (2004, August)

In volleyball, the spike's effectiveness is a determining element of the team's success. To perform at a high level, a player must be able to produce spikes characterized by a speed of the ball that ... [more ▼]

In volleyball, the spike's effectiveness is a determining element of the team's success. To perform at a high level, a player must be able to produce spikes characterized by a speed of the ball that increase the defence's uncertainly. A high speed spike needs technical and muscular qualities. ... [less ▲]

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