References of "Chavalle, Sandrine"
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See detailRapport final de la convention de recherche: "DEPITRIM: Detection, control measures and impact study of Epitrix in Belgium"
Maes, Martine; Jansen, Jean-Pierre; De Clercq, Patrick et al

Report (2017)

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See detailAssessing cultivar resistance to Sitodiplosis mosellana (Géhin) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) using a phenotyping method under semi-field conditions
Chavalle, Sandrine ULg; Jacquemin, Guillaume; De Proft, Michel

in Journal of Applied Entomology (2017)

The orange wheat blossom midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Géhin), can significantly reduce wheat yield. Growing resistant wheat cultivars is an effective way of managing this pest. The assessment of ... [more ▼]

The orange wheat blossom midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Géhin), can significantly reduce wheat yield. Growing resistant wheat cultivars is an effective way of managing this pest. The assessment of cultivar resistance in field trials is difficult because of unequal pressure of S. mosellana caused by differences in cultivar heading dates relative to the flight period of S. mosellana adult females and huge variations of egg laying conditions from 1 day to another. To overcome these hurdles and to expose all cultivars homogeneously to the pest, an assessment method of cultivar resistance was developed under semi-field conditions. In 2015, the resistance of 64 winter wheat cultivars to S. mosellana was assessed. Few or no larvae developed in the ears of resistant cultivars, but in susceptible cultivars, large numbers of larvae developed. Seventeen cultivars proved to be resistant, whereas 47 were susceptible. The identification of new resistant cultivars offers more opportunities to manage S. mosellana. The phenotyping method is easy, cheap, efficient and reliable. It can be used to guide the breeding of new resistant wheat cultivars. Using specific midge populations, this method could also be used in research on new resistance mechanisms in winter wheat or in other cereal species. [less ▲]

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See detailRapport d'activité 2015 de la convention de recherche : "DEPITRIM : Detection, control measures and impact study of Epitrix in Belgium"
Maes, Martine; Jansen, Jean-Pierre; De Clercq, Patrick et al

Report (2016)

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See detailTargeted control of the saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata (von Roser) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), and the benefits of good control of this pest to winter wheat yield
Censier, Florence ULg; Chavalle, Sandrine ULg; San Martin y Gomez, Gilles et al

in Pest Management Science (2016)

BACKGROUND: Since 2010, there has been a resurgence of the saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata (von Roser), in Belgium and several other European countries, with this pest sometimes causing severe ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Since 2010, there has been a resurgence of the saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata (von Roser), in Belgium and several other European countries, with this pest sometimes causing severe damage in cereals. In 2012 and 2013, field trials were conducted in heavily infested fields to assess its impact on winter wheat crops and to determine efficient ways of dealing with severe infestations. RESULTS: Crop exposure to H. marginata varied with the different protection methods tried. These methods included one to four successive applications of lambda-cyhalothrin. Yield losses were significant, reaching 6% in 2012 and as high as 15% in 2013, and these losses were linearly related to the number of galls on stems. CONCLUSION: The trials showed that insecticide applications needed to be synchronized with H. marginata flight peaks and to target the egg hatching period. They also revealed that insecticides applied to coincide with the first flight could, in humid conditions, also reach the larvae close to the soil surface, prior to their pupation. [less ▲]

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See detailLa cécidomyie orange: repérer les blés qui lui résistent
Chavalle, Sandrine ULg; De Proft, Michel; Jacquemin, Guillaume

in Phytoma : La Défense des Végétaux (2015), 685

Mise au point d’une méthode d’évaluation en conditions contrôlées de la résistance variétale du blé tendre d’hiver à la cécidomyie orange du blé, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Géhin).

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See detail1. Actualités en ravageurs - 2. Variétés résistantes à la cécidomyie orange du blé : intérêt agronomique et méthode de caractérisation
Chavalle, Sandrine ULg; Jacquemin, Guillaume; De Proft, Michel

in Watillon, Bernard; Bodson, Bernard (Eds.) Livre Blanc Céréales (2015, September 10)

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See detail6. Protection intégrée des semis et des jeunes emblavures
Henriet, François; Chavalle, Sandrine ULg; Bataille, Charlotte et al

in Bodson, Bernard; Watillon, Bernard (Eds.) Livre Blanc Céréales (2015, September 10)

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See detail1. Actualités en ravageurs - 1. Saison 2015 : attaque et dégâts de cécidomyie orange du blé
Hautier, Louis; Chavalle, Sandrine ULg; De Proft, Michel

in Bodson, Bernard; Watillon, Bernard (Eds.) Livre Blanc Céréales (2015, September 10)

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See detailLa cécidomyie équestre quelle nuisibilité sur le blé?
Censier, Florence ULg; Chavalle, Sandrine ULg; San Martin Y Gomez, Gilles et al

in Phytoma : La Défense des Végétaux (2015), 685

Une équipe belge a évalué la nuisibilité de la cécidomyie Haplodiplosis marginata et en tire des conseils pour la protection du blé tendre d'hiver. Le tout est valable en France aussi!

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See detailToxicity of several fungicides for orange wheat blossom midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Géhin) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)
Chavalle, Sandrine ULg; Jansen, Jean-Pierre; San Martin y Gomez, Gilles et al

Poster (2015, May 19)

The orange wheat blossom midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Géhin) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), can cause severe losses in wheat grain yield and quality. This pest is known to be susceptible to many insecticides ... [more ▼]

The orange wheat blossom midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Géhin) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), can cause severe losses in wheat grain yield and quality. This pest is known to be susceptible to many insecticides, but various field observations have suggested that some fungicides could also significantly affect S. mosellana. In order to confirm these field observations, the effect on adult midges of several fungicides commonly applied to wheat crops was investigated in the laboratory and in small plots in the field. In each experiment, the fungicides were compared with a positive (insecticide) and a negative control (water). Four fungicides were assessed in the laboratory, each with five doses based on basis of a tenfold dilution starting at the field-recommended dose. The mortality rate was evaluated after 24 hours and the lethal dose 50% (LD50) was determined for each product. In the field, six fungicides were tested at the recommended dose. The effect of each product was compared on the basis of the number of S. mosellana adults caught alive with an insect vacuum sampler (Vortis®) on the morning after the treatments. Both experiments showed a significant effect of several fungicides tested on S. mosellana adults. Chlorothalonil was not toxic for S. mosellana, but tebuconazole, fluxapyroxad and azoxystrobin all induced significant mortality rates. [less ▲]

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See detailLa cécidomyie orange du blé - Et autres cécidomyies des céréales
Chavalle, Sandrine ULg; De Proft, Michel; Jacquemin, Guillaume et al

Book published by Centre wallon de Recherches agronomiques (CRA-W) (2015)

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See detail7. Lutte intégrée contre les ravageurs.
Chavalle, Sandrine ULg; De Proft, Michel

in Bodson, Bernard; Watillon, Bernard (Eds.) Livre Blanc Céréales (2015, February 22)

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See detail7. Protection contre les ravageurs - 2.2 Protection contre la cécidomyie orange du blé : détermination du risque, efficacité des insecticides, variétés résistantes
Chavalle, Sandrine ULg; De Proft, Michel

in Watillon, Bernard; Bodson, Bernard (Eds.) Livre Blanc Céréales (2015, February 22)

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See detailComparative emergence phenology of the orange wheat blossom midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Géhin) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) and its parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae and Platygastridae) under controlled conditions
Chavalle, Sandrine ULg; Buhl, Peter Neerup; Censier, Florence ULg et al

in Crop Protection (2015), 76

The orange wheat blossom midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Géhin) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) pest that can cause significant yield losses. Several hymenopterous parasitoids ... [more ▼]

The orange wheat blossom midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Géhin) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) pest that can cause significant yield losses. Several hymenopterous parasitoids are known to attack S. mosellana. For the effective biological control of this pest by its parasitoids, the hostparasitoid synchrony is particularly important. The synchronization between the emergence of S. mosellana and its parasitoids was studied under controlled conditions with soils sampled from two locations. For both sites, three parasitoid species were identified: Macroglenes penetrans (Kirby) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), Euxestonotus error (Fitch) (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) and Platygaster tuberosula (Kieffer) (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae). The hypothesis that parasitoid emergence is triggered by the same rainfall that induces host emergence was tested by simulating three rainfall events, a week apart. The parasitoid M. penetrans emerged later than S. mosellana with a mean of 57 ± 7 DD (degree-days above 7 °C) for insects collected from Juprelle and 68 ± 10 DD for those from Veurne (i.e., 4-5 days after its host). M. penetrans was therefore closely synchronized with its host through the same inductive rainfall, but this was not the case for E. error or P. tuberosula. Depending on when the rainfall that triggered the emergence of S. mosellana occurred, E. error and P. tuberosula emerged either before or after their host. M. penetrans is a more effective biocontrol agent of S. mosellana compared to P. tuberosula and E. error. Greater knowledge about parasitoid emergence could lead to the better positioning of insecticide treatments against wheat midge that protect and conserve the parasitoid populations. [less ▲]

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See detailProtection of winter wheat against orange wheat blossom midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Géhin) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae): efficacy of insecticides and cultivar resistance
Chavalle, Sandrine ULg; Censier, Florence ULg; De Proft, Michel et al

in Pest Management Science (2015), 71(5), 783-790

BACKGROUND: In 2012 and 2013, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Géhin) flights occurred during the susceptible phase of wheat development in Belgium. The protection against this midge afforded by various ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: In 2012 and 2013, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Géhin) flights occurred during the susceptible phase of wheat development in Belgium. The protection against this midge afforded by various insecticides was assessed in infested fields on four winter wheat cultivars (susceptible or resistant, and early or late heading). RESULTS: The insecticides sprayed at the right time reduced the number of larvae in the ears by 44-96%, depending on the product. For Julius, the cultivar (cv.) most exposed to S. mosellana in 2013, the mean yield gain resulting from insecticide use was 1,558 kg ha-1 (18%). In the same year, insecticide use resulted in a yield gain of 780 kg ha-1 (8%) for the cv. Lear, despite its resistance to this pest. The link between yield and number of larvae counted in the ears was a logarithmic relationship, suggesting an important reduction in yield caused either by the damage inflicted by young larvae which died at the start of their development or by the activation of costly reactions in plants. CONCLUSION: The study showed that, in cases of severe attack, the timely application of insecticide treatments can protect wheat against S. mosellana and that even resistant cultivars can benefit from these treatments. [less ▲]

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See detail3. Protection intégrée des semis et des jeunes emblavures
Henriet, François; Chavalle, Sandrine ULg; Bataille, Charlotte et al

in Destain, Jean-Pierre; Bodson, Bernard (Eds.) Livre Blanc Céréales (2014, September 11)

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See detail7. Lutte intégrée contre les ravageurs
Chavalle, Sandrine ULg; Censier, Florence ULg; Jacquemin, Guillaume et al

in Destain, Jean-Pierre; Bodson, Bernard (Eds.) Livre Blanc Céréales (2014, February)

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See detailA study to assess the parasitism of insect pests in winter oilseed rape in Belgium: preliminary results
Jansen, Jean-Pierre; Chavalle, Sandrine ULg

in Integrated Control in Oilseed Crops IOBC-WPRS Bulletin (2014), 104

A survey of the parasitoids found in commercial winter oilseed rape was initiated in 2012 and 2013 in the South part of Belgium, using both aerial sampling techniques and soil analysis. Fourteen fields ... [more ▼]

A survey of the parasitoids found in commercial winter oilseed rape was initiated in 2012 and 2013 in the South part of Belgium, using both aerial sampling techniques and soil analysis. Fourteen fields located in two distinct areas and with two different tillage regime (normal and reduced or no tillage) were selected for before and just after flowering. Adult parasitoid hymenoptera were weekly sampled over 8 weeks using sweep net. Pollen beetle larvae, Meligethes aeneus (F.) (Col.; Nitidulidae), were collected and their parasitism rate assessed. Samples of soil were taken from 4 fields in 2012 and 8 in 2013 to collect brassica pod midge cocoon, Dasineura brassicae (Winnertz) (Dip.; Cecidomyiidae), and to assess their parasitism. The soils were gently washed into sieves and cocoons were isolated in Petri dishes until midge or parasitoid emergence. The main parasitoid wasps found in the sweep net samples belong to the Tersilochinae family. However, though adults of this family were regularly collected in large numbers, and were synchronized with their host, the parasitism level of the pollen beetle larvae remained low, with many of the fields below 10-15% parasitism. Preliminary analysis shows that there were no apparent differences between the two distinct areas and between the two different tillage regimes. The main explanation of this low parasitism rate could be the high occurrence of the insecticide applications, as most of the farmers regularly applied one or two insecticides during the season: the first to control pollen beetle before flowering and the second to control other insects later (e.g. seed weevil, brassica pod midge). The highest level of parasitism of pollen beetle larvae (43%) was found in an untreated field. The identification of the species is in progress. The analysis of brassica pod midge cocoons showed that the parasitism rate was low in 2012 (0-5%). However, these results were probably underestimated due to a high mortality of the cocoons during the rearing process. If the parasitism rates were expressed on the basis of rearing success (brassica pod midge or adult parasitoid emerged), the parasitism rate reached up to 59.6% in one specific site, with 58.8% due to 4 Ceraphronidae species and 48.6% due to one species, Ceraphron serraticornis Kieffer. In 2013, the parasitism rate was low (0-3.0%), despite a high success in the cocoon rearing process. These results have shown that several species of parasitoid Hymenoptera are present in Belgium, causing in some cases high parasitism levels. A better use of these parasitoid wasps in the biological or integrated control of several oilseed rape pests is possible, but there is a need to focus on improving understanding of the factors that could explain the variability of the parasitism between sites and the actions that could promote the activity of these beneficial insects and protect their existing populations. [less ▲]

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