Connexin 30 expression inhibits growth of human malignant gliomas but protects them against radiation therapy.
Artesi, Maria ; ; et al
in Neuro-oncology (2014)
BACKGROUND: Glioblastomas remain ominous tumors that almost invariably escape treatment. Connexins are a family of transmembrane, gap junction-forming proteins, some members of which were reported to act ... [more ▼]
BACKGROUND: Glioblastomas remain ominous tumors that almost invariably escape treatment. Connexins are a family of transmembrane, gap junction-forming proteins, some members of which were reported to act as tumor suppressors and to modulate cellular metabolism in response to cytotoxic stress. METHODS: We analyzed the copy number and expression of the connexin (Cx)30 gene gap junction beta-6 (GJB6), as well as of its protein immunoreactivity in several public and proprietary repositories of glioblastomas, and their influence on patient survival. We evaluated the effect of the expression of this gap junction protein on the growth, DNA repair and energy metabolism, and treatment resistance of these tumors. RESULTS: The GJB6 gene was deleted in 25.8% of 751 analyzed tumors and mutated in 15.8% of 158 tumors. Cx30 immunoreactivity was absent in 28.9% of 145 tumors. Restoration of Cx30 expression in human glioblastoma cells reduced their growth in vitro and as xenografts in the striatum of immunodeficient mice. Cx30 immunoreactivity was, however, found to adversely affect survival in 2 independent retrospective cohorts of glioblastoma patients. Cx30 was found in clonogenic assays to protect glioblastoma cells against radiation-induced mortality and to decrease radiation-induced DNA damage. This radioprotection correlated with a heat shock protein 90-dependent mitochondrial translocation of Cx30 following radiation and an improved ATP production following this genotoxic stress. CONCLUSION: These results underline the complex relationship between potential tumor suppressors and treatment resistance in glioblastomas and single out GJB6/Cx30 as a potential biomarker and target for therapeutic intervention in these tumors. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 30 (17 ULg)
Casein kinase 2 inhibition modulates the DNA damage response but fails to radiosensitize malignant glioma cells.
KROONEN, Jérôme ; Artesi, Maria ; CAPRARO, Valérie et al
in International Journal of Oncology (2012), 41(2), 776-82
Inhibitors of casein kinase 2 (CK2), a regulator of cell proliferation and mediator of the DNA damage response, are being evaluated in clinical trials for the treatment of cancers. Apigenin was capable of ... [more ▼]
Inhibitors of casein kinase 2 (CK2), a regulator of cell proliferation and mediator of the DNA damage response, are being evaluated in clinical trials for the treatment of cancers. Apigenin was capable of inhibiting the activation of CK2 following gamma irradiation in LN18 and U87 malignant glioma cells. Apigenin and siRNA-mediated CK2 protein depletion further inhibited NF-kappaB activation and altered the Tyr68 phosphorylation of Chk2 kinase, a DNA damage response checkpoint kinase, following irradiation. However, CK2 inhibition did not decrease the ability of these glioma cells to repair double-strand DNA breaks, as assessed by COMET assays and gamma-H2Ax staining. Likewise, apigenin and siRNA-induced depletion of CK2 failed to sensitize glioma cells to the cytotoxic effect of 2 to 10 G-rays of gamma irradiation, as assessed by clonogenic assays. These results contrast with those found in other cancer types, and urge to prudence regarding the inclusion of malignant glioma patients in clinical trials that assess the radiosensitizing role of CK2 inhibitors in solid cancers. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 24 (8 ULg)
Monosomy of chromosome 10 associated with dysregulation of epidermal growth factor signaling in glioblastomas.
; ; et al
in JAMA : Journal of the American Medical Association (2009), 302(3), 276-89
CONTEXT: Glioblastomas--uniformly fatal brain tumors--often have both monosomy of chromosome 10 and gains of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene locus on chromosome 7, an association for ... [more ▼]
CONTEXT: Glioblastomas--uniformly fatal brain tumors--often have both monosomy of chromosome 10 and gains of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene locus on chromosome 7, an association for which the mechanism is poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether coselection of EGFR gains on 7p12 and monosomy 10 in glioblastomas promotes tumorigenic epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling through loss of the annexin A7 (ANXA7) gene on 10q21.1-q21.2 and whether ANXA7 acts as a tumor suppressor gene by regulating EGFR in glioblastomas. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: Multidimensional analysis of gene, coding sequence, promoter methylation, messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript, protein data for ANXA7 (and EGFR), and clinical patient data profiles of 543 high-grade gliomas from US medical centers and The Cancer Genome Atlas pilot project (made public 2006-2008; and unpublished, tumors collected 2001-2008). Functional analyses using LN229 and U87 glioblastoma cells. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Associations among ANXA7 gene dosage, coding sequence, promoter methylation, mRNA transcript, and protein expression. Effect of ANXA7 haploinsufficiency on EGFR signaling and patient survival. Joint effects of loss of ANXA7 and gain of EGFR expression on tumorigenesis. RESULTS: Heterozygous ANXA7 gene deletion is associated with significant loss of ANXA7 mRNA transcript expression (P = 1 x 10(-15); linear regression) and a reduction (mean [SEM]) of 91.5% (2.3%) of ANXA7 protein expression compared with ANXA7 wild-type glioblastomas (P = .004; unpaired t test). ANXA7 loss of function stabilizes the EGFR protein (72%-744% increase in EGFR protein abundance) and augments EGFR transforming signaling in glioblastoma cells. ANXA7 haploinsufficiency doubles tumorigenic potential of glioblastoma cells, and combined ANXA7 knockdown and EGFR overexpression promotes tumorigenicity synergistically. The heterozygous loss of ANXA7 in approximately 75% of glioblastomas in the The Cancer Genome Atlas plus infrequency of ANXA7 mutation (approximately 6% of tumors) indicates its role as a haploinsufficiency gene. ANXA7 mRNA transcript expression, dichotomized at the median, associates with patient survival in 191 glioblastomas (log-rank P = .008; hazard ratio [HR], 0.667; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.493-0.902; 46.9 vs 74.8 deaths/100 person-years for high vs low ANXA7 mRNA expression) and with a separate group of 180 high-grade gliomas (log-rank P = .00003; HR, 0.476; 95% CI, 0.333-0.680; 21.8 vs 50.0 deaths/100 person-years for high vs low ANXA7 mRNA expression). Deletion of the ANXA7 gene associates with poor patient survival in 189 glioblastomas (log-rank P = .042; HR, 0.686; 95% CI, 0.476-0.989; 54.0 vs 80.1 deaths/100 person-years for wild-type ANXA7 vs ANXA7 deletion). CONCLUSION: Haploinsufficiency of the tumor suppressor ANXA7 due to monosomy of chromosome 10 provides a clinically relevant mechanism to augment EGFR signaling in glioblastomas beyond that resulting from amplification of the EGFR gene. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 27 (1 ULg)
A STAT3 Gene Expression Signature in Gliomas is Associated with a Poor Prognosis.
; ; et al
in Translational Oncogenomics (2007), 2
Gliomas frequently display constitutive activation of the transcription factor STAT3, a protein that is known to be able to mediate neoplastic transformation. STAT3 regulates genes that play a central ... [more ▼]
Gliomas frequently display constitutive activation of the transcription factor STAT3, a protein that is known to be able to mediate neoplastic transformation. STAT3 regulates genes that play a central role in cellular survival, proliferation, self-renewal, and invasion, and a cohort of STAT3 target genes have been found that are commonly coexpressed in human cancers. Thus, these genes likely subserve the transforming ability of constitutively activated STAT3. To determine whether the coordinated expression of STAT3 target genes is present in a subset of human gliomas, and whether this changes the biology of these tumors in patients, gene expression analysis was performed in four distinct human glioma data sets for which patient survival information was available. Coordinate expression of STAT3 targets was significantly associated with poor patient outcome in each data set. Specifically, patients with tumors displaying high expression of STAT3 targets had a shorter median survival time compared to patients whose tumors had low expression of STAT3 targets. These data suggest that constitutively activated STAT3 in gliomas can alter the biology of these tumors, and that development of targeted STAT3 inhibitors would likely be of particular benefit in treatment of this disease. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 16 (1 ULg)
Radiation enhances the invasive potential of primary glioblastoma cells via activation of the Rho signaling pathway.
; ; et al
in Journal of neuro-oncology (2006), 76(3), 227-37
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is among the most treatment-refractory of all human tumors. Radiation is effective at prolonging survival of GBM patients; however, the vast majority of GBM patients ... [more ▼]
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is among the most treatment-refractory of all human tumors. Radiation is effective at prolonging survival of GBM patients; however, the vast majority of GBM patients demonstrate progression at or near the site of original treatment. We have identified primary GBM cell lines that demonstrate increased invasive potential upon radiation exposure. As this represents a novel mechanism by which radiation-treated GBMs can fail therapy, we further investigated the identity of downstream signaling molecules that enhance the invasive phenotype of irradiated GBMs. Matrigel matrices were used to compare the extent of invasion of irradiated vs. non-irradiated GBM cell lines UN3 and GM2. The in vitro invasive potential of these irradiated cells were characterized in the presence of both pharmacologic and dominant negative inhibitors of extracellular matrix and cell signaling molecules including MMP, uPA, IGFR, EGFR, PI-3K, AKT, and Rho kinase. The effect of radiation on the expression of these signaling molecules was determined with Western blot assays. Ultimately, the in vitro tumor invasion results were confirmed using an in vivo 9L GBM model in rats. Using the primary GBM cell lines UN3 and GM2, we found that radiation enhances the invasive potential of these cells via activation of EGFR and IGFR1. Our findings suggest that activation of Rho signaling via PI-3K is required for radiation-induced invasion, although not required for invasion under physiologic conditions. This report clearly demonstrates that radiation-mediated invasion is fundamentally distinct from invasion under normal cellular physiology and identifies potential therapeutic targets to overcome this phenomenon. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 25 (0 ULg)
Survivin enhances radiation resistance in primary human glioblastoma cells via caspase-independent mechanisms.
; ; et al
in Oncogene (2004), 23(45), 7494-506
The observed radioresistance of human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) poses a major challenge, which, if overcome, may lead to significant advances in the management of this patient population. There is ... [more ▼]
The observed radioresistance of human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) poses a major challenge, which, if overcome, may lead to significant advances in the management of this patient population. There is accumulating evidence from correlative studies that Survivin expression is associated with increased malignant potential of human gliomas. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether Survivin plays a direct role in mediating radiation resistance in primary human glioma cell lines, and, if so, investigating the underlying mechanisms. Our panel of GBM cell lines included two that were relatively radiation resistant (GM20 and GM21) and two that were more radiation sensitive (GM22 and GM23), which demonstrated differential levels of Survivin expression between the two groups. Through the use of adenoviral vectors containing either dominant-negative (pAd-S(T34A)) or wild-type Suvrivin (pAd-S(WT)), we were able to inactivate or overexpress Survivin, respectively. Our findings suggest that Survivin plays a critical role in mediating radiation resistance in primary GBM cells, in part through suppression of apoptotic cell death via a caspase-independent manner. We have identified novel mechanisms by which Survivin may enhance tumor cell survival upon radiation exposure such as regulation of double-strand DNA break repair and tumor cell metabolism, which were most evident in the radiation-resistant cell lines. These differences in Survivin function both in radiation-resistant vs radiation-sensitive cell lines and in the presence vs absence of radiation exposure warrant further investigation and highlight potentially important mechanisms of radiation resistance in these tumors. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 17 (0 ULg)