References of "Caudron, I"
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See detailPlasma trypsin level in horses suffering from acute intestinal obstruction
Grulke, Sigrid ULg; Gangl, M.; Deby, Ginette ULg et al

in Veterinary Journal (2002), 163(3), 283-291

Gastrointestinal disorders in horses leading to endotoxic shock could have further consequences on other splanchnic organs such as the pancreas, as can be seen in humans suffering from septic shock. In ... [more ▼]

Gastrointestinal disorders in horses leading to endotoxic shock could have further consequences on other splanchnic organs such as the pancreas, as can be seen in humans suffering from septic shock. In this study, the range of enzymatically active trypsin (EAT) in healthy horses was established and is similar to the range observed in healthy humans. EAT values were determined in horses with acute abdominal crises on admission as well as during anaesthesia and in the postoperative phase. A significant increase in plasma EAT was found in 59% of the horses with surgical colic when compared to our established reference range. Significantly higher values were found in severe shock cases. When separated in groups according to the duration of colic before referral, significantly higher EAT values were observed in the non-survivor group compared to the survivor group of colics of short duration. EAT plasma values increased significantly during the postoperative phase, and were significantly higher in small intestine obstructions than in large bowel disorders. In human medicine, hypovolaemic or septic shock patients show an increase in pancreatic proteases. Splanchnic hypoperfusion during shock could lead to pancreatic damage resulting in trypsin liberation into the peritoneal space and an increase in plasma levels. Trypsin is able to activate inflammatory cascades and leucocytes and could play a role in multiple organ failure. Further studies are needed to evaluate the implications of changes in plasma trypsin in the disease process of equine acute abdomen and to demonstrate possible pancreatic damage. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermination of a gravity and shock score for prognosis in equine surgical colic
Grulke, Sigrid ULg; Olle, E.; Detilleux, Johann ULg et al

in Journal of Veterinary Medicine. A, Physiology, Pathology, Clinical Medicine (2001), 48(8), 465-73

A retrospective study evaluated 200 surgical colic cases. A gravity score (GS) based on four clinical parameters estimating intestinal obstruction (rectal palpation, borborygmi, abdominal distension, pain ... [more ▼]

A retrospective study evaluated 200 surgical colic cases. A gravity score (GS) based on four clinical parameters estimating intestinal obstruction (rectal palpation, borborygmi, abdominal distension, pain) and classified into three categories was established and tested to determine if it could evaluate prognosis. A shock score (SS) based on six parameters was also attributed to each case. The overall survival rate was 54%. The statistical analysis showed a significant (P < 0.01) difference in the survival rate in the different categories of the GS, as well as in the categories of the SS. A multivariate logistic regression model showed that horses with GS 3 are 10.6 times more likely to die than those with GS 1. A model combining the two scores showed an odds ratio of 7.1 for GS 3 versus GS 1, and for SS 3 versus SS 1, the odds ratio was 7.2. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of Thiopentone/Guaifenesin, Ketamine/Guaifenesin and Ketamine/Midazolam for the Induction of Horses to Be Anaesthetised with Isoflurane
Gangl, M.; Grulke, Sigrid ULg; Detilleux, Johann ULg et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (2001), 149(5), 147-51

Forty-eight horses subjected to elective surgery were randomly assigned to three groups of 16 horses. After premedication with 0.1 mg/kg acepromazine intramuscularly and 0.6 mg/kg xylazine intravenously ... [more ▼]

Forty-eight horses subjected to elective surgery were randomly assigned to three groups of 16 horses. After premedication with 0.1 mg/kg acepromazine intramuscularly and 0.6 mg/kg xylazine intravenously, anaesthesia was induced either with 2 g thiopentone in 500 ml of a 10 per cent guaifenesin solution, given intravenously at a dose of 1 ml/kg (group TG), or with 100 mg/kg guaifenesin and 2.2 mg/kg ketamine given intravenously (group KG), or with 0.06 mg/kg midazolam, and 2.2 mg/kg ketamine given intravenously (group KM). Anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane. The mean (sd) end tidal isoflurane concentration (per cent) needed to maintain a light surgical anaesthesia (stage III, plane 2) was significantly lower in group KM (0.91 [0.03]) than in groups TG (1.11 [0.03]) and KG (1.14 [0.03]). The mean (sd) arterial pressure (mmHg) was significantly lower in group KG (67.4 [2.07]) than in groups TC (75.6 [2.23]) and KM (81.0 [2.16]). There were no significant differences in the logarithm of the heart rate, recovery time or quality of recovery between the three induction groups. However, pronounced ataxia was observed in the horses of group KM, especially after periods of anaesthesia lasting less than 75 minutes. [less ▲]

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See detailCytotoxicity of Stimulated Equine Neutrophils on Equine Endothelial Cells in Culture
Benbarek, H.; Grulke, Sigrid ULg; Deby-Dupont, G. et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal (2000), 32(4), 327-33

We studied the interactions of isolated equine neutrophils with endothelial cells in culture, mimicking a situation of acute inflammation. Our main purpose was to demonstrate that the supernatant of ... [more ▼]

We studied the interactions of isolated equine neutrophils with endothelial cells in culture, mimicking a situation of acute inflammation. Our main purpose was to demonstrate that the supernatant of activated neutrophils was sufficient to damage endothelial cells. Equine endothelial cells (from carotid arteries) were covered either with increased numbers of equine neutrophils stimulated by phorbol myristate acetate, or with the supernatant collected after an in vitro stimulation of the neutrophils. Cytotoxicity was estimated by the release of preincorporated 51Cr, and by light microscopy observations. To assert the specific role of reactive oxygen species, endothelial cells were treated by the hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XOx) system (production of superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide), and by hypochlorite (product of the activity of myeloperoxidase). A strong cytotoxicity was found with stimulated neutrophils; microscopic observations indicated a loss of 50% of the endothelial cells and morphological alterations in the remaining cells. The supernatant of stimulated neutrophils was cytotoxic, in correlation with the number of neutrophils used to obtain the supernatant, and with the supernatant concentration of myeloperoxidase. The cytotoxicity of the X/XOx system was weak, but was increased by myeloperoxidase. Hypochlorite was highly toxic. We concluded that the supernatant of stimulated neutrophils was sufficient to obtain cytotoxic effects on the endothelium, in the absence of a direct contact between endothelium and neutrophils, and that this cytotoxicity was mainly linked to the activity of myeloperoxidase. From these in vitro results, it can be extrapolated that in pathologies characterised by an important activation of neutrophils, damage can spread to cells and tissues away from the inflammation focus. [less ▲]

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See detailEndocardite végétante dans l’espèce équine : revue de littérature à partir de 2 cas cliniques
Amory, Hélène ULg; Christmann, U.; Cassart, Dominique ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2000), 144

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See detailEffects of Acepromazine on Equine Polymorphonuclear Neutrophil Activation: A Chemiluminescence Study
Serteyn, Didier ULg; Benbarek, H.; Deby-dupont, G. et al

in Veterinary Journal (1999), 157(3), 332-5

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See detailPlasma Myeloperoxidase Level and Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Activation in Horses Suffering from Large Intestinal Obstruction Requiring Surgery: Preliminary Results
Grulke, Sigrid ULg; Benbarek, Hama; Caudron, I. et al

in Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research = Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire (1999), 63(2), 142-7

Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a specific enzyme of neutrophil azurophilic granules with a strong oxidative activity. Thanks to a radioimmunoassay of equine myeloperoxidase, the authors have observed a ... [more ▼]

Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a specific enzyme of neutrophil azurophilic granules with a strong oxidative activity. Thanks to a radioimmunoassay of equine myeloperoxidase, the authors have observed a significantly higher plasma level of MPO in horses operated for strangulation obstruction of the large intestine (n = 6) than in horses suffering from a non-strangulating displacement of the large intestine (n = 9). For the 2 groups, 3 phases were distinguished: reception (P1), intensive care (P2) and terminal phase (P3). The mean peak values of MPO for these phases were 121.6 ng/mL (P1), 168.6 ng/mL (P2), and 107.0 ng/mL (P3) for the non-strangulating group, and 242.6 ng/mL (P1); 426.0 ng/mL (P2), and 379.5 ng/mL (P3) for the strangulation group. The variations of the mean peak values of plasma MPO were significantly different between the 2 groups and between the different phases. A significant increase of the least square means of MPO was observed between P1 and P2. A significant decrease of the least square means of the number of circulating leukocytes was observed between P1 and P3. Polymorphonuclear neutrophil activation could play a major role in the pathogenesis of acute abdominal disease and endotoxic shock. [less ▲]

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See detailPlasma myeloperoxidase level and polymorphonuclear leukocyte activation in horses suffering from large intestinal obstruction requiring surgery: preliminary results.
Grulke, Sigrid ULg; Benbarek, H.; Caudron, I. et al

in Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research = Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire (1999), 63(2), 142-7

Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a specific enzyme of neutrophil azurophilic granules with a strong oxidative activity. Thanks to a radioimmunoassay of equine myeloperoxidase, the authors have observed a ... [more ▼]

Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a specific enzyme of neutrophil azurophilic granules with a strong oxidative activity. Thanks to a radioimmunoassay of equine myeloperoxidase, the authors have observed a significantly higher plasma level of MPO in horses operated for strangulation obstruction of the large intestine (n = 6) than in horses suffering from a non-strangulating displacement of the large intestine (n = 9). For the 2 groups, 3 phases were distinguished: reception (P1), intensive care (P2) and terminal phase (P3). The mean peak values of MPO for these phases were 121.6 ng/mL (P1), 168.6 ng/mL (P2), and 107.0 ng/mL (P3) for the non-strangulating group, and 242.6 ng/mL (P1); 426.0 ng/mL (P2), and 379.5 ng/mL (P3) for the strangulation group. The variations of the mean peak values of plasma MPO were significantly different between the 2 groups and between the different phases. A significant increase of the least square means of MPO was observed between P1 and P2. A significant decrease of the least square means of the number of circulating leukocytes was observed between P1 and P3. Polymorphonuclear neutrophil activation could play a major role in the pathogenesis of acute abdominal disease and endotoxic shock. [less ▲]

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See detailIn-Shoe Foot Force Sensor to Assess Hoof Balance Determined by Radiographic Method in Ponies Trotting on a Treadmill
Caudron, I.; Grulke, Sigrid ULg; Farnir, Frédéric ULg et al

in Veterinary Quarterly (1998), 20(4), 131-5

Adaptation of an in-foot shoe force sensor and the gait analysis system 'Fscan' makes it possible to monitor the distribution of the vertical forces under the equine foot in motion. The aim of this study ... [more ▼]

Adaptation of an in-foot shoe force sensor and the gait analysis system 'Fscan' makes it possible to monitor the distribution of the vertical forces under the equine foot in motion. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of two different trimmings on forces under the foot during the trot. The first one increased the height of the lateral hoof wall and the second one restored the mediolateral balance of the foot. These two trimmings were examined by using a radiographical method that quantifies the interphalangeal articular asymmetries due to asymmetrical bearing. The location of the centre of force of the weight-bearing foot and the distribution of the forces applied to the lateral and medial solar surfaces during a stride were analyzed. After optimal trimming, the centre of force of the weight-bearing foot tended to approach the centre of the palmar figure, perpendicular to the distal interphalangeal joint centre. The sum of the forces recorded under the lateral and medial parts respectively of the foot during one stride tended to balance out after corrective trimming. [less ▲]

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See detailRadiographic Assessment of Equine Interphalangeal Joints Asymmetry: Articular Impact of Phalangeal Rotations (Part I)
Caudron, I.; Grulke, Sigrid ULg; Farnir, Frédéric ULg et al

in Zentralblatt fur Veterinarmedizin. Reihe A (1998), 45(6-7), 319-25

This study is part of a work to develop a radiographic method that defines objectively the individual conformation of an equine digit and its appropriate trimming. The authors used isolated distal limbs ... [more ▼]

This study is part of a work to develop a radiographic method that defines objectively the individual conformation of an equine digit and its appropriate trimming. The authors used isolated distal limbs on a rotation support to study the influence of induced foot rotations on several angles measured from specific radiographs. The results of this work enabled the authors to quantify the rotation of the proximal phalanx compared to the distal, and to determine exactly the possible rotation in the distal interphalangeal joint. It was also observed that, faced with a forced rotation of the foot, the digit responded by a hoof plastic deformity, a distal interphalangeal intra-articular rotation and asymmetrical interphalangeal compressions. [less ▲]

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See detailInteractions between Lipopolysaccharides and Blood Factors on the Stimulation of Equine Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils
Benbarek, H.; Deby-Dupont, G.; Caudron, I. et al

in Veterinary Immunology & Immunopathology (1998), 64(4), 313-22

In horses, the mechanisms of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation of isolated neutrophils to produce reactive oxygen species remain unknown. We re-investigated this problem by monitoring the luminol ... [more ▼]

In horses, the mechanisms of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation of isolated neutrophils to produce reactive oxygen species remain unknown. We re-investigated this problem by monitoring the luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) produced by LPS-stimulated equine neutrophils. The neutrophils were isolated from horse blood by discontinuous density gradient centrifugation (> or = 99% neutrophils; viability > or = 98%). Increasing concentrations of Escherichia coli (E. coli) LPS (from 0.01-10 microg ml(-1)) were used to activate the neutrophils. When LPS was used directly, without another stimulator, the respiratory burst of neutrophils was not activated (N=12 horses; n=5 assays per horse). On the contrary, when LPS was added to whole blood, the neutrophils isolated from this blood were stimulated in a LPS dose-dependent manner, but polymyxin B added to whole blood suppressed this stimulation (N=2; n=6). LPS dissolved in autologous equine plasma stimulated the isolated neutrophils in a dose-dependent manner from 0.1-10 microg ml(-1) (N=5; n=12). Heat inactivation of the plasma abolished this CL increase (N=2; n=5). LPS added to equine albumin did not stimulate the isolated neutrophils (N=2; n=5). On the contrary, the addition of gamma-globulins (1 mg ml(-1)) to LPS (10 microg ml(-1)) led to the stimulation of neutrophils (N=2; n=5). We concluded that LPS did not directly stimulate the isolated equine neutrophils, but that plasmatic factors are needed for the stimulation of these cells by LPS. [less ▲]

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See detailComputerised method to measure asymetrical articular compression on digitised X-rays
Caudron, I; Henrotin, Yves ULg; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg et al

in Rivista SIDI Proceedings 5th WEVA Congress (1st part) (1998)

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See detailEquine neutrophil myeloperoxidase in plasma: design of a radio-immunoassay and first results in septic pathologies.
Deby, Ginette ULg; Grulke, Sigrid ULg; Caudron, I. et al

in Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology (1998), 66(3-4), 257-71

The strangulated intestinal pathologies of horses are accompanied by a local activation of the neutrophils, that can be revealed by measuring the tissular enzymatic activity of the granulocytic enzyme ... [more ▼]

The strangulated intestinal pathologies of horses are accompanied by a local activation of the neutrophils, that can be revealed by measuring the tissular enzymatic activity of the granulocytic enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO). To estimate the possible spreading of this neutrophil activation to the systemic circulation, we designed a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for equine neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MPO) (EC 1.11.1.7) using a specific rabbit antiserum. MPO was labeled with 1 mCi 125I by a technique of self-labeling in the presence of 10(-4) M hydrogen peroxide. The RIA was performed by incubation of 100 microl diluted antiserum, 100 microl labeled MPO (+/-30,000 cpm) and 100 microl of the reference molecule (unlabeled MPO) solution or the unknown sample, at room temperature for 18 h. The antibody-antigen complexes were isolated by double antibody precipitation. The sensitivity of the RIA was 2 ng/ml. The RIA showed good precision and accuracy with intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation 6% and 8%, respectively, for MPO concentrations ranging from 2 ng/ml to 60 ng/ml. The best sampling technique for MPO measurement in plasma was to collect blood into EDTA, which allowed us to get a plasmatic value stable with time. The mean MPO value in normal horses was 69.5 +/- 19.4 ng/ml in EDTA anticoagulated plasma (n = 48). The stress of transport and anaesthesia did not modify the mean plasmatic value of MPO. No significant increase of plasma MPO was observed in 17 horses submitted to surgery for pathologies without systemic impact. But, in 25 horses with obstructive intestinal pathologies, persistent abnormal MPO concentrations were measured (until 740 ng/ml). [less ▲]

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See detailPurification of myeloperoxidase from equine polymorphonuclear leucocytes.
Mathy, Marianne ULg; Bourgeois, E.; Grulke, Sigrid ULg et al

in Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research = Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire (1998), 62(2), 127-32

Increases of plasma concentrations of neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MPO) can be used as markers of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) activation in pathological situations (sepsis, acute lung injury, acute ... [more ▼]

Increases of plasma concentrations of neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MPO) can be used as markers of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) activation in pathological situations (sepsis, acute lung injury, acute inflammation). To develop an assay for measurement of plasma MPO in horses during the above-mentioned infectious and inflammatory conditions, MPO was purified from equine PMN isolated from blood anticoagulated with citrate. PMN were extracted in a saline milieu (0.2 M Na acetate, 1 M NaCl, pH 4.7) to eliminate most of cellular proteins. Pellets were then extracted in the same buffer containing cationic detergent (1% cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide). The supernatant was further purified by ion exchange chromatography (Hiload S Sepharose HP column 0.5 x 26 cm, equilibrated with 25 mM Na acetate, 0.2 M NaCl, pH 4.7) with a NaCl gradient (until 1 M). Most of the peroxidase activity of MPO (spectrophotometrically measured by the oxidation of orthodianisidine by hydrogen peroxide) was eluted at 0.65 M NaCl. MPO was further purified by gel filtration chromatography (Sephacryl S 200 column 2.6 x 42 cm with 25 mM Na acetate, 0.2 M NaCl, pH 4.7). MPO (specific activity: 74.3 U/mg) was obtained with a yield of 30% from the detergent extraction supernatant. Electrophoresis (non-reducing conditions) showed 3 bands identified, by comparison with human MPO, (i) the mature tetrameric enzyme (150 kDa) with 2 light and 2 heavy subunits, (ii) the precursor form (88 kDa) and (iii) a form of the heavy subunit without the prosthetic heme group (40 kDa). The mature enzyme and its precursor were glycosylated and possessed peroxidase activity. Equine MPO showed strong similarities with human and bovine MPO, with an absorption peak at 430 nm (Soret peak) characteristic of ferrimyeloperoxidase. Enzymatic activity was pH dependent (optimal value at pH 5.5). [less ▲]

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See detailFailure of Lipopolysaccharides to Directly Trigger the Chemiluminescence Response of Isolated Equine Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes
Benbarek, H.; Deby-Dupont, G.; Caudron, I. et al

in Veterinary Research Communications (1997), 21(7), 477-82

Divergent results have been reported on the effects of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on the activation of equine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). We therefore attempted to determine whether LPS alone can ... [more ▼]

Divergent results have been reported on the effects of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on the activation of equine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). We therefore attempted to determine whether LPS alone can stimulate equine PMN or whether plasma factors are necessary. PMN were isolated from citrated blood on a discontinuous density gradient of Percoll. The luminol (10(-3) mol/L)-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) of 1.25 x 10(6) cells was measured after addition of Escherichia coli LPS (0.001-10 micrograms/ml) alone or after incubation in autologous plasma (1 h, 37 degrees C). After direct stimulation with LPS, there were random variations of CL in 16 horses that were not reproducible from one sample to the next for the same horse. LPS which had been incubated in plasma gave a dose-dependent stimulation of the CL of the PMN, which did not occur if the plasma had been heat inactivated (1 h, 56 degrees C). These results indicated a role for plasma factors, which were unlikely to be cytokines, as there were no monocytes or lymphocytes in the plasma incubated with LPS, but might have been complement fragments or LPS ligands, such as LPS binding protein. Studies using specific antibodies against these factors are needed to clarify this question. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude morphométrique du sabot et du petit sésamoïde du cheval
Gabriel, Annick ULg; Detilleux, Johann ULg; Jolly, S. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (1997), 147

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See detailRadiographical Assessment of Interphalangeal Rotation in the Evaluation of Equine Digital Conformation
Caudron, I.; Grulke, Sigrid ULg; Gabriel, Annick ULg et al

in Acta Anatomica (1997), 160(2), 95-9

This study is a part of a work to design a radiographical method to objectively define the conformation of an equine digit and to assess the individual appropriate trimming of a horse. Various angles were ... [more ▼]

This study is a part of a work to design a radiographical method to objectively define the conformation of an equine digit and to assess the individual appropriate trimming of a horse. Various angles were measured directly from the phalangeal bones. The authors observed that the bone relief of the sesamoid ligament insertions on the proximal phalanx was an essential landmark to determine the phalangeal alignment. The same angles were measured from specific radiographs and made it possible to quantify the rotation imposed to the proximal phalanx. The authors also noticed that the phalangeal rotation had little influence on the radiographic image of articular asymmetry. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental model for the study by chemiluminescence of the activation of isolated equine leucocytes.
Benbarek, H.; Deby, Ginette ULg; Deby, C. et al

in Research in Veterinary Science (1996), 61(1), 59-64

The activation of human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (the respiratory burst) can be studied by measuring their chemiluminescent response. This technique was adapted to equine leucocytes to investigate the ... [more ▼]

The activation of human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (the respiratory burst) can be studied by measuring their chemiluminescent response. This technique was adapted to equine leucocytes to investigate the effects of cell number, activator concentration, enhancers of chemiluminescence, pH, temperature and inhibitors. Leucocytes were isolated from citrated blood from healthy horses and chemiluminescence was measured with a Bio-Orbit luminometer sensitive to 900 nm light. The optimal cell density for the maximal chemiluminescent response ranged from 10(6) to 10(7) leucocytes 600 microliters-1. Chemiluminescence increased as a function of temperature, and the concentrations of luminol, lucigenin and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), and was pH related (optimal pH value = 8.0 for lucigenin and 8.5 for luminol). The inhibition of chemiluminescence by 5 x 10(-5) M azide was 88 per cent for luminol and 37 per cent for lucigenin. Superoxide dismutase (100 IU) totally inhibited the chemiluminescence response. Approximately 30 per cent variability in chemiluminescence was observed under the same assay conditions, depending on the origin of the leucocytes. Based on these results, the conditions selected for the measurement of equine leucocyte chemiluminescence were: 10(6) to 10(7) leucocytes 600 microliters-1, 1 x 10(-6)M PMA, 1 mM luminol or 0.4 mM lucigenin, physiological pH (7.4) and physiological temperature (37.8 degrees C). These conditions were similar to those used for measuring the chemiluminescent response of human leucocytes. [less ▲]

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See detailInfection respiratoire équine à Bordetella bronchiseptica
Vandevenne, S.; Caudron, I.; Serteyn, Didier ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (1995), 139

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