Multiscale modeling of in the influence of oxygen during bone fracture healing.
Carlier, Aurélie ; ; et al
Poster (2012, September 17)Detailed reference viewed: 10 (0 ULg)
MOSAIC: a multiscale model of osteogenesis and sprouting angiogenesis with lateral inhibition of endothelial cells.
Carlier, Aurélie ; Geris, Liesbet ; et al
in PLoS Computational Biology (2012), 8(10), 1002724
The healing of a fracture depends largely on the development of a new blood vessel network (angiogenesis) in the callus. During angiogenesis tip cells lead the developing sprout in response to ... [more ▼]
The healing of a fracture depends largely on the development of a new blood vessel network (angiogenesis) in the callus. During angiogenesis tip cells lead the developing sprout in response to extracellular signals, amongst which vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is critical. In order to ensure a correct development of the vasculature, the balance between stalk and tip cell phenotypes must be tightly controlled, which is primarily achieved by the Dll4-Notch1 signaling pathway. This study presents a novel multiscale model of osteogenesis and sprouting angiogenesis, incorporating lateral inhibition of endothelial cells (further denoted MOSAIC model) through Dll4-Notch1 signaling, and applies it to fracture healing. The MOSAIC model correctly predicted the bone regeneration process and recapitulated many experimentally observed aspects of tip cell selection: the salt and pepper pattern seen for cell fates, an increased tip cell density due to the loss of Dll4 and an excessive number of tip cells in high VEGF environments. When VEGF concentration was even further increased, the MOSAIC model predicted the absence of a vascular network and fracture healing, thereby leading to a non-union, which is a direct consequence of the mutual inhibition of neighboring cells through Dll4-Notch1 signaling. This result was not retrieved for a more phenomenological model that only considers extracellular signals for tip cell migration, which illustrates the importance of implementing the actual signaling pathway rather than phenomenological rules. Finally, the MOSAIC model demonstrated the importance of a proper criterion for tip cell selection and the need for experimental data to further explore this. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the MOSAIC model creates enhanced capabilities for investigating the influence of molecular mechanisms on angiogenesis and its relation to bone formation in a more mechanistic way and across different time and spatial scales. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 14 (2 ULg)
Further pharmacological and genetic evidence for the efficacy of PlGF inhibition in cancer and eye disease.
; ; et al
in Cell (2010), 141(1), 178-90
Our findings that PlGF is a cancer target and anti-PlGF is useful for anticancer treatment have been challenged by Bais et al. Here we take advantage of carcinogen-induced and transgenic tumor models as ... [more ▼]
Our findings that PlGF is a cancer target and anti-PlGF is useful for anticancer treatment have been challenged by Bais et al. Here we take advantage of carcinogen-induced and transgenic tumor models as well as ocular neovascularization to report further evidence in support of our original findings of PlGF as a promising target for anticancer therapies. We present evidence for the efficacy of additional anti-PlGF antibodies and their ability to phenocopy genetic deficiency or silencing of PlGF in cancer and ocular disease but also show that not all anti-PlGF antibodies are effective. We also provide additional evidence for the specificity of our anti-PlGF antibody and experiments to suggest that anti-PlGF treatment will not be effective for all tumors and why. Further, we show that PlGF blockage inhibits vessel abnormalization rather than density in certain tumors while enhancing VEGF-targeted inhibition in ocular disease. Our findings warrant further testing of anti-PlGF therapies. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 82 (10 ULg)
Mathematical modeling of fracture healing in mice: comparison between experimental data and numerical simulation results.
Geris, Liesbet ; ; et al
in Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing (2006), 44(4), 280-9
The combined use of experimental and mathematical models can lead to a better understanding of fracture healing. In this study, a mathematical model, which was originally established by Bailon-Plaza and ... [more ▼]
The combined use of experimental and mathematical models can lead to a better understanding of fracture healing. In this study, a mathematical model, which was originally established by Bailon-Plaza and van der Meulen (J Theor Biol 212:191-209, 2001), was applied to an experimental model of a semi-stabilized murine tibial fracture. The mathematical model was implemented in a custom finite volumes code, specialized in dealing with the model's requirements of mass conservation and non-negativity of the variables. A qualitative agreement between the experimentally measured and numerically simulated evolution in the cartilage and bone content was observed. Additionally, an extensive parametric study was conducted to assess the influence of the model parameters on the simulation outcome. Finally, a case of pathological fracture healing and its treatment by administration of growth factors was modeled to demonstrate the potential therapeutic value of this mathematical model. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (0 ULg)
Tissue differentiation during fracture healing in mice: comparison of an experimental and numerical study
Geris, Liesbet ; ; et al
in Proceedings of the first thematic workshop of the European Society of Biomechanics on Mechanobiology of Cells and Tissue Engineering (2005)Detailed reference viewed: 4 (0 ULg)
Enhanced osteoclast development in collagen-induced arthritis in interferon-gamma receptor knock-out mice as related to increased splenic CD11b(+) myelopoiesis
; ; et al
in Arthritis Research & therapy (2004), 6(3), 220-231
Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice is accompanied by splenomegaly due to the selective expansion of immature CD11b(+) myeloblasts. Both disease manifestations are more pronounced in interferon-gamma ... [more ▼]
Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice is accompanied by splenomegaly due to the selective expansion of immature CD11b(+) myeloblasts. Both disease manifestations are more pronounced in interferon-gamma receptor knock-out (IFN-gammaR KO) mice. We have taken advantage of this difference to test the hypothesis that the expanding CD11b(+) splenic cell population constitutes a source from which osteoclast precursors are recruited to the joint synovia. We found larger numbers of osteoclasts and more severe bone destruction in joints of IFN-gammaR KO mice than in joints of wild-type mice. Osteoclast-like multinucleated cells appeared in splenocyte cultures established in the presence of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and stimulated with the osteoclast-differentiating factor receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) or with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Significantly larger numbers of such cells could be generated from splenocytes of IFN-gammaR KO mice than from those of wildtype mice. This was not accompanied, as might have been expected, by increased concentrations of the intracellular adaptor protein TRAF6, known to be involved in signalling of RANKL- and TNF-alpha-induced osteoclast formation. Splenocyte cultures of IFN-gammaR KO mice also produced more TNF-alpha and more RANKL than those of wild-type mice. Finally, splenocytes isolated from immunised IFN-gammaR KO mice contained comparatively low levels of pro-interleukin-1beta (pro-IL-1beta) and pro-caspase-1, indicating more extensive conversion of pro-IL-1beta into secreted active IL-1beta. These observations provide evidence that all conditions are fulfilled for the expanding CD11b(+) splenocytes to act as a source of osteoclasts and to be indirectly responsible for bone destruction in CIA. They also provide a plausible explanation for the higher susceptibility of IFN-gammaR KO mice to CIA. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (0 ULg)