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See detailRéalisation d'un spectromètre à fluorescence X portable
Carapelle, Alain ULg

Doctoral thesis (2013)

Réalisation d'un spectromètre XRF portable à haute résolution à détecteur X SDD et tube à rayons X. L'utilisation d'algorithmes spécifiques a permis de démontrer l'utilisation dans plusieurs cas pratiques ... [more ▼]

Réalisation d'un spectromètre XRF portable à haute résolution à détecteur X SDD et tube à rayons X. L'utilisation d'algorithmes spécifiques a permis de démontrer l'utilisation dans plusieurs cas pratiques. En particulier la mesure d'épaisseurs de coatings de 0.4 à 1500 nm grâce à une routine d'optimisation de la définition de la ROI du pic. Il a été montré qu'un monitoring d'un étalon pendant la mesure permet, via renormalisation du spectre, d'améliorer la répétabilité des mesures d'un facteur >2. [less ▲]

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See detailPrecise Through Wall Angular Position Sensor Compatible with Cryogenic Temperature for Space Launcher
Carapelle, Alain ULg; Martin, Nicolas ULg; Chantraine, Thierry ULg

in Sensor Letters (2013), 11(10), 1992-1995

A new rotation sensor is developed and tested for the next generation of Ariane space launchers. It aimed at measuring accurately the angular position of an admission valve (target sensitivity of 0.01° ... [more ▼]

A new rotation sensor is developed and tested for the next generation of Ariane space launchers. It aimed at measuring accurately the angular position of an admission valve (target sensitivity of 0.01°) from cryogenic (4K) to room temperature without recalibration. The measurement has to be done contactless and through pipe walls. Innovative electromagnetic application, cryogenic design and data treatment allows reaching the specifications. [less ▲]

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See detailRADIATION SHIELDING OF COMPOSITE SPACE ENCLOSURES
Atxaga, G.; Marcos, J.; Jurado, M. et al

Conference (2012, October)

Space electronic systems employ enclosures to shield sensitive components from space radiation. The purpose of shielding is to attenuate the energy and the flux of ionizing radiation as they pass through ... [more ▼]

Space electronic systems employ enclosures to shield sensitive components from space radiation. The purpose of shielding is to attenuate the energy and the flux of ionizing radiation as they pass through the shield material, such that the energy per unit mass (or dose) absorbed in silicon is sufficiently below the maximum dose ratings of electronic components. The received radiation amount varies significantly depending on several variables that include mission parameters (orbit, altitude, inclination and duration), spacecraft design (spacecraft wall thickness and panel-enclosure location). To achieve the optimum shielding with the minimum weight, all these variables have to be considered in the design. Energetic particles, mainly electrons and protons, can destroy or cause malfunctions in spacecraft electronics. The standard practice in space hardware is the use of aluminium as both a radiation shield and structural enclosure. Composite structures show potential for significant mass savings. However, conventional graphite epoxy composites are not as efficient shielding materials as aluminium because of their lower density, that is, for the same mass, composites provide 30 to 40% less radiation attenuation than aluminium. A solution is to embed high density (atomic weight) material into the laminate. This material, typically metallic material, can be dispersed in the composite or used as layers in the laminate (foils). The main objective of the “Radiation Shielding of Composite Space Enclosures” (SIDER) project is the development of the technologies and tools required to obtain lightweight, safe, robust and reliable composite structures. Two different strategies are being analysed as alternatives for radiation shielding: and he incorporation of a high density material foil. This paper will present and analyse the radiation shielding obtained by the incorporation of nanomaterials in composite structures. [less ▲]

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See detailJupiter system Ultraviolet Dynamics Explorer (JUDE), an instrument proposed for the ESA-JUICE mission
Grodent, Denis ULg; Bunce, Emma J.; Renotte, Etienne ULg et al

Report (2012)

In the proposal that follows we present a detailed concept for the science case, instrument requirements, technical design, calibration and operations, management structure, and financial plan for the ... [more ▼]

In the proposal that follows we present a detailed concept for the science case, instrument requirements, technical design, calibration and operations, management structure, and financial plan for the Jupiter system Ultraviolet Dynamics Experiment (JUDE), which will provide an outstanding solution to the UV instrumentation requirements for the JUICE mission. The JUDE instrument will represent a novel technical capability in UV instrumentation for planetary science, and will deliver the first true UV imaging capability beyond Earth orbit. The JUDE instrument design consists of two separate channels – the imaging channel (ImaC) and the spectrograph channel (SpeC), neither of which has any moving parts. This simple combination of two autonomous channels allows a true image and a spectrum at FUV wavelengths to be obtained simultaneously, allowing science goals to be realised which are not possible with a traditional scanning-slit imaging-spectrograph design The international consortium assembled to build the JUDE instrument is formed of two institutes from two European countries, and one from the United States. Prof. Denis Grodent (Université de Liège, Belgium) will act as the PI for the entire instrument team and the ULg/CSL team will provide a substantial hardware contribution to the instrument in the form of the optics, coatings, and Data Processing Unit (DPU). Dr Emma Bunce (University of Leicester, UK) will act as Co-PI for the instrument and the UoL team will supply the Micro-Channel Plate (MCP) detectors and read-out electronics. Prof. John Clarke (Co-I) of Boston University, USA will provide the grating element for the spectral channel of the instrument, in addition to instrument calibration activities. The science Co-Is are gathered from multiple institutes/nations including Belgium, UK, Germany, Italy, and the United States (see Part 1 for the full team list). Collectively, the team have decades of expertise in the areas of outer planet magnetospheres, planetary auroral and atmospheric emissions and surface UV observations from multiple platforms including Cassini UVIS, Juno UVS, Hubble Space Telescope, and numerous terrestrial missions. The team also have roles on non-UV instruments which will maximise the interpretation of the JUDE data. The two instrument channels are built on proven and robust technology with much flight heritage (e.g. Juno, Cassini, BepiColombo, IMAGE, ROSAT, Chandra, Voyager, Freja, DE-1, Swift). More specifically, the optics and focal plane detector proposed for the JUDE instrument are widely based on previous designs by CSL, at the ULg and UoL, for the FUV Spectro-Imager on the NASA IMAGE spacecraft, the UV Spectrograph on the NASA Juno mission to Jupiter, and the ROSAT Wide Field Camera. The data return from the instrument will greatly benefit the European and international science communities in planetary and terrestrial sciences, and the knowledge obtained will be generally applicable to broader astrophysics disciplines (e.g. extrasolar planetary physics). In answering the UV science objectives for the JUICE mission the JUDE instrument will clearly address the ESA Cosmic Vision Themes 1: What are the conditions for planet formation and the emergence of life? and 2: How does the Solar System work? The JUDE images (in particular) provide a clear path towards a high-level related programme of education and public outreach which the JUDE team are well equipped and keen to exploit. The JUDE instrument will contribute to all of the UV-related science objectives of JUICE, plus additional science objectives not listed in the Science Requirements Matrix. - At Ganymede and other moons (Europa and Callisto) JUDE will contribute directly to breakthroughs in the following scientific areas: 1) the characterisation of local environment, specifically through the first investigation of the morphology and variation of Ganymede’s aurora. A clear understanding of the auroral and atmospheric emissions at Ganymede will provide vital information on their formation mechanisms and will contribute to studies of the interaction of the Ganymede magnetosphere with Jupiter’s magnetosphere; 2) the first detailed observations of the satellites’ atmospheric (exosphere/ionosphere) composition and structure through measurements of their atmospheric emission and absorption spectra during multiple stellar occultation opportunities; and 3) the study of the satellites surface composition using surface reflectance measurements. The measurements at UV wavelengths are essential because they allow the study of the relationship between the satellites’ surface weathering, their atmospheres and the external environment which is mainly affected by the surrounding Jovian magnetosphere. By carefully studying processes at the surface and in the satellites’ atmospheres together, JUDE will provide the information required to distinguish between two classes of compositional heterogeneities at the satellites’ surfaces: 1) heterogeneities that arise from interaction with the external environment; 2) heterogeneities that arise from dynamical interaction with the subsurface. - With respect to Jupiter, JUDE will: 1) provide “state of the art” measurements of the Jovian atmospheric dynamics and transport through high temporal and spatial resolution auroral imaging; 2) allow a new understanding of the Jovian magnetosphere as a fast rotator through interpretation of the Jovian aurora as direct evidence for the 3D magnetosphere dynamics – a view which is continuously available in the planet’s upper atmosphere (independent of the spacecraft location within the magnetosphere); 3) investigate the magnetosphere as a giant accelerator through observations of the field-aligned current systems responsible for acceleration of electrons (and production of aurora); 4) discover the plasma sources and sinks of the moons through auroral imaging of the moon footprints in Jupiter’s atmosphere as a witness of the electromagnetic interactions taking place; 5) obtain new information on Jupiter’s atmospheric structure and composition through multiple stellar occultation opportunities. In addition, JUDE will make remote observations of the Io torus emissions and will provide the first in situ observation of the variability of the torus, over the lifetime of the mission, providing important information about the internal activity of the moon. JUDE offers a unique opportunity to obtain the first concurrent datasets of the different coupled elements of the Jupiter system: Io's atmosphere, aurora, the plasma torus, the Jovian plasma sheet and the Jovian aurora. The JUDE imaging and spectral channels are both designed to capture FUV lines from sulphur ions in the Io plasma torus. Finally, JUDE’s remote sensing capability offers an exciting opportunity to discover the Europa “plume” activity that may be present, through limb observations during flybys and from more distant observing locations. The Ganymede-focused and moon related science objectives will be addressed in the Ganymede orbit phase and during the multiple moon flybys, whilst the Jupiter science will be predominantly achieved during the Jupiter Equatorial Phases and during the high-inclination phase. The JUDE UV imager and spectrograph will produce discovery level science at Ganymede and the first true 2D UV images from Jupiter orbit. The exceptional JUICE trajectory affords many opportunities for breakthrough science discoveries in accordance with the SciRD; in addition to those, it provides unprecedented opportunities to directly witness the electromagnetic connection between Ganymede and Jupiter by making the first simultaneous UV observations of the respective atmospheres within the JUDE field-of-view. This is possible as a direct consequence of the JUDE true imaging capability. To successfully meet the science requirements outlined above, the JUDE ImaC has a spatial resolution of 20 arcsec over a circular field-of-view with 6˚ diameter, which allows a 100 km spatial resolution on Jupiter from Ganymede orbital distances (and 20 m resolution on Ganymede from 200 km, for example). JUDE’s ImaC mirrors and detector window will be covered with multilayer coatings which efficiently select a narrow bandpass from 130 to 143 nm, to allow measurements of the faint Oxygen lines at 130.4 nm and 135.6 nm in Ganymede’s (and other moon’s) atmosphere. This bandpass also allows observations of the SIV lines (between 140.5 and 142.4 nm) emitted within the Io plasma torus and in Io’s atmosphere. The bright Jovian emissions will also be suppressed within this bandpass which will necessarily limit the count rate to an acceptable level. The Ly-α line at 122 nm will be largely excluded as will the reflected sunlight longward of 150 nm. The sensitivity of the ImaC is 50 Rayleigh (at 3-sigma). The SpeC has a spectral resolution of 0.5 nm in order to meet the requirements of the SciRD, and has a field-of-view which is a 6˚ x 0.1˚ slit co-aligned with, and centred on, the ImaC circular field-of-view. The lower wavelength of the SpeC bandpass is set to ~110 nm in order to include the bright Ly-α line (useful to study the H corona) in a region of reduced transmission. The upper wavelength limit, ~195 nm, is such that transmission is slowly decreasing in the 180-195 nm spectral region, allowing measurements of the moon’s albedos beyond 165 nm, as well as the detection of compounds such as CO2, SO2, O2, O3, H2CO3 and H2O2 by comparing JUDE reflectance spectra to those obtained in laboratory studies. FUV emission lines from S and O are also observable within the bandpass and B-type stars emitting within this waveband will allow occultation experiments to be performed, to determine the composition and structure of the moon’s atmospheres and the detection of a possible Europa plume. The same is true for the Jovian atmosphere for which attenuation by H2 and hydrocarbons allows determination of the atmospheric structure. The sensitivity of the SpeC is 10 R/nm (at 3-sigma). The JUDE instrument channels: ImaC and the co-aligned SpeC, are both operating within the 110–195 nm range. Each channel has independent optics and detector elements, providing a level of redundancy such that loss of either imager or spectrograph does not constitute an entire loss of science. In contrast to more conventional (e.g. scanning or pushbroom) imaging spectrographs, JUDE can provide high time resolution (<1 second) high throughput images over a wide field of view (6° diameter) with no time variation across the field – a capability which is critical in gaining a better understanding of the complex dynamical processes taking place in the Jovian magnetosphere. The primary optic in each channel is a multilayer-coated mirror operating at normal incidence, with flight heritage in the form of the scan mirror in the Ultraviolet Spectrograph (UVS) now en-route to Jupiter onboard JUNO. The imaging channel uses a secondary mirror to of a similar type to focus the image onto the focal plane detector, while in the spectrograph channel, the secondary is a spherical, holographic grating. The spectrograph design is simple, with heritage in airglow spectrographs flown on terrestrial UV missions, and the Imaging UV Spectrograph for MAVEN. The grating element is produced by Jobin-Yvon, who have produced diffraction gratings for major missions including SOHO and HST. Each channel includes an identical microchannel plate (MCP) detector with the robust, radiation-tolerant performance required for a mission in the formidable environment of Jupiter. Such detectors are well proven, having flown on many missions including ROSAT (UoL heritage). They have also operated in the vicinity of Jupiter, in the focal plane of the UV spectrograph onboard the Voyager probes. The detector readout is a new type of capacitive division image charge readout (C-DIR; invented by Dr Jon Lapington) which offers, simultaneously, high spatial resolution and high count rate performance. Adaptive signal processing capabilities allow JUDE to accommodate the very wide dynamic range expected, from observations of Jupiter’s auroral ovals which emit with intensities of mega Rayleighs, to the weak (few tens of Rayleigh) emissions found at Ganymede. The readout structure is simple and robust, and has already been demonstrated in laboratory trials, while the electronics chain has its heritage in particle physics detectors, and has therefore been designed with radiation tolerance as a primary consideration. Pre-launch and in-flight calibrations will be implemented to assure that the JUDE data are suitable for quantitative scientific analysis. The proposed JUDE configuration successfully meets the scientific objectives of the JUICE mission. Our decision to implement an imaging channel instead of covering the MUV waveband increases the whole mission’s scientific output while remaining compliant with the MPDD. Due to its high-temporal resolution read-out system, JUDE is capable of producing volumes of data that are incompatible with the limited telemetry allocated to the UV instrument, even after a modest compression factor is applied. We therefore have proposed a mode of operation (the JUDE reference mode) which takes 1 minute snapshots over an observation opportunity (for example during a flyby sequence). Using this reference mode, and taking the maximum count rate estimates for the various targets, we find that the JUDE data volume is compliant with the tight allocation for the UV instrumentation of 40 GBytes/year The JUDE design presented in this proposal is above the mass allocation. We believe that all components of our design are necessary to reach the scientific goals of JUICE mission and that any major changes (such as the descope of a channel) will be at the considerable expense of the expected science return. However, further optimisation will be performed during the Phase A to bring JUDE into the allocated mass envelope while compromising its scientific return only slightly. We propose an efficient management structure with clearly delineated responsibilities. The Principal Investigator, Prof. Denis Grodent (Be) will take on the responsibilities as specified in the JUICE payload Announcement of Opportunity, supported closely by the Co-PI Dr Emma Bunce (UK) and by the team of Co-Investigators. The contribution of each country is represented by lead Co-Investigators: Prof. John Clarke (Boston University), Dr. Candy Hansen (PSI), and Dr Xianzhe Jia (University of Michigan), and Dr Nigel Bannister (UK) as CoI and Instrument Scientist (see Figure 1 below). The philosophy has been to assign well-defined tasks to each institute with an overall project manager to coordinate the efforts. The Consortium Project Manager (Etienne Renotte, CSL) will execute the managerial tasks relevant to the instrument development. The Product and Quality Assurance management will be implemented by all hardware contributors. Each consortium institute has a local project manager for their respective work packages, reporting to the Consortium Project Manager. The outreach potential of JUDE’s instantaneous wide field images is enormous. The potential PhD students of 2030 who we hope to educate and inspire with JUDE images and spectra are currently 3 years old; their supervisors are in secondary school. The team regards the educational aspects of the instrument and data as particularly important, and we plan a comprehensive JUDE/JUICE programme of outreach to schools and to the public, as part of the project and one which will be initiated upon selection. The national funding agency of Belgium serves as the Lead Funding Agency (LFA) for the JUDE instrument. The letters of endorsement from Belgium and United Kingdom are included in this proposal. Although the agencies endorse their respective national contributions, funding will be secured after the selection of the instrument proposal, according to the usual procedure. [less ▲]

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See detailHandheld modern computer brings new features to portable X-ray fluorescence coating thickness measurement device
Carapelle, Alain ULg; Defise, Jean-Marc ULg; Strivay, David ULg et al

in Computer Physics Communications (2011), 182(6), 1304-1306

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See detailTri automatique du verre: identification des impuretés par la méthode LIBS
Carapelle, Alain ULg; Georges, Marc ULg; Meekers, Sylvie et al

in Verre Science Technologie Industrie Produit Art Histoire (2009), 15(5), 29

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See detailEtude de la technique LIBS en vue du tri des vitrocéramiques dans les déchets verriers
Georges, Marc ULg; Carapelle, Alain ULg; Mombaerts, Johan et al

Conference (2008, November)

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See detailLow Concentration Solar Array Experiment on-board PROBA-2
Ruelle, V.; Rossi, Laurence ULg; Thibert, Tanguy ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 8th Space Power Conference (2008, September)

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See detailPortable x-ray fluorescence spectrometer for coating thickness measurement
Carapelle, Alain ULg; Fleury-Frenette, Karl ULg; Collette, Jean-Paul ULg et al

in Review of Scientific Instruments (2007), 78(12),

A handheld x-ray spectrometer has been realized and tested. The purpose of the device is to measure the thickness of coated samples in the range of 1-1500 nm in an industrial environment. Accuracy of ... [more ▼]

A handheld x-ray spectrometer has been realized and tested. The purpose of the device is to measure the thickness of coated samples in the range of 1-1500 nm in an industrial environment. Accuracy of similar to 3% has been achieved in this range with a measurement time of 1 min. Automated software has been implemented to allow utilization by a nonspecialist operator. An automated calibration procedure, based on measurements of reference samples, is used. (C) 2007 American Institute of Physics. [less ▲]

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See detailGamma-ray attenuation for characterization of future space launcher fuels
Carapelle, Alain ULg; Collette, Jean-Pierre ULg

in IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science (2006), 53(4, Part 1), 2023-2026

Gamma-ray attenuation is used to measure cryogenic mixture density. Parameters are optimized for specific space application. A simple error formula is established. The feasibility of the measurement is ... [more ▼]

Gamma-ray attenuation is used to measure cryogenic mixture density. Parameters are optimized for specific space application. A simple error formula is established. The feasibility of the measurement is demonstrated. The effect of container's walls is measured. An automatic measurement device is built. A theoretical calculation is made for the geometry of Ariane V launcher. [less ▲]

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See detailGamma-ray attenuation for measuring cryogenic slush mixture density
Carapelle, Alain ULg; Collette, Jean-Pierre ULg

in Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section B, Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms (2005), 229(1), 111-116

Gamma-ray attenuation is used to measure cryogenic mixture density. Parameters are optimized for specific space application. A simple error formula is established. The feasibility of the measurement is ... [more ▼]

Gamma-ray attenuation is used to measure cryogenic mixture density. Parameters are optimized for specific space application. A simple error formula is established. The feasibility of the measurement is demonstrated. An automatic measurement device is built. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailCaractérisation des fluides bi-phasiques cryogéniques par absorption différentielle de rayonnements gamma
Carapelle, Alain ULg

Master of advanced studies dissertation (2003)

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See detailRestoration of Flooded Documents: Past And Future Of The Activity At Liege, Belgium
Henrist, Marc; Carapelle, Alain ULg; Rabecki, Frédéric ULg

Conference (2002)

The Centre Spatial de Liege (CSL) was involved in the lyophilization process since 1991, when a large incident occurred to precious books from the National Archives. After a successful restoration ... [more ▼]

The Centre Spatial de Liege (CSL) was involved in the lyophilization process since 1991, when a large incident occurred to precious books from the National Archives. After a successful restoration, several further occasions took place up to now for freeze-drying flooded documents in vacuum chambers, normally devoted to space equipment testing. Customers range from ministries to particulars. Due to several drawbacks associated to the use of vacuum chambers in clean rooms, it has been decided to create a spin-off company (SVA - Special Vacuum Applications, Ltd) in charge of the operations, with its own equipment including a large vacuum chamber. A grant from the regional authorities has enabled to master various aspects of the document salvation process, including sterilization for the prevention of fungus and mould. The presentation describes the present and future equipment and processes associated with large scale lyophilization of damaged documents. [less ▲]

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See detailA STUDY OF VACUUM FREEZE-DRYING OF FROZEN WET PAPERS
Carapelle, Alain ULg; Henrist, Marc; Rabecki, Frédéric ULg

in Drying Technology (2001), 19(6), 1113-1124

Vacuum freeze-drying of frozen wet papers was investigated experimentally. A freeze-drying facility was built to study the process by monitoring the various physical parameters (pressure, sample ... [more ▼]

Vacuum freeze-drying of frozen wet papers was investigated experimentally. A freeze-drying facility was built to study the process by monitoring the various physical parameters (pressure, sample temperature, heater temperature, water content of the sample and cold panel temperature). A simple phenomenological model was developed to explain experimental results. The values of the physical parameters were optimized to make the process cost effective. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication des procédés de lyophilisation et de désinfections au sauvetage des documents papiers
Carapelle, Alain ULg; Henrist, Marc; Rabecki, Frédéric ULg

in Actes du Sixième congrès de l'association des cercles francophones d'histoire et d'archéologie de Belgique (2000), Tome 1

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See detailHolographic Filter applied to LCD projector for improvement of laser pointer presentation
Habraken, Serge ULg; Moreau, Vincent; Vandormael, Denis et al

in Proceedings of Spie (2000), 3951

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See detailEtude du comportement d'un laser continu à colorant
Carapelle, Alain ULg

Master's dissertation (1996)

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See detailDye Laser Wavelength Scanning
Carapelle, Alain ULg; Bastin, Thierry ULg; Garnir, Henri-Pierre ULg et al

Poster (1996)

Detailed reference viewed: 11 (7 ULg)