References of "Cappelen, J"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAtmospheric and oceanic climate forcing of the exceptional Greenland ice sheet surface melt in summer 2012
Hanna, E.; Fettweis, Xavier ULg; Mernild, S. et al

in International Journal of Climatology (2013), online

The NASA announcement of record surface melting of the Greenland ice sheet in July 2012 led us to examine the atmospheric and oceanic climatic anomalies that are likely to have contributed to these ... [more ▼]

The NASA announcement of record surface melting of the Greenland ice sheet in July 2012 led us to examine the atmospheric and oceanic climatic anomalies that are likely to have contributed to these exceptional conditions and also to ask the question of how unusual these anomalies were compared to available records. Our analysis allows us to assess the relative contributions of these two key influences to both the extreme melt event and ongoing climate change. In 2012, as in recent warm summers since 2007, a blocking high pressure feature, associated with negative NAO conditions, was present in the mid-troposphere over Greenland for much of the summer. This circulation pattern advected relatively warm southerly winds over the western flank of the ice sheet, forming a ‘heat dome’ over Greenland that led to the widespread surface melting. Both sea-surface temperature and sea-ice cover anomalies seem to have played a minimal role in this record melt, relative to atmospheric circulation. Two representative coastal climatological station averages and several individual stations in south, west and north-west Greenland set new surface air temperature records for May, June, July and the whole (JJA) summer. The unusually warm summer 2012 conditions extended to the top of the ice sheet at Summit, where our reanalysed (1994–2012) DMI Summit weather station summer (JJA) temperature series set new record high mean and extreme temperatures in 2012; 3-hourly instantaneous 2-m temperatures reached an exceptional value of 2.2°C at Summit on 11 July 2012. These conditions translated into the record observed ice-sheet wide melt during summer 2012. However, 2012 seems not to be climatically representative of future ‘average’ summers projected this century. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 30 (3 ULg)
Full Text
See detailGreenland Ice Sheet [in Arctic Report Card 2012]
Box, J.; Cappelen, J.; Chen, C. et al

Report (2013)

- The duration of melting at the surface of the ice sheet in summer 2012 was the longest since satellite observations began in 1979, and a rare, near-ice sheet-wide surface melt event was recorded by ... [more ▼]

- The duration of melting at the surface of the ice sheet in summer 2012 was the longest since satellite observations began in 1979, and a rare, near-ice sheet-wide surface melt event was recorded by satellites for the first time. - The lowest surface albedo observed in 13 years of satellite observations (2000-2012) was a consequence of a persistent and compounding feedback of enhanced surface melting and below normal summer snowfall. - Field measurements along a transect (the K-Transect) on the western slope of the ice sheet revealed record-setting mass losses at high elevations. - A persistent and strong negative North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index caused southerly air flow into western Greenland, anomalously warm weather and the spatially and temporally extensive melting, low albedo and mass losses observed in summer 2012. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 69 (0 ULg)
Full Text
See detailGreenland Ice Sheet - Arctic Report Card: Update for 2011
Box, J.; Cappelen, J.; Chen, C. et al

Report (2011)

A persistent and strong negative North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index was responsible for southerly air flow along the west of Greenland, which caused anomalously warm weather in winter 2010-11 and ... [more ▼]

A persistent and strong negative North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index was responsible for southerly air flow along the west of Greenland, which caused anomalously warm weather in winter 2010-11 and summer 2011. The area and duration of melting at the surface of the ice sheet in summer 2011 were the third highest since 1979. The lowest surface albedo observed in 12 years of satellite observations (2000-2011) was a consequence of enhanced surface melting and below normal summer snowfall. The area of marine-terminating glaciers continued to decrease, though at less than half the rate of the previous 10 years. In situ measurements revealed near record-setting mass losses concentrated at higher elevations on the western slope of the ice sheet, and at an isolated glacier in southeastern Greenland. Total ice sheet mass loss in 2011 was 70% larger than the 2003-09 average annual loss rate of -250 Gt y-1. According to satellite gravity data obtained since 2002, ice sheet mass loss is accelerating. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 53 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailGreenland [in "State of the Climate in 2010"]
Box, J. E.; Ahlstrøm, A.; Cappelen, J. et al

in Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society [= BAMS] (2011), 92(6), 161-171

Record warm air temperatures were observed over Greenland in 2010. This included the warmest year on record for Greenland's capital, Nuuk, in at least 138 years. The duration of the melt period on ... [more ▼]

Record warm air temperatures were observed over Greenland in 2010. This included the warmest year on record for Greenland's capital, Nuuk, in at least 138 years. The duration of the melt period on Greenland’s inland ice sheet was exceptional, being 1 month longer than the average over the past 30 years, and led to an extended period of amplified summer melt. All of the additional melt water very likely contributing to a faster rate of crevasse widening. Glacier loss along the Greenland margins was also exceptional in 2010, with the largest single glacier area loss (110 square miles, at Petermann glacier) equivalent to an area four times that of Manhattan Island. There is now no doubt that Greenland ice losses have not just increased above past decades, but have accelerated. The implication is that sea level rise projections will again need to be revised upward. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (0 ULg)
Full Text
See detailGreenland [in Arctic Report Card 2010]
Box, J.; Cappelen, J.; Decker, D. et al

Report (2010)

Record warm air temperatures were observed over Greenland in 2010. This included the warmest year on record for Greenland's capital, Nuuk, in at least 138 years. The duration of the melt period on ... [more ▼]

Record warm air temperatures were observed over Greenland in 2010. This included the warmest year on record for Greenland's capital, Nuuk, in at least 138 years. The duration of the melt period on Greenland’s inland ice sheet was exceptional, being 1 month longer than the average over the past 30 years, and led to an extended period of amplified summer melt. All of the additional melt water very likely contributing to a faster rate of crevasse widening. Glacier loss along the Greenland margins was also exceptional in 2010, with the largest single glacier area loss (110 square miles, at Petermann glacier) equivalent to an area four times that of Manhattan Island. There is now no doubt that Greenland ice losses have not just increased above past decades, but have accelerated. The implication is that sea level rise projections will again need to be revised upward. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 58 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailGreenland [in "State of the Climate in 2009"]
Box, J.; Bhattacharya, I.; Cappelen, J. et al

in Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society [= BAMS] (2010), 91(6), 121-124

The summer minimum ice extent in the Arctic was the third-lowest recorded since 1979. The 2008/09 boreal snow cover season marked a continuation of relatively shorter snow seasons, due primarily to an ... [more ▼]

The summer minimum ice extent in the Arctic was the third-lowest recorded since 1979. The 2008/09 boreal snow cover season marked a continuation of relatively shorter snow seasons, due primarily to an early disappearance of snow cover in spring. Preliminary data indicate a high probability that 2009 will be the 19th consecutive year that glaciers have lost mass. Below normal precipitation led the 34 widest marine terminating glaciers in Greenland to lose 101 km2 ice area in 2009, within an annual loss rate of 106 km2 over the past decade. Observations show a general increase in permafrost temperatures during the last several decades in Alaska, northwest Canada, Siberia, and Northern Europe. Changes in the timing of tundra green-up and senescence are also occurring, with earlier green-up in the High Arctic and a shift to a longer green season in fall in the Low Arctic. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 47 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailHydrologic response of the Greenland ice sheet: the role of oceanographic warming
Hanna, E.; Cappelen, J.; Fettweis, Xavier ULg et al

in Hydrological Processes (2009), 23(1), 7-30

The response of the Greenland ice sheet to ongoing climate change remains an area of great uncertainty, with most previous studies having concentrated on the contribution of the atmosphere to the ice mass ... [more ▼]

The response of the Greenland ice sheet to ongoing climate change remains an area of great uncertainty, with most previous studies having concentrated on the contribution of the atmosphere to the ice mass-balance signature. Here we systematically assess for the first time the influence of oceanographic changes on the ice sheet. The first part of this assessment involves a statistical analysis and interpretation of the relative changes and variations in sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) and air temperatures around Greenland for the period 1870-2007. This analysis is based on HadISST1 and Reynolds OI.v2 SST analyses, in situ SST and deeper ocean temperature series, surface-air-temperature records for key points located around the Greenland coast, and examination of atmospheric pressure and geopotential height from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. Second, we carried out a novel sensitivity experiment in which SSTs were perturbed as input to a regional climate model, and document the resulting effects on simulated Greenland climate and surface mass balance. We conclude that sea-surface/ocean temperature forcing is not sufficient to strongly influence precipitation/snow accumulation and melt/runoff of the ice sheet. Additional evidence from meteorological reanalysis suggests that high Greenland melt anomalies of summer 2007 are likely to have been primarily forced by anomalous advection of warm air masses over the ice sheet and to have therefore had a more remote atmospheric origin. However, there is a striking correspondence between ocean warming and dramatic accelerations and retreats of key Greenland outlet glaciers in both southeast and southwest Greenland during the late 1990s and early 2000s. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailGreenland [in "State of the Climate in 2008"]
Box, J.; Bai, L.; Benson, R. et al

in Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS) (2009), 90

An abnormally cold winter across the southern half of Greenland led to substantially higher west coast sea ice thickness and concentration. Even so, record-setting summer temperatures around Greenland ... [more ▼]

An abnormally cold winter across the southern half of Greenland led to substantially higher west coast sea ice thickness and concentration. Even so, record-setting summer temperatures around Greenland, combined with an intense melt season (particularly across the northern ice sheet), led the 2008 Greenland climate to be marked by continued ice sheet mass deficit and floating ice disintegration. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (3 ULg)