References of "Caneva, Stefano"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailArsinoe II come dea attraverso le sue epiclesi cultuali
Caneva, Stefano ULg

in Athenaeum : Studii Periodici di Letteratura e Storia (in press)

Dopo una introduzione storica e storiografica sul significato dei culti regali ellenistici, l’intervento esamina alcuni dei nomi divini attribuiti ad Arsinoe II nelle fonti letterarie e documentarie, con ... [more ▼]

Dopo una introduzione storica e storiografica sul significato dei culti regali ellenistici, l’intervento esamina alcuni dei nomi divini attribuiti ad Arsinoe II nelle fonti letterarie e documentarie, con l’eccezione dell’epiclesi esclusiva Philadelphos. Scopo della ricerca è 1) una valutazione delle strategie di inserimento della nuova dea nel pantheon tradizionale; 2) una riflessione sull’autoconsapevolezza degli antichi in relazione alla propria tradizione religiosa, per come essa si manifesta attraverso l’oculata manipolazione di un elemento essenziale nella definizione della divinità, qual è il nome divino. Un’Appendice elenca, in tre tabelle, tutte le denominazioni greche di Arsinoe II (esclusa Philadelphos), fornendo indicazioni sulla fonte, la sua collocazione spaziale e temporale e sulla divinità tradizionale di riferimento. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 48 (6 ULg)
Full Text
See detailFrom Alexander to the Theoi Adelphoi: Foundation and Legitimation of a Dynasty
Caneva, Stefano ULg

Book published by Peeters (in press)

This book provides a cultural and social history of the rise and legitimation of the concept of dynastic continuity in the early history of the Ptolemaic Empire. The scope of the study is therefore ... [more ▼]

This book provides a cultural and social history of the rise and legitimation of the concept of dynastic continuity in the early history of the Ptolemaic Empire. The scope of the study is therefore neither to provide a general overview of third-century Ptolemaic history, nor to discuss in detail the administrative and economic structures of the Ptolemaic state. Rather, its purpose is to investigate the ways by which the first Ptolemies negotiated and constructed a representation of their power as a dynastic house aspiring to universal dominion, protected by the gods and legitimately continuing the heritage of the Macedonian and Egyptian monarchies. It is argued that they managed to do so by operating within different socio-cultural and ethnic milieus and by pursuing their strategies on a two-fold level: on the one hand, by continuously reshaping the relationship between the present events of the ruling house and its historical and mythical past, so as to adapt it to new political and cultural agendas; on the other hand, by shifting the border between the spheres of human and divine power in order to ensure themselves the legitimacy and loyalty stemming from religious thought and practice. Discussed evidence comprises Greek and Egyptian sources, literary and documentary texts, iconographic and archaeological evidence from the Macedonian conquest of Egypt under Alexander to the ascension of Ptolemy III Euergetes. Whenever possible, a new, encompassing evaluation of old evidence has gained new impetus from the intensive analysis of newly published sources. Secondly, the complex cultural and social factors operating in the construction and legitimation of the Ptolemaic dynasty have been discussed by drawing on the contribution of up-to-date scholarship in cultural and religious history as well as in sociology. The rooting of Ptolemaic power in Egypt and the Eastern Mediterranean is studied as the movement from the immediate but unstable right of conquest established by Alexander, and subsequently claimed by the satrap Ptolemy, to the development of a mature and coherent system of power practices and representations. The structure of the book is meant to provide readers with a chronological and thematic discussion ranging from Alexander’s conquest of Egypt to the first years of Ptolemy III. However, the six chapters that constitute this study can also be read separately as they are conceived as the monographic treatment of major moments or aspects of the cultural, political, and religious history of the early Hellenistic period. Chapter 1 deals with the premises of Ptolemaic power in Egypt by focusing on the time of Alexander’s conquest. The implications of Alexander’s sonship to Zeus Ammon in propaganda and in religion are reviewed by drawing attention to the plurality of audiences (Macedonians, Greeks, Egyptians) for which this motif was conceived and used. Chapter 2 discusses the conflicting patterns of legitimation in the age of the Successors and how Ptolemy exploited them in his rise from satrap to king. Some seminal moments of Ptolemy’s career are re-examined: the acquisition of Alexander’s corpse as a source of embodied legitimacy; the interactions between the leader and pre-existing Macedonian and Egyptian elites as they appear in assembly scenes of Greek historiography and in the hieroglyphic Satrap stele; Ptolemy’s help to the Rhodians against Antigonus and Demetrius and the entanglement between royal charisma and religious honours. Chapter 3 focuses on the figure of Dionysus in Ptolemaic religion and culture from a twofold perspective. Firstly, the chapter provides an innovative analysis of the religious and ideological role of Dionysus in Ptolemy II’s Alexandrian procession described by Callixeinus of Rhodes. Secondly, it aims at offering a contribution for a reappraisal of the figure of Dionysus, of his cults and of the role of his figure within the larger context of the Ptolemaic Empire in the third century BC. Chapter 4 discusses the patterns of divinization of Arsinoe II within the royal couple through the most complete documentary dossier collected thus far on the subject. Rather than constituting the aim of the research, the debate concerning the chronology of Arsinoe’s death and divinization has provided the rough framework for a new investigation of how the image of a solid royal couple was invented and spread in religious life and in propaganda. Diachronic developments in the configurations of the dynastic couple are traced through Greek and Egyptian evidence and discussed in relation to the changing of political agendas during the reign of Ptolemy II. Chapter 5 studies the contribution of Ptolemy III to the construction of Ptolemaic dynastic continuity through old and new evidence, notably by providing fresh observations concerning the recently published decree of Alexandria (243 BC) for the understanding of Ptolemaic royal festivals in general and, more in particular, for the history of the festival Ptolemaia in the second half of the 3rd century BC. Chapter 6 breaks with chronological continuity to trace, through literary and documentary evidence from the Roman period, the development of the tradition envisaging Alexander’s body as a talismanic relic protecting the city of Alexandria. The purpose of this epilogue is to provide a methodological essay of interpretation of cultural traditions in the longue durée, when patterns of continuity developed under the Ptolemies were separated from their original context of diffusion and consequently were re-used to shape the civic identity of Alexandria within the new and broader framework of the Roman Empire. Although focus on the construction of a dynasty as a sequence of legitimate, kindred holders of monarchic power makes Ptolemaic kings and queens the central object of this study, it is argued that sovereigns cannot be considered as the sole holders of the initiative in the political, ideological and religious processes relating to the construction of royal and dynastic imagery. On the contrary, it appears that social agents other than the holders of supreme leadership not only reacted to top-down stimulation, but they also constructed, for their own use, representations of the monarchs that interacted with the message issued by the central power. From this perspective, therefore, dynastic continuity results from the intertextual combination of a variety of ideological and religious motifs stemming from different agents and occasions of communication. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 54 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailConfigurations publiques de Dionysos dans le cadre de l'hellénisation de Rome
Caneva, Stefano ULg

in Pirenne, Vinciane; Bonnet, Corinne; Pironti, Gabriella (Eds.) Dieux des Grecs, dieux des Romains : panthéons en dialogue à travers l’histoire et l’historiographie (in press)

En 140/39 av. J.-C., une mission romaine composée, entre autres, de Scipion Emilien et du philosophe Panétios visita les alliés orientaux de Rome et se rendit notamment à Alexandrie. Le roi Ptolémée VIII ... [more ▼]

En 140/39 av. J.-C., une mission romaine composée, entre autres, de Scipion Emilien et du philosophe Panétios visita les alliés orientaux de Rome et se rendit notamment à Alexandrie. Le roi Ptolémée VIII y accueillit officiellement ces hôtes prestigieux, vêtu d’un habit étrange : un chiton long et subtil, dont les auteurs anciens réfèrent unanimement l’effet efféminé et caricatural, au point de susciter le rire des Romains et une condamnation du luxe effréné et décadent du royaume égyptien par comparaison avec la sobriété romaine. Il a fallu attendre une étude de H. Heinen en 1983 pour reconnaître, d’une part, l’envergure idéologique du lien entre la tenue de Ptolémée VIII – en fait empruntée à l’iconographie hellénistique de Dionysos – et la mise en scène officielle de la tryphè et du pouvoir royal et, de l’autre, le sens politique de la représentation caricaturale qu’en donna probablement déjà Panétios, représentation qui fut relayée et amplifiée par toute une tradition historiographique philo-romaine, qui se développa tout au long de la conquête romaine de la Méditerranée et ensuite à l’occasion du conflit entre Octavien et Antoine. Cette tradition nous a transmis, par le biais des auteurs de l’époque impériale, un discours fondé sur l’opposition entre Rome (et l’Italie), vertueuse source de citoyens et de soldats, et l’Orient dégénéré. Dans un tel cadre, Dionysos et le dionysisme sont sollicités pour servir à la construction d’un modèle accusatoire contre les ennemis de Rome, incarnant le désordre dans une dimension à la foi individuelle et institutionnelle. Mais est-ce que cette vision idéologique nous donne un portrait satisfaisant des rapports réels entre Rome et Dionysos / Bacchos / Liber Pater ? En partant de cette question, je propose dans ma contribution une approche visant à analyser, à l’aide de sources aussi littéraires que documentaires, les contextes de contact entre Rome et Dionysos de l’époque hellénistique au début du Principat, pour essayer de mettre en relief les relations entre, d’une part, la répulsion et le refus idéologiques du dionysisme, de l’autre les démarches d’appropriation et d’adaptation, à la culture romaine, de traits caractérisant les cultes hellénistiques de Dionysos et leurs utilisation dans la mise en forme des pratiques du pouvoir et de leurs représentations. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 34 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCourtly Love, Stars, and Power: The Queens in Third Century Royal Couples, through Poetry and Epigraphic Texts
Caneva, Stefano ULg

in Harder, Annette; Regtuit, Remco; Wakker, G. C. (Eds.) Hellenistic Poetry in Context. (in press)

I discuss the role of women and erōs in court poetry, by focusing on the ruling pair, i.e. the couple par excellence, and arguing that a gentle, reciprocal love within the bonds of marriage is presented ... [more ▼]

I discuss the role of women and erōs in court poetry, by focusing on the ruling pair, i.e. the couple par excellence, and arguing that a gentle, reciprocal love within the bonds of marriage is presented as a crucial value, ensuring wealth and social order as well as the continuity of the dynasty itself. Because court life is a fashionable source of models for the elite, the poetic motif of requited love also influences the ideal depiction of love outside the ruling pair. After focusing on how internal patterns of relationship between characters shape the role of the queen in Alexandrian court poetry, I turn to non-literary, epigraphic evidence, in order to show how poetic representations of royal love integrate into a wider ideological program. Although my study mainly concerns Ptolemaic ruling pairs, I discuss some epigraphic parallels from the Seleucid dynasty as well, so that some general observations can be made on early Hellenistic queenship. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 65 (11 ULg)
Full Text
See detailThey were Soldiers. Civil War, Lieux de Mémoire, and Anonymity through Aeschylus’ Persae and Seven against Thebes.
Caneva, Stefano ULg

in Hanratty, Conor; Ioannidou, Eleftheria (Eds.) Epidaurus Encounters II. Greek Drama, Ancient Theatre and Modern Performance (in press)

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (10 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailGiven to a Deity? Religious and Social Reappraisal of Human Consecrations in the Hellenistic and Roman East
Caneva, Stefano ULg; Delli Pizzi, Aurian ULg

in Classical Quarterly (2015)

Various cases of human beings ‘dedicated’ to deities are attested in Greek epigraphic evidence. Are these kinds of offerings comparable to the dedication of inanimate objects? Besides, does the fact that ... [more ▼]

Various cases of human beings ‘dedicated’ to deities are attested in Greek epigraphic evidence. Are these kinds of offerings comparable to the dedication of inanimate objects? Besides, does the fact that someone is said to be ‘sacred’ to a specific deity necessarily involve that he went through a process of dedication? This article aims at providing a global picture of different situations in which processes of dedications took place. Among the several issues that are tackled, the cornerstone of this article consists of two questions: for what purposes did some people decide to consecrate a human being to a deity and what were the consequences for the consecrated individuals on religious and social levels? Different categories of persons will be contrasted, in terms of processes through which they acquire their new status but also in terms of the freedom/lack of freedom which is conveyed by this new status. It will also be shown that, as far as method is concerned, it is necessary to complete a lexical analysis with a contextual perspective for a deeper understanding of the problem. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 217 (11 ULg)
Full Text
See detailClassical and Hellenistic statuettes of the so–called “Temple Boys”: A religious and social reappraisal.
Caneva, Stefano ULg

in Terranova, Chiara (Ed.) La presenza dei bambini nelle religioni del Mediterraneo antico. La vita e la morte, i rituali e i culti tra archeologia, antropologia e storia delle religioni (2014)

Our paper reconsiders the religious and social significance of a corpus of statuettes representing crouching children with jewels and amulets, principally dedicated in shrines on Cyprus from about the ... [more ▼]

Our paper reconsiders the religious and social significance of a corpus of statuettes representing crouching children with jewels and amulets, principally dedicated in shrines on Cyprus from about the mid–fifth century BC down to the Hellenistic period. The most plausible interpretation of these statues, that of votive dedications aiming to evoke divine protection on small children, will be substantiated by discussion of discovery contexts and of the significance of amulets and other objects decorating these statues, as well as by broader considerations on the place of small children in temples. The variety of configurations of these statues will also be taken into account in order to discuss the possibility of various interpretations instead of one single interpretative paradigm. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (0 ULg)
Full Text
See detailRuler cults in practice: Sacrifices and libations for Arsinoe Philadelphos, from Alexandria and beyond
Caneva, Stefano ULg

in Muccioli, Federicomaria; Gnoli, Tommaso (Eds.) Divinizzazione, culto del sovrano e apoteosi. Tra Antichità e Medioevo (2014)

In this paper I discuss the dossier of cults for Arsinoe II Philadelphos to investigate how the worship of a sovereign could concretely become a constitutive part of the religious life of the communities ... [more ▼]

In this paper I discuss the dossier of cults for Arsinoe II Philadelphos to investigate how the worship of a sovereign could concretely become a constitutive part of the religious life of the communities composing a kingdom. I argue that in order to let the worship of a sovereign survive the political context in which it was first conceived, a certain degree of freedom and of individual initiative must have been encouraged among potential worshippers, so that the cults could become part of a durable shared religious and political identity connecting the individual with the collective sphere. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (1 ULg)
Full Text
See detailL’apport des cultes royaux hellénistiques au débat sur la polis religion dans le monde hellénistique
Caneva, Stefano ULg

Conference (2014, January 25)

La contribution suivante attire l’attention sur quelques enjeux du projet de recherche mené par l’Auteur, intitulé « Ritual Practicalities of Hellenistic Ruler Cults: A ‘Practice-Turn’ in the religious ... [more ▼]

La contribution suivante attire l’attention sur quelques enjeux du projet de recherche mené par l’Auteur, intitulé « Ritual Practicalities of Hellenistic Ruler Cults: A ‘Practice-Turn’ in the religious and social history of the Hellenistic period ». Le but de ce projet est de combler une lacune dans la recherche sur les cultes royaux hellénistiques en déplaçant l’attention de leurs justifications idéologiques, qui a occupé jusqu’ici une position prioritaire dans les études, à la pratique religieuse et à ses fondements sociaux. L’attention se concentrera donc sur les actes cultuels, en se posant la question de savoir comment, par qui et dans quels contextes les rituels pour les souverains furent intégrés dans la vie religieuse des communautés hellénistiques. Il s’agira de combiner l’histoire religieuse (usage, adaptation et innovation des traditions religieuses antérieures et d’éléments particuliers du culte en relation avec les cultes royaux) et l’histoire sociale et politique (les cultes royaux dans les dynamiques locales et globales ; développements diachroniques). L’aspect sur lequel se concentre la communication présente concerne la place méthodologique de l’étude des cultes royaux dans le débat sur la « polis religion » et l’ « individualisation du religieux » dans le monde gréco-romain. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 13 (1 ULg)
Full Text
See detailEdipo alla tavola rotonda della decolonizzazione. The Gods Are not to Blame di Ola Rotimi
Caneva, Stefano ULg

in Pinotti, Patrizia; Stella, Massimo (Eds.) Edipo. Margini confini periferie (2013)

Detailed reference viewed: 7 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailGiulio Massimilla (ed.), Callimaco, Aitia. Libro terzo e quarto, «Biblioteca di studi antichi» 92, Pisa/Roma, Fabrizio Serra editore, 2010.
Caneva, Stefano ULg

in Athenaeum : Studii Periodici di Letteratura e Storia (2013), 101.I-II

Detailed reference viewed: 124 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailJ.E. Skinner, The Invention of Greek Ethnography: From Homer to Herodotus. Oxford, University Press, 2012.
Caneva, Stefano ULg

in Bryn Mawr Classical Review [=BMCR] (2013), 2013.05.05

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLa face cachée des intrigues de cour. Prolégomènes à une étude du rôle des femmes royales dans les royaumes hellénistiques
Caneva, Stefano ULg

in Mètis : Revue d’Anthropologie du Monde Grec Ancien : Philologie, Histoire, Archéologie (2013)

Dans mon intervention je me propose de partir des représentations du rôle des femmes dans les récits stéréotypés sur la dégénération des cours hellénistiques pour réfléchir sur les « dessous » politiques ... [more ▼]

Dans mon intervention je me propose de partir des représentations du rôle des femmes dans les récits stéréotypés sur la dégénération des cours hellénistiques pour réfléchir sur les « dessous » politiques (institutionnels et idéologiques) que ces récits ne sont pas à même, ou ne veulent pas, révéler. J’articulerai mon discours suivant quatre mots-clés : complot ; basilissa ; Aphrodite ; euergétisme. Le complot, la première activité qui caractérise les reines hellénistiques dans l’historiographie, dépend en fait souvent de l’incapacité des auteurs grecs de comprendre en sens politique le rôle des femmes dans une tradition, celle de la Macédoine, qui est différente de celle qu’ont développée les poleis de la Grèce péninsulaire. Par conséquent, les intrigues amoureuses dont les reines sont protagonistes peuvent être lues, dans la plupart des cas, comme une ressource narrative topique, employée pour palier à un déficit d’interprétation politique. Pourtant, l’insuffisance du récit historiographique n’est pas toujours un symptôme de naïveté : l’analyse de certains cas spécifiques montre que la topique de la femme qui utilise la séduction pour tramer des complots à l’intérieur de la cour fonctionne parfois comme un instrument de propagande, visant à effacer les vraies motivations politiques des guerres et des conspirations. Mais propagande diffamatoire mise à part, où faut-il chercher les vrais enjeux du rôle politique des reines hellénistiques ? Un premier problème se pose parce que, dans le vocabulaire politique de l’hellénisme, le féminin basilissa n’a pas une fonction équivalente au masculin basileus. Alors que celui-ci renvoie à l’unicité institutionnelle du roi, basilissa peut être la reine, en tant que femme du roi (terme qui se révèle déjà ambigu dans le système de polygamie traditionnelle argéade), aussi bien que d’autres femmes royales, à partir des princesses jusqu’aux hetairai royales. A l’unicité institutionnelle du basileus, s’oppose donc la pluralité, ouverte à plusieurs types de relations familiales, des basilissai. Ce décalage linguistique et politique a notamment des conséquences sur notre compréhension des sources, d’autant plus quand il s’agit de la traduction regina dans l’historiographie romaine sur l’hellénisme. Les reines hellénistiques sont presque toujours associées à Aphrodite. Pourquoi ? Une comparaison entre Theocr. XVII et le dossier épigraphique sur Laodike III montrera les liens entre cette identification avec la déesse de la séduction, évoquant aussi bien la fécondité des nouvelles épouses, et la ratification idéologique d’un modèle de légitimité de la reine à l’intérieur de la cour et de la société. Ce modèle s’appuie sur une relation entre l’ euérgetisme de la reine, c’est à dire son intervention résolutive à la fois dans la vie de la cour et dans les relations politiques avec les poleis et les temples, et la diffusion des cultes en son honneur. Mais, comme pour les rois, l’euergétisme n’a pas seulement un côté idéologique. Les reines hellénistiques peuvent agir comme des bienfaiteurs parce qu’elles peuvent disposer de rentes et d’un certain niveau d’indépendance économique et politique, selon un statut dont les modèles seront à distinguer suivant plusieurs traditions, de celle de la Macédoine à celles de la Perse et de l’Égypte, en passant par des cultures de contact, comme celles qu’a développées l’histoire séculaire des dynasties de l’Asie Mineure. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 46 (7 ULg)
See detailRenewed in Translation: The Persea Tree from Egypt to the Greeks
Caneva, Stefano ULg

Conference (2013, February 07)

The paper investigates continuities and ruptures in the meaning and use of the sacred persea tree from Pharaonic to Graeco-Roman tradition, by focusing on a period from III cent. BC to late Antiquity.

Detailed reference viewed: 35 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailIl coro del re. Capo e comprimari nella storiografia e nell’epos fra IV e III secolo a.C.
Caneva, Stefano ULg

in Quaderni di Storia (2013), 77

The paper investigates court thiasoi and banquet scenes as well as the general councils of the Macedonian army in the historiography on Alexander and the Successors and in Apollonius’ Argonautica in order ... [more ▼]

The paper investigates court thiasoi and banquet scenes as well as the general councils of the Macedonian army in the historiography on Alexander and the Successors and in Apollonius’ Argonautica in order to show parallels in the representation of the relations between the king and his entourage. The studied cases (Alexander in Asia; Ptolemy in Memphis; Jason in the Argonauts’ councils) allow a reappraisal of the work of the historian Cleitarchus and the poet Apollonius Rhodius and show a common portrait of the leader as primus inter pares. In epic as in historiography, the leader is chosen by the hetairoi on the ground of his outstanding leading skills and his role as a religious chief makes him play a function similar to that of a priest in a thiasos. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 48 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailBeate Dignas, R.R.R. Smith (eds), Historical & Religious Memory in the Ancient World, Oxford, University Press, 2012.
Caneva, Stefano ULg

in Kernos : Revue Internationale et Pluridisciplinaire de Religion Grecque (2013), 26

Detailed reference viewed: 9 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailArsinoe divinizzata al fianco del re vivente Tolemeo II. Uno studio di propaganda greco-egiziana (270-246 a.C.)
Caneva, Stefano ULg

in Historia. Zeitschrif für Alte Geschichte (2013), 62.3

A review of the Greek and Egyptian sources showing the deceased and divinized queen Arsinoe II on the side of the living king Ptolemy II. In addition to the cults of Arsinoe under the kingdom of her ... [more ▼]

A review of the Greek and Egyptian sources showing the deceased and divinized queen Arsinoe II on the side of the living king Ptolemy II. In addition to the cults of Arsinoe under the kingdom of her brother and husband Ptolemy II, I am interested to re-discuss the famous passage of Chremonides' decree where Arsinoe is mentioned among the models of Ptolemy's commitment to Greek freedom. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 39 (6 ULg)
Full Text
See detailThe agyieus pillar, Egyptian legal papyri, and the cult of Arsinoe Philadephos in the streets of Alexandria
Caneva, Stefano ULg

E-print/Working paper (2013)

This paper is divided into two sections. The first aims to offer a thorough discussion of the agyieus and of types of altar for Arsinoe Philadelphos as well as of the offerings devoted to her in the ... [more ▼]

This paper is divided into two sections. The first aims to offer a thorough discussion of the agyieus and of types of altar for Arsinoe Philadelphos as well as of the offerings devoted to her in the Ptolemaic kingdom. The second explores the relationship that exists between the agyieus and the creation of cultic double names of Arsinoe in the streets of Alexandria. By combining the evidence on Arsinoe’s altars with a set of legal papyri attesting her divine names in Alexandria, I argue that in the Ptolemaic capital, the agyieis had a twofold function. They served firstly, as cult places for Arsinoe and secondly, as city landmarks. I will also argue that the second function of the agyieis, as city landmarks, survived the Ptolemaic cult of the Philadelphos and was ultimately preserved in long-lasting toponyms. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (2 ULg)