References of "Cabaraux, Jean-François"
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See detailPerformances of local poultry breed fed black soldier fly larvae reared on horse manure
Moula, Nassim ULiege; Scippo, Marie-Louise ULiege; Douny, Caroline ULiege et al

in Animal Nutrition (in press)

In poultry, feed based on maggots, like larvae of Black Soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) is an attractive option to substitute current ingredients which are expensive and often in direct or indirect ... [more ▼]

In poultry, feed based on maggots, like larvae of Black Soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) is an attractive option to substitute current ingredients which are expensive and often in direct or indirect competition with human food. Little information is currently available on the utility of these larvae in poultry feed, so goals of this study were to determine whether larvae could be reared on horse manure under traditional farming conditions and to evaluate the growth performances of a local poultry fed these larvae and the fatty acids profiles of their meat. After freezing and thawing, larvae were introduced in the feed of Ardennaise chickens between 30 and 80 days of age. Birds in the control group received a commercial standard feed while those in the treatment group received the same commercial feed in which 8% was substituted with whole fresh larvae corresponding to 2% on a dry matter basis. Mean ± standard errors of larval length and weight were 20.67 ± 2.21 mm and 0.14 ± 0.02 g, respectively. Mean larval percentages of dry matter and of substances extractable in diethyl ether were 24.6% and 23.1%, respectively. Larval fatty acids profiles were predominantly composed of lauric (28.1%) and palmitic (22.0%) acids. Least squares means of weekly weights of chicken, adjusted for the effects of sex, replication and initial weights, were significantly higher (P < 0.05) by 77.03 ± 53.37 g in larvae-fed than in control chickens. All the other measurements were not statistically different between larvae-fed and control chicken, including fatty acid profiles, protein content and ω6/ω3 ratio. In conclusion, the use of black soldier fly larvae in the diet of local chicken breed may be an alternative to the use of soy. [less ▲]

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See detailProceedings of the 4th FARAH-Day
Bayrou, Calixte ULiege; Cabaraux, Jean-François ULiege; Delguste, Catherine ULiege et al

Book published by Presses de la Faculté de Médecine vétérinaire de l’Université de Liège (2017)

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See detailGoat grazing in northern Morocco: problem or solution?
Chebli, Youssef ULiege; Chentouf, Mouad; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULiege et al

in Proceedings of the 4th FARAH-Day (2017)

In northern Morocco, silvopastoral areas are characterized by pastoral activities, and the goats find some or all their feed rations. Overgrazing is listed as a main factor of silvopastoral degradation by ... [more ▼]

In northern Morocco, silvopastoral areas are characterized by pastoral activities, and the goats find some or all their feed rations. Overgrazing is listed as a main factor of silvopastoral degradation by local authority and several authors. Goat cannot only be regarded as a problem for silvopastoral ecosystems. A survey, with local population and local authority, were conducted in several rural communes of northern Morocco, to understand the actual factors of silvopastoral degradation. According to all interviewed persons: agriculture development, authority policy, cannabis cultivation, deforestation, drought, fire, overgrazing, population growth and soil erosion are the most cited drivers of silvopastoral degradation. Local population and local authority have the same perception that soil erosion, drought, fire and population growth are factors of silvopastoral degradation. Goat grazing can be considerate as a solution and not just a problem. In some forest areas, goat grazing contributes to a reduction of burned areas by elimination of inflammable shrubs. Herd mobility, as an ecological rationality, is considered as a response to unexpected variability in pasture production and/or animal nutritional needs. Despite all forms of degradation, silvopastoral areas in northern Morocco continue to play a support of all livestock activities, considered an inevitable source of goats feeding. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of the method and the period of oil extraction on in vitro digestibility of olive cake in northern of Morocco
El Otmani, Samira ULiege; Ayadi, Mohamed; Chentouf, Mouad et al

in Proceedings of the 4th FARAH-Day (2017)

In Northern Morocco, goat population is the most dominant livestock. His feeding is based on forest rangelands and characterized by strong seasonal variability responsible of low productivity. Therefore ... [more ▼]

In Northern Morocco, goat population is the most dominant livestock. His feeding is based on forest rangelands and characterized by strong seasonal variability responsible of low productivity. Therefore, it is necessary to diversify and improve its diet. Olive cake is an oil extraction by-product that is widely available and can be a ruminant feed. Olive cake is produced by three methods and for limited period. This work aims to determine the effect of oil extraction method and period on digestibility of olive cake. Twenty-seven samples were collected from 3 mills by each extraction method (mechanical pressure, centrifugation 2 and 3 phases) during three periods (November, December and January). In vitro digestibility was performed using gas production method of (Menke et al., 1979) improved by Menke and Steingass (1988). Samples were incubated in glass syringes that contained rumen fluid and incubation solution that conserved in water bath in 39°C during 72 hours. Gas production was recorded after 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Studied digestibility parameters were dry and organic matter digestibility, microbial biomass production, partitioning factor and volatile fatty acid. Extraction method affected digestion kinetics and the digestibility parameters except partition factor and volatile fatty acids. Olive cake obtained by 2 phases method had the highest digestibility. For extraction period, gas production decreased significantly per period. Period had no effect on digestibility parameters except for volatile fatty acids. Two phases olive cake is most suitable for feed but has a reduced shelf life, which requires the development of a suitable conservation mode. [less ▲]

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See detailExtensive goat production systems in northern Morocco: production and use of pastoral resources
Chebli, Youssef ULiege; Chentouf, Mouad; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULiege et al

in Porqueddu, C; Franca, A; Lombardi, G (Eds.) et al Grassland resources for extensive farming systems in marginal lands: major drivers and future scenarios (2017)

Grazing is a Mediterranean tradition with an unvaried importance in northern Morocco. Rangeland has known profound changes, inducing a major gap between pastoral supply and demand. This study aimed to ... [more ▼]

Grazing is a Mediterranean tradition with an unvaried importance in northern Morocco. Rangeland has known profound changes, inducing a major gap between pastoral supply and demand. This study aimed to assess pastoral production of pastures at two sites in northern Morocco (Derdara and Loubar) and investigate their use by goats. Concerning biomass production, we used the method of the reference module. The surveys were realized during the biomass evaluation period. Pastoral species, mainly Arbutus unedo, Cistus monspeliensis, Erica arborea, Lavandula stoechas and Pistacia lentiscus, represent the most palatable species selected by goats. Grazing is practised throughout the year except during rainy days when breeders practice ‘cut and carry’ of the branches. The biomass produced was estimated at 1,455 and 333 kg dry matter ha‑1, respectively, in Derdara and Loubar. Significant differences were observed depending on the season and according to sampling sites. Furthermore, the research showed the appearance of degraded areas dominated by annual species together with species of low pastoral interest – thorny plant species that characterize degraded areas. Due to climate changes and overgrazing, pastoral resources will have availability and quality reduced. The reasonable use of pastures, including a reduction in grazing pressure, should be developed to insure their sustainability. [less ▲]

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See detailProceedings of the 3rd FARAH-Day 2016
Bayrou, Calixte ULiege; Cabaraux, Jean-François ULiege; Delguste, Catherine ULiege et al

Book published by Presses de la Faculté de Médecine vétérinaire de l'Université de Liège (2016)

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See detailEvaluation of chemical composition of 6 available by-products in the North of Morocco
El Otmani, Samira ULiege; Ayadi, Mohamed; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULiege et al

in Book of Abstracts of the 12th International Conference on Goats (2016, September)

In the northern region of Morocco, goat breeding is the dominant activity of farmers. This livestock plays a major economic role in the contribution of more than 70% of household income. His diet is based ... [more ▼]

In the northern region of Morocco, goat breeding is the dominant activity of farmers. This livestock plays a major economic role in the contribution of more than 70% of household income. His diet is based essentially on forest rangelands characterized by a variable feed offer. Therefore, it is necessary to diversify and improve its feed calendar to reduce overgrazing and increase livestock productivity. This work aims to characterize the chemical composition of agricultural by-products to be introduced in the diet of goat herd. The studied by-products was residues of watermelon, melon, zucchini, tomato, sunflower and peanut. These samples were collected in the different places in the region of the north of Morocco. In the laboratory, they were dried in oven at 60°C and subsequently ground and sieved to 1 mm diameter. The studied composition parameters were dry matter, ash, total nitrogen and fat. The chemical composition of these samples was determined by the methods of AOAC (1997). The means and the standard error of means were calculated using SAS software. From results, dry matter of by-products varies from 16.4% in watermelon residues and 96.7% in sunflower residues. The sunflower residues has a low mineral content of 3% while the melon residue contains 26.5% of mineral matter. The nitrogenous matter ranges from 2.6% in sunflower residue to 19.5% in watermelon residues. The highest fat content was recorded in melon residues (5.1%). Sunflower residue is lower in fat (1.4%). In conclusion, sunflower and peanut residues drier than the other by-products and contain less mineral matter, fat and nitrogenous matter. These by-products represent a free feed that can take their place in feed calendar in the northern region of Morocco for the goat population. However, to introduce them in the diet, it is necessary to evaluate their nutritional values. [less ▲]

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See detailThe “FMV small animal husbandry unit” for students and research
Moula, Nassim ULiege; Dawans, Edwin ULiege; Cabaraux, Jean-François ULiege et al

in Zeippen, Caroline; Bayrou, Calixte; Cabaraux, Jean-François (Eds.) et al Proceedings of the 3rd FARAH-Day (2016)

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See detailEffet des fibres dans l'alimentation des truies gestantes et des porcs charcutiers sur les émissions d'ammoniac et de gaz à effet de serre
Philippe, François-Xavier ULiege; Laitat, Martine ULiege; Wavreille, José et al

in 48e Journées de la Recherche Porcine (2016)

This study aims to measure under barn conditions the emissions of NH3, N2O, CH4 and CO2 associated with gestating sows (trial 1) and fattening pigs (trial 2) fed either by a control diet (CTD) based on ... [more ▼]

This study aims to measure under barn conditions the emissions of NH3, N2O, CH4 and CO2 associated with gestating sows (trial 1) and fattening pigs (trial 2) fed either by a control diet (CTD) based on cereals or a high-fibre diet (HFD) based on sugar beet pulp (SBP). Three successive batches of 10 Belgian Landrace gestating sows were used for trial 1. Two successive batches of 24 Piétrain x Belgian Landrace fattening pigs were used for trial 2. Animals were kept on slatted floor. The gas emissions were measured by infrared photoacoustic detection and expressed per day and per livestock unit (LU, equal to 500 kg body weight). Similar trends were observed for both animal types. With HFD, NH3 emission was reduced (27.2 vs. 36.5 g/LU for the gestating sows, P<0.001; 23.2 vs. 45.0 g/LU for the fattening pigs, P<0.001) whereas CH4 emission was increased (41.5 vs. 21.0 g/LU for gestating sows, P<0.001; 37.9 vs. 27.2 g/LU for fattening pigs, P<0.001). The fibre content of the diet had no significant impact on N2O emission (around 1.4 g/LU for gestating sows and 2.1 g/LU for fattening pigs, P>0.05), and on CO2 emission (around 6.0 kg/LU for gestating sows and 9.1 kg/LU for fattening pigs, P>0.05). [less ▲]

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See detailFloor slat openings impact ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions associated with group-housed gestating sows
Philippe, François-Xavier ULiege; Laitat, Martine ULiege; Wavreille, José et al

in Animal (2016), 10(12), 2027-2033

According to EU legislation, group-housed gestating sows must have a minimum of 2.25m2 floor area per sow with at least 1.3m2 of continuous solid floor of which a maximum of 15% is reserved for drainage ... [more ▼]

According to EU legislation, group-housed gestating sows must have a minimum of 2.25m2 floor area per sow with at least 1.3m2 of continuous solid floor of which a maximum of 15% is reserved for drainage openings. The aim of the experiment was to quantify the impact of different drainage openings on ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions. Three successive batches of 10 gestating sows were used. Each batch was divided into two groups kept separately in two identical rooms with similar volume and surface. The solid part of the floor presented 15% drainage openings in the first room and 2.5% in the second room. The gas emissions (ammonia (NH3), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapour (H2O)) were measured three times during 6 consecutive days. Gaseous emissions were significantly lower with 15% drainage openings with reductions of 19% for NH3 (12.77 v. 15.83 g/day per sow), 15% for CH4 (10.15 v. 11.91 g/day per sow), 10% for N2O (0.47 v. 0.52 g/day per sow), 9% for CO2 (2.41 v. 2.66 kg/day per sow) and 13% for H2O (3.25 v. 3.75 kg/day per sow). This trial showed the advantage, in an environmental point of view, to use 15% drainage openings on the solid part of partly slatted floors in pens for group-housed gestating sows. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of the method and the period of oil extraction on chemical composition of olive cake in northern of Morocco
El Otmani, Samira ULiege; Ayadi, Mohamed; Chentouf, Mouad et al

in Bayrou, Calixte; Cabaraux, Jean-François; Delguste, Catherine (Eds.) et al Proceedings of the 3rd FARAH Day (2016)

In the northern of Morocco, goat population is the most dominant. His diet is based on forest rangelands. Therefore, it is necessary to diversify and improve its feed calendar. Olive cake is by-product of ... [more ▼]

In the northern of Morocco, goat population is the most dominant. His diet is based on forest rangelands. Therefore, it is necessary to diversify and improve its feed calendar. Olive cake is by-product of oil extraction that widely available in the region with important production. It can be a feed resource of ruminant. This resource is produced by three methods and for limited period. This work aims to determine the effect of different oil extraction method and period on the chemical composition of olive cake in northern of Morocco. Twenty-seven samples of olive cake were collected from 3 mills by each extraction method (mechanical pressure, centrifugation 2 and 3 phases) during three periods (November, December and January). The chemical composition (dry matter, fat, mineral matter, crude protein and fibers) of the collected samples was determined by AOAC methods (1997). The extraction method had a significant effect on all parameters of the chemical composition with the exception of the fat and crude protein (P<0.05). The olive cake obtained by centrifugation 2 phases method had lower dry matter and fibers. The period had no effect on chemical composition, which eases the introduction of olive cake in the diet of ruminants. The olive cake of 2 phases is the most suitable for feed but has a reduced shelf life, which requires the development of a suitable conservation mode. [less ▲]

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See detailBiomass production and use of silvopastoral areas in northern Morocco
Chebli, Youssef ULiege; Chentouf, M.; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULiege et al

in Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Goats (2016) (2016)

In Rif Mountain of Morocco, sylvopastoral systems satisfy the diverse needs of local population and represent the most important feed sources for goats. This system is under pressure due to climate change ... [more ▼]

In Rif Mountain of Morocco, sylvopastoral systems satisfy the diverse needs of local population and represent the most important feed sources for goats. This system is under pressure due to climate change and overgrazing. For a sustainable and integrated development of this area, it is essential to establish a resource assessment. This study aims to evaluate the pastoral production (biomass) and investigate the use of pasture in Rif Mountain (Loubar) exclusively used by goat herds. For biomass production, we used the method of the reference module. The surveys, on using pasture by breeders, were realized during the biomass evaluation period. The pastoral shrubs, mainly Cistus crispus, Cistus monspeliensis, Lavendula stoeches and Pistacia lentiscus, represent the most palatable species selected by goats. Breeders use pasture throughout the year, except on rainy days where they resort to limbing. The pasture was characterized by a poor floristic diversity (65 species) dominated by shrubs. The biomass produced was estimated at 373 kg dry matter per hectare composed for 63% by shrubs. For biomass production, significant differences were observed depending on the season and according to sampling sites. The continuous use of the same pasture for a long time can explain the low production estimated and appearance of unpalatable species, such as Arisarum vulgare, Daphne gnidium and Ranunculus sardous. In fact, due to the bad operating practices of pastoral resources, sylvopastoral areas will be less available and of lower quality. The reasonable use of these resources, including a reduction in grazing pressure, should be developed to ensure a better productivity and sustainability. [less ▲]

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See detailThe assessment of grazing intensity in northern Morocco, using new techniques
Chebli, Youssef ULiege; Chentouf, M.; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULiege et al

Conference (2016)

In Rif Mountain of Morocco, forest rangelands provide goods and services, which satisfy the diverse needs of local population. These silvopastoral areas represent the most important feed sources for goats ... [more ▼]

In Rif Mountain of Morocco, forest rangelands provide goods and services, which satisfy the diverse needs of local population. These silvopastoral areas represent the most important feed sources for goats. Goats are exclusively conducted in extensive farming systems in which most nutrients from forest pastures. Grazing is associated with daily activities significantly different from those of animals in confinement, such as grazing behavior and distance. The assessment of grazing intensity is important for making adequate management decisions on rangelands. Currently, new techniques have been proposed to characterize the feeding behavior of goats on rangelands and throughout the day. These measures are now determined mainly by GPS collars and IceTag, which are used to monitor activity, location and movement of goat in grazing areas. The aim was to characterise their spatio-temporal movement and activities depending on the season (spring and summer), i.e. the variation in grazing intensities, daily trajectories of the herds, the number of steps, time spent standing and lying. This study was conducted in a forest rangeland (Derdara) in western of Rif Mountain. 8 Goats were fitted by GPS collars (attached around the animal’s necks) and IceTags (attached to a rear leg of goat) during three days. Grazing area was estimated to 151 ha with a perimeter of 10 km. Grazing time and covered distance were estimated to 9 vs 12 hours and 6.9 vs 9.2 km per day, respectively in spring and summer. The short duration of grazing during spring compare to summer can be explained by the high forage supply, coinciding with the vegetative peak of pastoral species. In summer, goats are exhausted due to high temperature which limits their movement in altitude. In spring, 62.4% of animal activity is devoted to grazing, against 68.7% in summer. During dry season (summer) goats move more compared to the spring (6600 vs 4400 steps per day, respectively in summer and spring), which was confirmed by GPS collars results. The study also revealed that the goats consumed mainly of palatable vegetation at ground level. Pasture area, itinerary and covered distance of goats varies depending on the season. The intersection of several parameters of pastoral assessment with the study of feeding behavior of goats on rangelands by using new techniques, could be useful in future to a better management of herd in time and space. [less ▲]

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See detailBiomass production and use of silvopastoral areas in northern Morocco: A case study of western Rif
Chebli, Youssef ULiege; Chentouf, M.; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULiege et al

in Proceedings of the 3nd FARAH Day, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (2016) (2016)

In northern Morocco, silvopastoral areas provide diverse needs for local population and livestock. These pasture represent the most important feed sources for goats in Rif Mountain. This study aims to ... [more ▼]

In northern Morocco, silvopastoral areas provide diverse needs for local population and livestock. These pasture represent the most important feed sources for goats in Rif Mountain. This study aims to evaluate biomass production and investigate the use of a silvopastoral area in two representative pastoral areas (Derdara and Loubare) exclusively used by goatherds. For biomass production, we used the method of the reference module. The surveys, on using pasture by breeders, were realized during the biomass evaluation period. The pastoral shrubs, mainly Arbustus unedo, Cistus crispus, Cistus monspeliensis, Erica arborea, Lavendula stoeches and Mentha pulegium, are the main diet of goats. Breeders use pasture throughout the year, except on rainy days where they resort to limbing. The pasture was characterized by an average level of diversity of pastoral flora in Derdara (94 species) and poor floristic diversity in Loubare (65 species) dominated by shrubs . The phytomass productions at Derdara and Loubare were estimated at respectively 1867 kg and 373 kg for dry matter per hectare. The continuous use of pastoral resources and lack of pasture management has considerably reduced the palatable pasture species and has allowed the appearance of low pastoral value species. Statistically significant differences were observed depending on season, with a maximum in the spring and a minimum in the winter, and according to sampling sites are differentiating by intensity of canopy cover. Management actions and use of silvopastoral resources, including a reduction in grazing pressure, should be developed to ensure better productivity and sustainability of these resources. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of new technology to estimate the grazing behavior of goats in northern morocco
Chebli, Youssef ULiege; Chentouf, M.; Cabaraux, Jean-François ULiege et al

in Proceedings of the 3nd FARAH Day, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (2016) (2016)

In northern Morocco, goats are exclusively or partially conducted in extensive farming systems in which most nutrients from forest pastures. Grazing is associated with daily activities significantly ... [more ▼]

In northern Morocco, goats are exclusively or partially conducted in extensive farming systems in which most nutrients from forest pastures. Grazing is associated with daily activities significantly different from those of animals in confinement, such as grazing behavior and distance. Currently, new techniques have been proposed to characterize the feeding behavior of goats on rangelands and throughout the day. These measures are now determined mainly by GPS collars and IceTag, which are used to monitor activity,location and movement in grazing areas. This study was conducted in two representative pastures (Derdara and Loubare) in western Rif. The study concerned the characterization of movement of goats on a silvopastoral pasture through using new technology. GPS collars have allowed us to estimate a distance travelled at 8 km for 10 hours of grazing per day. With IceTag (attached to a rear leg of goat), we estimated the number of steps and time spent standing, lying , and active. IceTags and GPS collars data was used simultaneously to estimate times spent grazing/eating, as well as other behaviors. The study also revealed that the goats consumed mainly of palatable vegetation at ground level. The intersection of several parameters of pastoral assessment with the study of feeding behavior of goats on rangelands will allow us in future to manage better the herd in time and space. [less ▲]

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See detailBiomass production and use of silvopastoral areas in the Rif Mountains of Morocco
Chebli, Youssef ULiege; Chentouf, Mouad; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULiege et al

in Casasus, I.; Lombardi, G. (Eds.) Mountain pastures and livestock farming facing uncertainty: environmental, technical and socio-economic challenges (2016)

In Northern Morocco, the forest rangelands provide goods and services, which satisfy the diverse needs of local population. These silvopastoral areas represent the most important feed sources for goats in ... [more ▼]

In Northern Morocco, the forest rangelands provide goods and services, which satisfy the diverse needs of local population. These silvopastoral areas represent the most important feed sources for goats in the Rif Mountain. This study aims to evaluate the biomass production and investigate the use of a silvopastoral area (Derdara) exclusively used by goatherds. For biomass production, we used the method of the reference module. A survey on using pasture by breeders was realized during the biomass evaluation period. The pastoral shrubs, mainly Arbutus unedo, Cistus crispus, Cistus monspeliensis, Erica arborea, Lavandula stoeches and Mentha pulegium, represent the fundamental diet for goats. Breeders use pasture throughout the year, except on rainy days where they resort to limbing. The pasture was characterized by a diversity average level of pastoral flora (94 species) dominated by shrubs. The biomass produced was estimated at 1867 kg dry matter per hectare composed for 74% by shrubs. Significant differences were observed concerning the intensity of the canopy cover, depending on the season and according to sampling sites. The continuous use of the same pasture for a long time, can explain the appearance of low pastoral value species in the study area, such as Arisarum vulgare, Daphne gnidium and Ranunculus sardous. The reasonable use of silvopastoral resources, including a reduction in grazing pressure, should be developed to ensure better productivity and sustainability of these resources. [less ▲]

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See detailProduction pastorale et laitière au niveau d’un élevage extensif au nord du Maroc
Chebli, Youssef ULiege; El Otmani, Samira ULiege; Hilal, Btissam et al

in Napoléone, M.; Ben Salem, H.; Boutonnet, J. P. (Eds.) et al The value chains of Mediterranean sheep and goat products. Organisation of the industry, marketing strategies, feeding and production systems (2016)

In Northern Morocco, silvopastoral area was a free fodder resource that contributes to regular feeding of goat. The study was conducted in extensive farming of dairy goat (Bouzahri pasture). The objective ... [more ▼]

In Northern Morocco, silvopastoral area was a free fodder resource that contributes to regular feeding of goat. The study was conducted in extensive farming of dairy goat (Bouzahri pasture). The objective is to estimate a pastoral contribution of pasture and its effect on production and milk quality. Biomass, floristic diversity and nutritional value were determined. A total of seventy pastoral species were recorded. The biomass production is estimated to 4963 kg DM/ha, composed of 89% by Calicotome villosa, Cistus crispus, Erica arborea, Inula viscosa, Lavandula stoechas, Olea europea and Pistacia lentiscus. Calicotome villosa has the highest energy and protein (PDI) levels with 0.62 UFL/kg DM, 0.52 UFV/kg DM and 52 g/kg DM of protein. The forage supply is estimated to 2250 FU/ha of energy and 72.6 kg/ha of PDIN, is evaluated at 450 euro/ha. In extensive farming, milk production is estimated to 55 kg/lactation/goat against 51 kg/lactation/goat in intensive farming (control). Goats feeding on pasture allows to reduce alimentary charge and better milk production that remains low qualitatively. Supplementation, to improve quality of milk products, is necessary. [less ▲]

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See detailHet signalement van paardachtigen
Gérardy, Cécile; Cabaraux, Jean-François ULiege

Book published by BCP-CBC (2016)

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See detailLe signalement des équidés
Gérardy, Cécile; Cabaraux, Jean-François ULiege

Book published by BCP-CBC (2016)

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See detailProceedings of the 2nd FARAH-Day / Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (University of Liege - Belgium)
Bayrou, Calixte ULiege; Cabaraux, Jean-François ULiege; Delguste, Catherine ULiege et al

Book published by Presses de la Faculté de Médecine vétérinaire de l’Université de Liège (2015)

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