References of "CHRISTIAENS, Geneviève"
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See detailHYGIENE ET PROBLEMES INFECTIEUX EN GERIATRIE
Moutschen, Michel ULg; FRIPPIAT, Frédéric ULg; CHRISTIAENS, Geneviève ULg et al

Conference (2012, June 14)

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See detailSystèmes de retour d'expérience : "Faut-il vraiment copier l'industrie?"
Nyssen, Anne-Sophie ULg; Gillet, Aline ULg; Cayet, anne-Marie et al

in Risques & Qualité (2012), IX(2), 85-91

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See detailFilamentous fungi recovered from the water distribution system of a Belgian university hospital
Hayette, Marie-Pierre ULg; Christiaens, Geneviève ULg; Mutsers, Jacques ULg et al

in Medical Mycology (2010), 48(7), 969-974

A study was carried out over a 4-month winter period in order to assess the presence of filamentous fungi in the water distribution system of the University Hospital of Liège. A total of 197 hot and cold ... [more ▼]

A study was carried out over a 4-month winter period in order to assess the presence of filamentous fungi in the water distribution system of the University Hospital of Liège. A total of 197 hot and cold water samples were collected from the main water supply lines and from the taps at three different hospital sites. Overall, filamentous fungi were recovered from 55% and 50% of the main water distribution system and tap water samples, respectively, with a mean of 3.5 ± 1.5 colony forming units per 500 ml water. Nine different genera were identified, all belonging to the Hyphomycetes class. Aspergillus spp. were recovered from 6% of the samples of the water distribution system and A. fumigatus was the most frequently recovered species (66.6%). However, this species was not isolated from water taps. Fusarium spp. was predominant at one site, where it was found in 28% of tap water samples. No Aspergillus spp. but some Fusarium spp. isolates were identified in samples collected from high-risk units. Filters were introduced at the point-of-use in the haematology unit after completion of the study. The findings of the present study confirm the need for further documented studies to evaluate the safety of the hospital water system and to define new preventive measures. [less ▲]

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See detailAntibiotic consumption and bacterial resistance
ZAOUI, Kuider; MELIN, Pierrette ULg; CHRISTIAENS, Geneviève ULg et al

in Newsletter SIZ, special issue, abstracts Spring Meeting (2010, June 25)

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See detailMolecular epidemiology of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae colonizing the digestive tract of patients admitted to intensive care units in a Belgian university hospital
CHRISTIAENS, Geneviève ULg; Damas, Pierre ULg; Docquier, J. D. et al

in American Society of Microbiology (Ed.) Program and Abstracts of the 46th Intersciences Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (2006, September)

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See detailProspective survey of digestive tract colonization with enterobacteriaceae that produce ESBLs in intensive care units
Christiaens, Geneviève ULg; Ciccarella, Y.; Damas, Pierre ULg et al

in Journal of Hospital Infection (2006), 62(3), 386-388

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See detailReal-Time PCR detection of group B streptococci from pregnant women's vaginal specimens at time of delivery: clinical evaluation
MELIN, Pierrette ULg; Rodriguez Cuns, Grisel; Lorquet, Sophie et al

in American Society of Microbiology (Ed.) Program and Abstracts of the 44th Intersciences Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (2004, November)

Guidelines for prevention recommend intrapartum antimicrobial prohylaxis (IAP) for pregnant women with a positive prenatal culture-based screening for GBS. To improve this strategy, a rapid screening ... [more ▼]

Guidelines for prevention recommend intrapartum antimicrobial prohylaxis (IAP) for pregnant women with a positive prenatal culture-based screening for GBS. To improve this strategy, a rapid screening performed at the onset of labor with the IDI-Strep BTM test (IDI), a real time PCR detection (Infectio Diagnostic), may be used. Objective: To evaluate the performance of the IDI to detect GBS from vaginal specimens collected at time of delivery. Methods: Intrapartum vaginal specimens from 923 pregnant women were tested to determine the status of GBS colonization, by CDC’s recommended culture method (including selective LIM broth) with a Granada agar (GR) added as well as by the IDI and the immunologic StrepB OIATM test (OIA), BioStar. The performance of the different methods was compared. Results: GBS were recovered from 16.8% and 23.6% specimens respectively on primary culture plates and overall. The colonization rate for GBS was 18.6 % by IDI and 15.7 % by OIA testing. The sensitivity of IDI for identifying vaginal colonization status at delivery was 92 % or 77.1 % when compared to GR primary cultures or to overall culture results, and for the OIA, it was respectively 65.1 or 52.1 %. The specificity was 99.1 % for IDI and 95.5 % for OIA. The turnaround time for obtaining results was less than one hour for both IDI and OIA. Conclusions: 1) Strep B-IDI test, performed on intrapartum vaginal specimens, yields relevant results rapidly enough to be used as an efficient diagnostic tool for the identification of GBS colonized women, in order to offer IAP really targeted to GBS carriers. 2) By comparison to the prenatal screening-based strategy, the high sensitivity and specificity of IDI would allow a reduction of useless IAP and of missed opportunities. 3) IDI testing might be implemented “in routine” in some hospitals for further clinical and practical evaluation. [less ▲]

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See detailPlace of PCR methods in malaria diagnosis
Klein, Ségolène; Hayette, Marie-Pierre ULg; Melin, Pierrette ULg et al

Conference (2004, October)

Background: Gold-standard method for malaria diagnosis is microscopic examination of Giemsa stained thick and thin blood smears. This method is cheap and simple but fastidious and requires experienced ... [more ▼]

Background: Gold-standard method for malaria diagnosis is microscopic examination of Giemsa stained thick and thin blood smears. This method is cheap and simple but fastidious and requires experienced microscopists. In recent years, molecular biology techniques have been applied with success in the microbiology field because of their great sensitivity and specificity. The aim of this study is the evaluation of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in the detection of low parasitaemia and mixed infections. Methods: A total of 191 blood samples were included in the study. They were collected from patients admitted to hospital because of suspicion of malaria infection, and distributed as follows: 105 from Liege (Belgium), 42 from Lubumbashi (Democratic Republic of Congo), and 44 from Cayenne (French Guiana). Two PCR techniques targeting the small sub-unit rRNA gene of Plasmodium were tested in comparison with microscopy. The real-time PCR was specific of Plasmodium sp. and the semi-nested multiplex PCR was able to detect each of the four species. Results: The real-time PCR sensitivity was 97% and 100% for multiplex PCR. The specificity of both techniques was 96%. Multiplex PCR detected 2 mixed infections that were missed by microscopy. In 4 cases, both PCR techniques permit to detect parasitaemia after treatment while microscopy was already negative. In one case, parasite DNA was detected by PCR one day before the microscopy became positive. Conclusions: Both PCR techniques presented the same detection limit. The PCR methods had a better sensitivity than microscopy. They detected P. falciparum and P. vivax respectively 7 and 6 days after beginning of treatment. Multiplex PCR allowed species identification and mixed infection determination that could confirm and complete the microscopic examination. Real-time PCR was quicker than nested PCR and could be used for screening in addition to the gold-standard method [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of the group B differential agar for the detection of group B streptococci from vaginal specimens
MELIN, Pierrette ULg; Rodriguez Cuns, Grisel; Lorquet, Sophie et al

in American Society of Microbiology (Ed.) Program and Abstracts of the 104th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology (2004, May)

Background Group B streptococci (GBS) are the leading cause of severe perinatal infections. Most current guidelines for the prevention of GBS perinatal disease are based on prenatal screening culture for ... [more ▼]

Background Group B streptococci (GBS) are the leading cause of severe perinatal infections. Most current guidelines for the prevention of GBS perinatal disease are based on prenatal screening culture for vaginal GBS colonisation. Use of selective and differential media could improve the sensitivity of these cultures. Objective To evaluate the GBS-Differential Agar (GBSDA) recently formulated by Becton Dickinson for the selective growth and production of orange colonies of b- hemolytic (b-H) GBS. Methods 283 vaginal swabs (VAG) collected from pregnant women were inoculated in selective Lim broth. After overnight incubation, Lim broth were subcultured on GBSDA, on Granada agar (Biomedics, Spain) and on Columbia blood agar (BA). To evaluate the stability, 99 isolates of GBS (REF) from adult or neonatal infections (Belgian GBS reference laboratory collection) were cultured on GBSDA and Granada at their limit of expiration, and on BA. GBSDA and Granada were incubated anaerobically and BA aerobically + 7% CO2, at 35°C, 24 to 48 h. Positive and negative control strains (GBS ; E. faecalis) were cultured with each run. Specific identification of colonies suggestive of GBS (pale to dark orange on GBSDA and Granada, b-H on BA) was performed. Results b-H GBS were recovered from 63 VAG (22.3 %): 62 were easily identified after overnight incubation on GBSDA and 63 on Granada without requiring any subculture. All GBS were also recovered from BA however it was after many subcultures. All orange colonies were confirmed as GBS. Among REF, 3 strains were non hemolytic ; they grew but were not differentiated as orange colonies on GBSDA or Granada. 96 REF were b-H, 94 (97.9%) produced orange to very dark orange colonies on GBSDA, 2 produced white colonies, and on Granada, 74 (77.1 %) produced pale to dark orange colonies and 22 white to white-orange colonies. Conclusion 1) GBSDA and Granada: a) very high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of b-H GBS, in a single step b) Results available within 48 h after inoculation in Lim broth, low workload 2) Excellent stability up to expiration date for GBSDA 3) Non hemolytic GBS: grown but not differentiated on GBSDA or Granada. [less ▲]

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See detailAntimicrobial Susceptibilities of recent clinical isolates of group B streptococci agalactiae from Belgium
MELIN, Pierrette ULg; Maquet, Julie; Rodriguez Cuns, Grisel et al

in American Society of Microbiology (Ed.) Program and Abstracts of the 43rd Intersciences Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (2003, September)

Background: : GBS cause severe infections in neonates, pregnant women and other adults. Empiric therapy is usually started before susceptibility results are available. Early neonatal diseases can be ... [more ▼]

Background: : GBS cause severe infections in neonates, pregnant women and other adults. Empiric therapy is usually started before susceptibility results are available. Early neonatal diseases can be prevented with intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis based on accurate susceptibility surveillance data. A previous Belgian study showed an increase of 3 to 10 % R to erythromycin (EM) through the 1990s. Methods: 187 GBS isolates consecutively received at the reference laboratory between 2001 to March 2003 were from 73 neonates (52 early-onset and 21 late-onset diseases), 52 adults and 62 from pregnant women’s vagina. MICs of penicillin (PG), EM, clindamycin (CM) and gentamicin (GM) were determined with Etest. PG MBCs were also determined by inactivating the drug in MIC plates using betalactamase. EM resistant (R) isolates were tested by the CM + EM double disk to determine macrolide R phenotypes. Results: All strains were susceptible (S) to PG and no tolerance was observed with MBCs falling within 2 dilutions of MICs. 19.2% of isolates were R to EM, with significantly more R isolates from adults (30.8%; p <0.01) and serotype V (46.8%; p <0,001). 80% had the MLSB phenotype (R to EM and CM), 16 were constitutive and 12 inducible. The M phenotype (R to EM and S to CM) was seen in 7 (20%) of isolates. Less than 10% of isolates were inhibited by GM MIC of <=64 mg/L, 83.6% by 128-256 mg/L and 2.9% by >/=512 mg/L. Non typable strains were more R to GM (p <0.01). Conclusions: 1) PG remained active against all isolates and no tolerance was seen. 2) Prevalence of R to macrolides had increased since 1999, particularly in adult isolates and serotype V. 3) Intermediate to high level R to GM was seen and potential synergy of PG + GM should be investigated. 4) R surveillance is mandatory to guide prophylaxis and treatment of serious GBS infections. [less ▲]

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See detailLa problématique de la résistance des pneumocoques aux antibiotiques
Marchal, Valérie; Melin, Pierrette ULg; Hayette, Marie-Pierre ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(11), 675-680

Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia and it is also a common cause of sinusitis, otitis media, bacteremia and meningitis. The increasing resistance to ... [more ▼]

Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia and it is also a common cause of sinusitis, otitis media, bacteremia and meningitis. The increasing resistance to antimicrobial agents, now endemic in many countries, reflects an uncontrolled use of antibiotics. A good antibiotics policy and vaccination are at the moment the only way to control efficaciously the increasing antibiotic resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae [less ▲]

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See detailSerotype Distribution of clinical isolates of group B streptococci Isolated in Belgium : isolates from neonatal infection compared to isolates from infection in adult or colonization in pregnant women
MELIN, Pierrette ULg; Keke, D.; Campo, B. et al

in American Society of Microbiology (Ed.) Program and Abstracts of the 43rd Intersciences Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (2002, September)

Background: Group B Streptococci cause invasive disease in neonates, pregnant women and non-pregnant adults. In the last decades capsular serotypes (type) Ia, Ib, II and III caused the majority of ... [more ▼]

Background: Group B Streptococci cause invasive disease in neonates, pregnant women and non-pregnant adults. In the last decades capsular serotypes (type) Ia, Ib, II and III caused the majority of clinical diseases. More recently, in North America, type V emerged as the more common type in non-pregnant adults with invasive disease. Methods: From January 1999 through December 2001, we received and typed a total of 334 clinically significant strains of GBS isolated in the laboratories belonging to the Belgian network for epidemiological surveillance. 113 were recovered from neonates blood or cerebrospinal fluid (92 early onset EOD, 21 late onset LOD), 14 were isolated from pregnant women with severe infections and 204 were recovered from adults with invasive disease. From the same laboratories, during the first trimester of 2002, 302 isolates from pregnant women were also typed (max. 5 isolates /lab.) Results: In neonatal EOD type III was the more common (41,3%) followed by II (19.6%), Ia (16.3%), Ib (13%), V (8.7%) and IV (1.1%), whereas type III caused the majority (85.7%) of LOD cases. In adults, all types were well represented except type IV: 20.3% Ia, 12.7% Ib, 13.1% II, 23.1% III, 2.7% IV, 19% V and 9% remained non typeable (NT). In colonized pregnant women, all types were also well represented except type IV: 25.5% Ia, 13.3% Ib, 14.9% II, 17.7% III, 5% IV, 15.5% V and 8.1% remained NT. Type III was more frequently the cause of EOD than a colonizing strain during pregnancy and in contrast NT isolates did not cause EOD (P<0.001) Conclusions: 1) Type III was still the major type in neonatal infections in Belgium. 2) Type distribution of GBS differed by age-group of patients 3) Type V belonged to the 3 more represented types in adults 4) Compared to colonizing GBS in pregnant women, distribution of types causing EOD was different. [less ▲]

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See detailIn Vitro Susceptibility Testing of Aspergillus fumigatus against Posaconazole: Comparison of NCCLS M38-P and E-Test Methods
Hayette, Marie-Pierre ULg; Amadore, Agatha; Seidel, Laurence ULg et al

Poster (2002, September)

Posaconazole is a second-generation triazole and structural analogue of itraconazole. This drug has fungicidal activity against yeasts and filamentous fungi. The aim of our study was to evaluate E-test ... [more ▼]

Posaconazole is a second-generation triazole and structural analogue of itraconazole. This drug has fungicidal activity against yeasts and filamentous fungi. The aim of our study was to evaluate E-test method for in vitro susceptibility testing of Aspergillus fumigatus isolates against posaconazole. METHODS: A total of 121 isolates of A. fumigatus were selected as follows: 106 clinical strains from colonized patients, 18 from patients with invasive aspergillosis and 7 environmental isolates. Their in vitro susceptibility was evaluated by E-test (Abbiodisk, Sweden) and compared with NCCLS microdilution reference method (M38-P). Both tests were performed with RPMI 1640 medium at 35 degrees C. MIC values were read after 24h (MIC-24h) and 48h (MIC-48h) incubation time by E-test method. Two MIC endpoints were determined by NCCLS method: 1.no visible reduction of growth (MIC-0); 2. 50% reduction (or more) of growth (MIC-2). Three A. fumigatus reference strains (IHEM 5734, 6149 and 13935) were included as control. RESULTS: Geometric mean MICs (microg/ml) were respectively 0.02 for E-test at 24h and 0.029 at 48h. MIC-0 and MIC-2 values were respectively 0.19 and 0.018 microg/ml. One correlation between both methods was observed for MICs-24h and MICs-2s (p<.05). However, there was no significant difference according to origin of isolates (p<.05). CONCLUSIONS: 1. This study assessed the potent role of posaconazole against A. fumigatus isolates with very low MICs. 2. MIC values were not predictive of pathogenicity. 3. E-test method by reading after 24h-incubation time could easily replace the time-consuming NCCLS M38-P reference method. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative In Vitro Activity of Amphotericine B, Itraconazole, Voriconazole and Posaconazole against Aspergillus fumigatus
Hayette, Marie-Pierre ULg; Amadore, Agatha; Seidel, Laurence ULg et al

Poster (2001, December)

Background. New azoles have been successfully used as treatment of invasive aspergillosis. The purpose of this study was to compare the in vitro activity of posaconazole (Posa) with that of amphotericin B ... [more ▼]

Background. New azoles have been successfully used as treatment of invasive aspergillosis. The purpose of this study was to compare the in vitro activity of posaconazole (Posa) with that of amphotericin B (AmB), itraconazole (Itra) and voriconazole (Vor) against A. fumigatus isolates according to NCCLS method (M38-P), and to compare visual and spectrophotometric readings for MIC determination. Methods. A total of 106 A. fumigatus isolates were selected as follows: 88 clinical isolates from colonized patients, 18 from patients with invasive aspergillosis and 7 environmental isolates. Their in vitro susceptibility was evaluated by the NCCLS microdilution method (M38-P) in RPMI 1640 medium. Determination of results was made by visual and spectrophotometric readings (630 nm) after 48 hours incubation at 35 degreesC. Three A. fumigatus reference strains (IHEM 5734, 6149 and 13935) were included as control. Results. 1. Geometric mean MICs/MIC90 (microg/ml) obtained by visual reading were respectively 0.66/1 (AmB), 0.37/0.5 (Itra), 0.27/0.5 (Vor) and 0.02/0.03 (Posa). 2. MIC values were comparable by spectrophotometric and by visual readings for all antifungal agents tested (p>.05) and did not depend on the isolates origin (p>.05). 3. Posaconazole had the lowest MICs (p< 0.001). 4. The itraconazole-resistant reference strain did not give cross resistance with voriconazole and posaconazole. CONCLUSIONS: Among azoles, posaconazole had a better in vitro activity against A. fumigatus than did voriconazole or itraconazole. Spectrophotometric reading could replace the less standardized visual reading for NCCLS microdilution method and MIC values obtained were comparable among all A. fumigatus isolates. [less ▲]

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See detailPrevalence of ermB, ermTR and mefA/B gene classes among erythromycine resistant group B streptococcus isolates collected in Belgium
MELIN, Pierrette ULg; Rodriguez Cuns, Grisel; Tsobo, Chantal et al

Poster (2001, October)

Background: Emergence of erythromycin (Er) and clindamycin (C) resistance (R) observed in GBS, is currently becoming recognized. Methods: Clinical isolates were obtained from a Belgian surveillance for ... [more ▼]

Background: Emergence of erythromycin (Er) and clindamycin (C) resistance (R) observed in GBS, is currently becoming recognized. Methods: Clinical isolates were obtained from a Belgian surveillance for invasive GBS disease in newborns and adults in 1996-1998 (N1=235) and from consecutive specimens submitted, during 1999-2000, to the University hospital of Liege (N2=165). MICs of Er were determined buy using Etest® strip (interpretive criteria of NCCLS). Furthermore, for the ErR isolates, the inducible (iMLS), constitutive (cMLS) and M phenotypes were assessed by disk diffusion and by a double-disk test; the distribution of genes encoding RNA methylases and efflux pumps was investigated by PCR. Results: Of the N1 and N2 isolates, 16 (6.8%) and 19 (11.5%) were respectively R to Er. Among these 35 ErR isolates, 21 (60%) exhibited the cMLS phenotype. They demonstrated a high level R to Er with MICs ranging from 16 to >256 mg/L. The ermB gene was harbored by 19/21 isolates, the ermTR gene by 1 isolate and both ermB and ermTR were present in another isolate. The iMLS phenotype was observed in 10 (29%) ErR isolates; the ermTR gene was present in all isolates except one harboring an ermTR gene. These strains demonstrated low level of R to Er, with MICs of 1-12 mg/L. All 4 isolates (11%) expressing an M phenotype, displayed low level R to Er alone (MICs, 2 mg/L) and were positive for the mefA/B gene. Conclusion: In Belgium, by year 2000, prevalence of R to macrolide in GBS exceeded 10%. R was mainly caused by target-site modification (ermB, ermTR) mechanisms; efflux (mefA/B) R mechanism was also prevalent among the isolates tested. These results indicate the possibility of inappropriate prophylaxis or therapy using C or E as the recommended alternatives in penicillin-allergic patients. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of Aspergillus spp. by PCR in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid
Hayette, Marie-Pierre ULg; Vaira, Dolorès ULg; Suzin, Fabrice et al

in Journal of Clinical Microbiology (2001), 39(6), 2338-2340

The usefulness of a nested PCR assay for detection of Aspergillus sp. DNA was evaluated in 177 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid specimens. This test was accurate both to diagnose culture-negative BAL ... [more ▼]

The usefulness of a nested PCR assay for detection of Aspergillus sp. DNA was evaluated in 177 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid specimens. This test was accurate both to diagnose culture-negative BAL fluid specimens from patients with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and to confirm culture-positive samples. However, it did not differentiate between infection and colonization. [less ▲]

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