The lymphatic ring assay: a 3D-culture model of lymphangiogenesis.
Bruyere, Françoise ; Melen-Lamalle, Laurence ; Berndt, Sarah et al
in Nature Protocols (2008)
Lymphangiogenesis, the formation of new lymphatic vessels, is associated to numerous pathologies1 and understanding the molecular and cellular basis of this complex process is essential for the ... [more ▼]
Lymphangiogenesis, the formation of new lymphatic vessels, is associated to numerous pathologies1 and understanding the molecular and cellular basis of this complex process is essential for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Studies on lymphangiogenesis have been hampered by difficulties in culturing lymphatic capillaries as three-dimensional (3D) structures in vitro that mimic the in vivo features of lymphatic vessels and lymphangiogenesis. The lymphatic ring assay described here phenocopies the different steps of lymphangiogenesis, including the spreading from a preexisting vessel, cell proliferation, migration and differentiation into capillaries. It consists on the adaptation of the aortic ring assay that has proved to be useful to investigate the molecular basis of angiogenesis2-4. The lymphatic ring model is an ideal assay for testing the activity of lymphangiogenic agonists or antagonists. The absence of inflammatory cells allows a simple interpretation of results and the determination of direct effects of compounds on lymphatic endothelial cell properties. Another advantage of the lymphatic ring assay is that cell outgrowing are primary cells which have not been modified by repeated passages or immortalization. This culture model bridges the gap between in vitro and in vivo studies and allows genetic analysis by using thoracic ducts from genetically modified mice. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 206 (30 ULg)
Nestin-positive mesenchymal stem cells favour the astroglial lineage in neural progenitors and stem cells by releasing active BMP4.
Wislet-Gendebien, Sabine ; Bruyere, Françoise ; Hans, Grégory et al
in BMC Neuroscience (2004), 5
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous repair is limited after CNS injury or degeneration because neurogenesis and axonal regrowth rarely occur in the adult brain. As a result, cell transplantation has raised much ... [more ▼]
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous repair is limited after CNS injury or degeneration because neurogenesis and axonal regrowth rarely occur in the adult brain. As a result, cell transplantation has raised much interest as potential treatment for patients with CNS lesions. Several types of cells have been considered as candidates for such cell transplantation and replacement therapies. Foetal brain tissue has already been shown to have significant effects in patients with Parkinson's disease. Clinical use of the foetal brain tissue is, however, limited by ethical and technical problems as it requires high numbers of grafted foetal cells and immunosuppression. Alternatively, several reports suggested that mesenchymal stem cells, isolated from adult bone marrow, are multipotent cells and could be used in autograft approach for replacement therapies. RESULTS: In this study, we addressed the question of the possible influence of mesenchymal stem cells on neural stem cell fate. We have previously reported that adult rat mesenchymal stem cells are able to express nestin in defined culture conditions (in the absence of serum and after 25 cell population doublings) and we report here that nestin-positive (but not nestin-negative) mesenchymal stem cells are able to favour the astroglial lineage in neural progenitors and stem cells cultivated from embryonic striatum. The increase of the number of GFAP-positive cells is associated with a significant decrease of the number of Tuj1- and O4-positive cells. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we demonstrate that mesenchymal stem cells express LIF, CNTF, BMP2 and BMP4 mRNAs, four cytokines known to play a role in astroglial fate decision. In this model, BMP4 is responsible for the astroglial stimulation and oligodendroglial inhibition, as 1) this cytokine is present in a biologically-active form only in nestin-positive mesenchymal stem cells conditioned medium and 2) anti-BMP4 antibodies inhibit the nestin-positive mesenchymal stem cells conditioned medium inducing effect on astrogliogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: When thinking carefully about mesenchymal stem cells as candidates for cellular therapy in neurological diseases, their effects on resident neural cell fate have to be considered. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 81 (3 ULg)