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See detailHost plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 promotes human skin carcinoma progression in a stage-dependent manner
Maillard, Catherine ULg; Jost, M.; Romer, M. U. et al

in Neoplasia : An International Journal for Oncology Research (2005), 7(1), 57-66

Angiogenesis and tumor expansion are associated with extracellular matrix remodeling and involve various proteases such as the plasminogen (Plg)/plasminogen activator (PA) system. Recently, several ... [more ▼]

Angiogenesis and tumor expansion are associated with extracellular matrix remodeling and involve various proteases such as the plasminogen (Plg)/plasminogen activator (PA) system. Recently, several experimental data have implicated the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in tumor angiogenesis in murine systems. However, little is known about PAI-1 functions in human skin carcinoma progression. By generating immunodeficient mice (in Rag-1(-/-) or nude background) deleted for PAI-1 gene (PAI-1(-/-)), we have evaluated the impact of host PAI-1 deficiency on the tumorigenicity of two malignant human skin keratinocyte cell lines HaCaT II-4 and HaCaT A5-RT3 forming low-grade and high-grade carcinomas, respectively. When using the surface transplantation model, angiogenesis and tumor invasion of these two cell lines are strongly reduced in PAI-1-deficient mice as compared to the wild-type control animals. After subcutaneous injection in PAI-1-/- mice, the tumor incidence is reduced for HaCaT II-4 cells, but not for those formed by HaCaT A5-RT3 cells. These data indicate that PAI-1 produced by host cells is an important contributor to earlier stages of human skin carcinoma progression. It exerts its tumor-promoting effect in a tumor stage-dependent manner, but PAI-1 deficiency is not sufficient to prevent neoplastic growth of aggressive tumors of the human skin. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor PAI-1 Controls in Vivo Tumor Vascularization by Interaction with Proteases, Not Vitronectin. Implications for Antiangiogenic Strategies
Bajou, Khalid ULg; Masson, Véronique ULg; Gerard, R. D. et al

in Journal of Cell Biology (2001), 152(4), 777-84

The plasminogen (Plg)/plasminogen activator (PA) system plays a key role in cancer progression, presumably via mediating extracellular matrix degradation and tumor cell migration. Consequently, urokinase ... [more ▼]

The plasminogen (Plg)/plasminogen activator (PA) system plays a key role in cancer progression, presumably via mediating extracellular matrix degradation and tumor cell migration. Consequently, urokinase-type PA (uPA)/plasmin antagonists are currently being developed for suppression of tumor growth and angiogenesis. Paradoxically, however, high levels of PA inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) are predictive of a poor prognosis for survival of patients with cancer. We demonstrated previously that PAI-1 promoted tumor angiogenesis, but by an unresolved mechanism. We anticipated that PAI-1 facilitated endothelial cell migration via its known interaction with vitronectin (VN) and integrins. However, using adenoviral gene transfer of PAI-1 mutants, we observed that PAI-1 promoted tumor angiogenesis, not by interacting with VN, but rather by inhibiting proteolytic activity, suggesting that excessive plasmin proteolysis prevents assembly of tumor vessels. Single deficiency of uPA, tissue-type PA (tPA), uPA receptor, or VN, as well as combined deficiencies of uPA and tPA did not impair tumor angiogenesis, whereas lack of Plg reduced it. Overall, these data indicate that plasmin proteolysis, even though essential, must be tightly controlled during tumor angiogenesis, probably to allow vessel stabilization and maturation. These data provide insights into the clinical paradox whereby PAI-1 promotes tumor progression and warrant against the uncontrolled use of uPA/plasmin antagonists as tumor angiogenesis inhibitors. [less ▲]

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See detailAbsence of Host Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 Prevents Cancer Invasion and Vascularization
Bajou, Khalid ULg; Noël, Agnès ULg; Gerard, R. D. et al

in Nature Medicine (1998), 4(8), 923-8

Acquisition of invasive/metastatic potential through protease expression is an essential event in tumor progression. High levels of components of the plasminogen activation system, including urokinase ... [more ▼]

Acquisition of invasive/metastatic potential through protease expression is an essential event in tumor progression. High levels of components of the plasminogen activation system, including urokinase, but paradoxically also its inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI1), have been correlated with a poor prognosis for some cancers. We report here that deficient PAI1 expression in host mice prevented local invasion and tumor vascularization of transplanted malignant keratinocytes. When this PAI1 deficiency was circumvented by intravenous injection of a replication-defective adenoviral vector expressing human PAI1, invasion and associated angiogenesis were restored. This experimental evidence demonstrates that host-produced PAI is essential for cancer cell invasion and angiogenesis. [less ▲]

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See detailExpression of c-ets-1 mRNA is associated with an invasive, EMT-derived phenotype in breast carcinoma cell lines.
Gilles, Christine ULg; Polette, M.; Birembaut, P. et al

in Clinical & Experimental Metastasis (1997), 15(5), 519-26

We have previously observed in vitro that some stromal proteinases (MMP-2, MT1-MMP) were expressed or activated by invasive carcinoma cell lines exhibiting mesenchymal features, presumably acquired ... [more ▼]

We have previously observed in vitro that some stromal proteinases (MMP-2, MT1-MMP) were expressed or activated by invasive carcinoma cell lines exhibiting mesenchymal features, presumably acquired through an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). To examine the potential contribution of c-ets-1 to this phenotype, we have compared here the expression of c-ets-1 with invasiveness in vitro and expression of vimentin, E-cadherin, uPA, MMP-1 and MMP-3 in a panel of human breast cancer cell lines. Our results clearly demonstrate an association between c-ets-1 expression and the invasive, EMT-derived phenotype, which is typified by the expression of vimentin and the lack of E-cadherin. While absent from the two non-invasive, vimentin-negative cell lines, c-ets-1 was abundantly expressed in all the four vimentin-positive lines. However, we could not find a clear quantitative or qualitative relationship between the expression of c-ets-1 and the three proteinases known to be regulated by c-ets-1, except that when they were expressed, it was only in the invasive c-ets-1-positive lines. UPA mRNAs were found in three of the four vimentin-positive lines, MMP-1 in two of the four, and MMP-3 could not be detected in any of the cell lines. Intriguingly, MDA-MB-435 cells, which exhibit the highest metastatic potential of these cell lines in nude mice, expressed vimentin and c-ets-1, but lacked expression of these three proteinases, at least under the culture conditions employed. Taken together, our results show that c-ets-1 expression is associated with an invasive, EMT-derived phenotype in breast cancer cells, although it is apparently not sufficient to ensure the expression of uPA, MMP-1 or MMP-3, in the vimentin-positive cells. Such proteases regulation is undoubtedly qualified by the cellular context. This study therefore advances our understanding of the molecular regulation of invasiveness in EMT-associated carcinoma progression, and suggests that c-ets-1 may contribute to the invasive phenotype in carcinoma cells. [less ▲]

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