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See detailFamilial aggregation and antimicrobial response dose-dependently affect the risk for Crohn's disease.
Joossens, Marie; Van Steen, Kristel ULg; Branche, Julien et al

in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (2010), 16(1), 58-67

BACKGROUND:: An increased risk of Crohn's disease (CD) has been reported consistently in first-degree relatives of patients. Our aim was to test whether a combination of CD-associated genes involved in ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND:: An increased risk of Crohn's disease (CD) has been reported consistently in first-degree relatives of patients. Our aim was to test whether a combination of CD-associated genes involved in innate immunity and/or antibody responses to microbial antigens may be valuable in identifying healthy relatives at risk. METHODS:: We investigated 86 families from Belgium and northern France, 45 with at least 3 first-degree relatives with CD, 24 with a single case, and 17 control families without inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The cohort consisted of 186 CD patients, 290 healthy relatives, and 142 controls (total 618). Genetic (NOD2, NOD1, TLR4, CARD8) and serologic markers (ASCA, ACMA, ALCA, ACCA, ASigmaMA, OmpC, CBir1, I2) were determined in all subjects. All Belgian families were prospectively followed up for 54 months. RESULTS:: In multiple-affected families, an increment of affected first-degree relatives and of positive antibodies were additive risks factors for CD (P < 0.0001), independent of NOD2 mutations. When comparing subjects from multiple-affected families, having 3 additional first-degree relatives with CD and 1 additional positive antibody increased the odds for CD to 9.19 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.07-20.80). After a follow-up of 54 months among all Belgian families, a total of 4 new diagnoses of IBD were confirmed in the multiple-affected families only, resulting in a 57-fold increase in incidence within multiple-affected families compared to the known incidence of IBD in our region. CONCLUSIONS:: We found an additive risk increment for CD in subjects from multicase families per additional affected relative and per additional positive antibody, independent of NOD2. Furthermore, a very high disease incidence was observed in these multiple-affected families. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2010. [less ▲]

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See detailPolymorphisms in the CYP 2D6 gene: Association with plasma concentrations of fluoxetine and paroxetine
Charlier, Corinne ULg; Broly, Franck; Pinto, Emmanuel ULg et al

in Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (2003), 25(6), 738-742

Most antidepressants are metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6, and it is well known that there may be significant interindividual variation in the capacity to metabolize xenobiotics. About 7 to 10% of ... [more ▼]

Most antidepressants are metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6, and it is well known that there may be significant interindividual variation in the capacity to metabolize xenobiotics. About 7 to 10% of whites are poor metabolisers (PM), and, on the contrary, about 5% are ultrarapid metabolizers (UM), inducing very different rates in the transformation of antidepressants extensively metabolized by CYP 2D6. CYP 2D6 polymorphism can be a potential risk factor for the development of side effects or a reason for the poor efficacy of the treatment. Various probe drugs may be used for phenotyping CYP 2D6, but genotyping is now available using leukocyte DNA and is independent of concomitant drug use. in this study, we used PCR-based methods for the identification of CYP 2D6 genotypes in 49 patients receiving standard doses of fluoxetine or paroxetine and found that plasma concentration of the antidepressant drugs was significantly correlated with genetic status. In one patient who displayed CYP 2D6 gene duplication (UM), paroxetine plasma concentration was extremely low. in PM fluoxetine-treated patients, drug plasma concentration was significantly higher than that seen in extensive metabolizers. [less ▲]

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