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See detailHighlights of the 2014 Jupiter observing campaign by multi - spectral remote sensing using space telescopes
Kimura, T.; Badman, S.; Tao, C. et al

Conference (2014, September 11)

From January to April 2014, two observing campaigns by multi-wavelength remote sensing from X-ray to radio were performed to uncover energy transport process in Jupiter’s plasma environment using space ... [more ▼]

From January to April 2014, two observing campaigns by multi-wavelength remote sensing from X-ray to radio were performed to uncover energy transport process in Jupiter’s plasma environment using space telescopes and ground-based facilities. These campaigns were triggered by the new Hisaki spacecraft launched in September 2013, which is an extremely ultraviolet (EUV) space telescope of JAXA designed specifically for planetary observations. In the first campaign in January, Hubble Space Telescope made imaging of far ultraviolet (FUV) aurora with a high special resolution (0.08”) through two weeks while Hisaki continuously monitored aurora and plasma torus emissions in EUV wavelength with a high temporal resolution (1 min<). We discovered new magnetospheric activities from the campaign data: e.g., internally-driven type auroral brightening associated with hot plasma injection, and plasma and electromagnetic filed modulations in the inner magnetosphere externally driven by the solar wind modulation. The second campaign in April was performed by Chandra X-ray Observatory, XMM newton, and Suzaku satellite simultaneously with Hisaki. Relativistic auroral accelerations in the polar region and hot plasma in the inner magnetosphere were captured by the X-ray space telescopes simultaneously with EUV monitoring of aurora and plasma torus. In this presentation, we show remarkable scientific results obtained these campaigns mainly focusing on Jupiter’s aurora. [less ▲]

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See detailAthena+: The first Deep Universe X-ray Observatory
Barret, D.; Nandra, K.; Barcons, X. et al

in Cambresy, L.; Martins, F.; Nuss, E. (Eds.) et al SF2A-2013: Proceedings of the Annual meeting of the French Society of Astronomy and Astrophysics (2013, November 01)

The Advanced Telescope for High-energy Astrophysics (Athena+) is being proposed to ESA as the L2 mission (for a launch in 2028) and is specifically designed to answer two of the most pressing questions ... [more ▼]

The Advanced Telescope for High-energy Astrophysics (Athena+) is being proposed to ESA as the L2 mission (for a launch in 2028) and is specifically designed to answer two of the most pressing questions for astrophysics in the forthcoming decade: How did ordinary matter assemble into the large scale structures we see today? and how do black holes grow and shape the Universe? For addressing these two issues, Athena+ will provide transformational capabilities in terms of angular resolution, effective area, spectral resolution, grasp, that will make it the most powerful X-ray observatory ever flown. Such an observatory, when opened to the astronomical community, will be used for virtually all classes of astrophysical objects, from high-z gamma-ray bursts to the closest planets in our solar neighborhood. In this paper, we briefly review the core science objectives of Athena+, present the science requirements and the foreseen implementation of the mission, and illustrate its transformational capabilities compared to existing facilities. [less ▲]

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See detailORIGIN: metal creation and evolution from the cosmic dawn
den Herder, Jan-Willem; Piro, Luigi; Ohashi, Takaya et al

in Experimental Astronomy (2012), 34

ORIGIN is a proposal for the M3 mission call of ESA aimed at the study of metal creation from the epoch of cosmic dawn. Using high-spectral resolution in the soft X-ray band, ORIGIN will be able to ... [more ▼]

ORIGIN is a proposal for the M3 mission call of ESA aimed at the study of metal creation from the epoch of cosmic dawn. Using high-spectral resolution in the soft X-ray band, ORIGIN will be able to identify the physical conditions of all abundant elements between C and Ni to red-shifts of z = 10, and beyond. The mission will answer questions such as: When were the first metals created? How does the cosmic metal content evolve? Where do most of the metals reside in the Universe? What is the role of metals in structure formation and evolution? To reach out to the early Universe ORIGIN will use Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) to study their local environments in their host galaxies. This requires the capability to slew the satellite in less than a minute to the GRB location. By studying the chemical composition and properties of clusters of galaxies we can extend the range of exploration to lower redshifts ( z ˜0.2). For this task we need a high-resolution spectral imaging instrument with a large field of view. Using the same instrument, we can also study the so far only partially detected baryons in the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM). The less dense part of the WHIM will be studied using absorption lines at low redshift in the spectra for GRBs. The ORIGIN mission includes a Transient Event Detector (coded mask with a sensitivity of 0.4 photon/cm[SUP]2[/SUP]/s in 10 s in the 5-150 keV band) to identify and localize 2000 GRBs over a five year mission, of which ˜65 GRBs have a redshift >7. The Cryogenic Imaging Spectrometer, with a spectral resolution of 2.5 eV, a field of view of 30 arcmin and large effective area below 1 keV has the sensitivity to study clusters up to a significant fraction of the virial radius and to map the denser parts of the WHIM (factor 30 higher than achievable with current instruments). The payload is complemented by a Burst InfraRed Telescope to enable onboard red-shift determination of GRBs (hence securing proper follow up of high-z bursts) and also probes the mildly ionized state of the gas. Fast repointing is achieved by a dedicated Controlled Momentum Gyro and a low background is achieved by the selected low Earth orbit. [less ▲]

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See detailSpectral morphology of the X-ray emission from Jupiter's aurorae
Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Galand, M. et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research (2008), 113(A2),

Simultaneous Chandra X-ray and Hubble Space Telescope FUV observations of Jupiter's aurorae carried out in February 2003 have been re-examined to investigate the spatial morphology of the X-ray events in ... [more ▼]

Simultaneous Chandra X-ray and Hubble Space Telescope FUV observations of Jupiter's aurorae carried out in February 2003 have been re-examined to investigate the spatial morphology of the X-ray events in different energy bands. The data clearly show that in the Northern auroral region (in the main auroral oval and the polar cap) events with energy > 2 keV are located at the periphery of those with energy < 2 keV and coincide with FUV bright features. In addition, X-ray spectra extracted from the areas where the two event distributions are concentrated possess different shapes. We associate the > 2 keV events (similar to 45 MW emitted power) with the electron bremsstrahlung component recently revealed by XMM-Newton in the spectra of Jupiter's aurorae, and the < 2 keV emission (similar to 230 MW) with the product of ion charge exchange, now established as the likely mechanism responsible for the soft X-ray Jovian aurora. We suggest that the same population of energetic electrons may be responsible for both, the X-ray bremsstrahlung and the FUV emission of Jupiter's aurorae. Comparison of the > 2 keV X-ray and FUV (340 GW) powers measured during the observations shows that they are broadly consistent with the predicted emissions from a population of energetic electrons precipitating in the planet's atmosphere, thus supporting our interpretation. [less ▲]

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See detailThe morphology of the X-ray emission above 2 keV from Jupiter's aurorae
Elsner, R. F.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Galand, M. et al

Conference (2007, June 25)

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See detailAuroral and Non-auroral X-ray Emissions from Jupiter: A Comparative View
Bhardwaj, A.; Elsner, R.; Gladstone, R. et al

Poster (2004)

Jovian X-rays can be broadly classified into two categories: (1) "auroral" emission, which is confined to high-latitudes ( ˜>60° ) at both polar regions, and (2) "dayglow" emission, which originates from ... [more ▼]

Jovian X-rays can be broadly classified into two categories: (1) "auroral" emission, which is confined to high-latitudes ( ˜>60° ) at both polar regions, and (2) "dayglow" emission, which originates from the sunlit low-latitude ( ˜<50° ) regions of the disk (hereafter called "disk" emissions). Recent X-ray observations of Jupiter by Chandra and XMM-Newton have shown that these two types of X-ray emission from Jupiter have different morphological, temporal, and spectral characteristics. In particular: 1) contrary to the auroral X-rays, which are concentrated in a spot in the north and in a band that runs half-way across the planet in the south, the low-latitude X-ray disk is almost uniform; 2) unlike the ˜40±20-min periodic oscillations seen in the auroral X-ray emissions, the disk emissions do not show any periodic oscillations; 3) the disk emission is harder and extends to higher energies than the auroral spectrum; and 4) the disk X-ray emission show time variability similar to that seen in solar X-rays. These differences and features imply that the processes producing X-rays are different at these two latitude regions on Jupiter. We will present the details of these and other features that suggest the differences between these two classes of X-ray emissions from Jupiter, and discuss the current scenario of the production mechanism of them. [less ▲]

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