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See detailNon-pharmacological management of osteoporosis: a consensus of the Belgian Bone Club
Body, J. J.; Bergmann, P.; Boonen, S. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2011), 22(11), 2769-88

This consensus article reviews the various aspects of the non-pharmacological management of osteoporosis, including the effects of nutriments, physical exercise, lifestyle, fall prevention, and hip ... [more ▼]

This consensus article reviews the various aspects of the non-pharmacological management of osteoporosis, including the effects of nutriments, physical exercise, lifestyle, fall prevention, and hip protectors. Vertebroplasty is also briefly reviewed. Non-pharmacological management of osteoporosis is a broad concept. It must be viewed as an essential part of the prevention of fractures from childhood through adulthood and the old age. The topic also includes surgical procedures for the treatment of peripheral and vertebral fractures and the post-fracture rehabilitation. The present document is the result of a consensus, based on a systematic review and a critical appraisal of the literature. Diets deficient in calcium, proteins or vitamin D impair skeletal integrity. The effect of other nutriments is less clear, although an excessive consumption of sodium, caffeine, or fibres exerts negative effects on calcium balance. The deleterious effects of tobacco, excessive alcohol consumption and a low BMI are well accepted. Physical activity is of primary importance to reach optimal peak bone mass but, if numerous studies have shown the beneficial effects of various types of exercise on bone mass, fracture data as an endpoint are scanty. Fall prevention strategies are especially efficient in the community setting, but less evidence is available about their effectiveness in preventing fall-related injuries and fractures. The efficacy of hip protectors remains controversial. This is also true for vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty. Several randomized controlled studies had reported a short-term advantage of vertebroplasty over medical treatment for pain relief, but these findings have been questioned by recent sham-controlled randomized clinical studies. [less ▲]

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See detailLoading and skeletal development and maintenance.
Bergmann, P.; Body, J. J.; BOONEN, S. et al

in Journal of Osteoporosis (2010), 2011

Mechanical loading is a major regulator of bone mass and geometry. The osteocytes network is considered the main sensor of loads, through the shear stress generated by strain induced fluid flow in the ... [more ▼]

Mechanical loading is a major regulator of bone mass and geometry. The osteocytes network is considered the main sensor of loads, through the shear stress generated by strain induced fluid flow in the lacuno-canalicular system. Intracellular transduction implies several kinases and phosphorylation of the estrogen receptor. Several extra-cellular mediators, among which NO and prostaglandins are transducing the signal to the effector cells. Disuse results in osteocytes apoptosis and rapid imbalanced bone resorption, leading to severe osteoporosis. Exercising during growth increases peak bone mass, and could be beneficial with regards to osteoporosis later in life, but the gain could be lost if training is abandoned. Exercise programs in adults and seniors have barely significant effects on bone mass and geometry at least at short term. There are few data on a possible additive effect of exercise and drugs in osteoporosis treatment, but disuse could decrease drugs action. Exercise programs proposed for bone health are tedious and compliance is usually low. The most practical advice for patients is to walk a minimum of 30 to 60 minutes per day. Other exercises like swimming or cycling have less effect on bone, but could reduce fracture risk indirectly by maintaining muscle mass and force. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence-based guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis: a consensus document by the Belgian Bone Club.
Body, J. J.; Bergmann, P.; Boonen, S. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2010), 21(10), 1657-80

Several drugs are available for the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis. This may, in daily practice, confuse the clinician. This manuscript offers an evidence-based update of previous treatment ... [more ▼]

Several drugs are available for the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis. This may, in daily practice, confuse the clinician. This manuscript offers an evidence-based update of previous treatment guidelines, with a critical assessment of the currently available efficacy data on all new chemical entities which were granted a marketing authorization. Osteoporosis is widely recognized as a major public health concern. The availability of new therapeutic agents makes clinical decision-making in osteoporosis more complex. Nation-specific guidelines are needed to take into consideration the specificities of each and every health care environment. The present manuscript is the result of a National Consensus, based on a systematic review and a critical appraisal of the currently available literature. It offers an evidence-based update of previous treatment guidelines, with the aim of providing clinicians with an unbiased assessment of osteoporosis treatment effect. [less ▲]

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See detailManagement of patients with Paget's disease: a consensus document of the Belgian Bone Club.
Devogelaer, Jean-Pierre; Bergmann, Pierre; Body, Jean-Jacques et al

in Osteoporosis International (2008), 19(8), 1109-17

Paget's disease of bone (PDB) is a potentially crippling condition. Pain, fracture, spinal stenosis, nerve entrapment, vascular steal syndrome, secondary osteoarthritis, bone deformity, dental problems ... [more ▼]

Paget's disease of bone (PDB) is a potentially crippling condition. Pain, fracture, spinal stenosis, nerve entrapment, vascular steal syndrome, secondary osteoarthritis, bone deformity, dental problems, deafness, excessive bleeding during orthopaedic surgery, rare sarcomatous degeneration, and hypercalcaemia constitute complications that may impair the quality of life. The therapeutic approach varies from symptomatic (analgesics, anti-inflammatory drugs) to more specific drugs such as increasingly potent bisphosphonates. Studies such as the PRISM study should in the future help to determine the superiority or not of aggressive treatment over symptomatic treatment in the prevention of complications. Various oral and/or intravenous (i.v.) bisphosphonates have been tested and are currently on the market. The most recently available nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, i.v. zoledronic acid, is the most potent therapy available for the treatment of PDB. Its therapeutic efficacy, its long-term effect on biologic activity and its good tolerance currently supports its use as a first-line therapeutic option in patients suffering from PDB. [less ▲]

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See detailManagement of cancer treatment-induced bone loss in early breast and prostate cancer -- a consensus paper of the Belgian Bone Club.
Body, Jean-Jacques; Bergmann, P.; Boonen, S. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2007), 18(11), 1439-50

Cancer treatment-induced bone loss (CTIBL) is one of the most important side effects of adjuvant antineoplastic treatment in hormone-dependent neoplasms. Chemotherapy, GnRH analogs and tamoxifen can ... [more ▼]

Cancer treatment-induced bone loss (CTIBL) is one of the most important side effects of adjuvant antineoplastic treatment in hormone-dependent neoplasms. Chemotherapy, GnRH analogs and tamoxifen can induce marked bone loss in premenopausal women with early breast cancer. Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are replacing tamoxifen as the preferred treatment for postmenopausal women. As a class effect, steroidal (exemestane) and non-steroidal (anastrozole and letrozole) AIs increase bone turnover and cause bone loss (4%-5% over 2 years). When compared to tamoxifen, the risk of getting a clinical fracture under AI treatment is increased by 35%-50%. In patients with prostate cancer, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) increases bone turnover, reduces bone mass (4%-5% per year) and increases the fracture rate depending on the duration of therapy. Zoledronic acid can prevent accelerated bone loss induced by goserelin in premenopausal women, by letrozole in postmenopausal women and by ADT in men. More limited data indicate that weekly alendronate or risedronate could also be effective for preventing CTIBL. Initiation of therapy early, prior to the occurrence of severe osteoporosis, rather than after, may be more effective. Bisphosphonate treatment should be considered in osteoporotic but also in osteopenic patients if other risk factor(s) for fractures are present. [less ▲]

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See detailDual energy X-ray absorptiometry-based assessment of male patients using standardized bone density values and a national reference database
Goemaere, S.; Vanderschueren, D.; Kaufman, J. M. et al

in Journal of Clinical Densitometry (2007), 10(1, JAN-MAR), 25-33

Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements from different manufacturers provide different bone mineral density (BMD) values and derived T-scores and Z-scores. These differences result partly from ... [more ▼]

Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements from different manufacturers provide different bone mineral density (BMD) values and derived T-scores and Z-scores. These differences result partly from technical differences in the algorithms for the determination of bone mineral content and bone area and partly from the use of different manufacturer-derived reference databases. The present study was to implement a uniforrn expression of BNID in all male patients by using standardized BMD (sBMD) values and referring to a newly established national male reference sample. In 8 bone densitometry centers throughout Belgium 229 young healthy men were measured on Hologic (Bedford, MA) or GE-Lunar (Madison, WI) bone densitometers. Quality control procedures were implemented and site cross-calibration performed using the European Spine Phantom. Absolute BMD values were converted to standardized values by validated formulas (sBMD). Clinically acceptable between-center differences were noted. No discrepancy was observed in terms of mean sBMD and standard deviations at the lumbar spine and proximal femur between the Belgian and the US reference populations. Region-specific sBMD thresholds for the diagnosis of male osteoporosis were calculated. The current data provide a basis to implement a nation-wide, uniform expression of BMD in male patients and allow harmonization of the BMD-based diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis in men. [less ▲]

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See detailDXA-based assessment of male patients using standardized bone density values and a national reference database
Goemaere, S.; Vanderschueren, D.; Kaufman, Jean-Marc et al

in Osteoporosis International (2006, March), 17(Suppl.1), 54

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See detailBelgian bone specialists are eagerly looking to the availability of new medications in osteoporosis
Goemaere, S.; Bergmann, P.; Body, J. J. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2006, March), 17(Suppl.1), 27

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See detailEvidence-based guidelines for the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis: a consensus document of the Belgian Bone Club
Devogelaer, J. P.; Goemaere, S.; Boonen, S. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2006), 17(1), 8-19

Glucocorticoids (GCs) are frequently prescribed for various inflammatory and/or life-threatening conditions concerning many systems in the body. However, they can provoke many aftereffects, of which ... [more ▼]

Glucocorticoids (GCs) are frequently prescribed for various inflammatory and/or life-threatening conditions concerning many systems in the body. However, they can provoke many aftereffects, of which osteoporosis (OP) is one of the most crippling complications, with its host of fractures. The dramatic increase in bone fragility is mainly attributable to the GC-induced rapid bone loss in all skeletal compartments. We have reviewed the meta-analyses and randomized controlled studies reporting medical therapeutic interventions currently registered in Belgium for the management of GC-OP comparatively with a placebo. Based on this research, an expert meeting developed a consensus on the prevention and therapy of GC-OP. The pathophysiology of GC-OP is complex. Several factors, acting separately or synergistically, have been described. Their great number could help to understand the rapidity of bone loss and of bone fragility occurrence, indicating that a rapid therapeutic intervention should be implemented to avoid complications. All patients on GCs are threatened with OP, so the prevention and/or therapy of GC-OP should be considered not only for postmenopausal females, but also for osteopenic premenopausal females and for males put on a daily dose of at least 7.5 mg equivalent prednisolone that is expected to last at least 3 months. Non-pharmacological interventions, such as exercise and avoidance of tobacco and alcohol, should be recommended, even if their role is not definitely settled in GC-OP prevention. Supplemental calcium and vitamin D should be considered as the first-line therapy because of the decrease in intestinal calcium absorption provoked by GCs. They also could be considered either as isolated therapy in patients taking less than 7.5 mg prednisolone daily and/or for a predicted period shorter than 3 months or as adjuvant therapy to other more potent drugs. Hormone replacement therapy could be considered in young postmenopausal females on GC, such as in postmenopausal OP, or in men with low androgen levels. Calcitonin appears to have a protective effect on trabecular bone in GC-OP, just as in postmenopausal OP. There is an increasing body of evidence supporting the antifracture efficacy of bisphosphonates, notably alendronate and risedronate. Preventative and curative therapy of GC-OP should be maintained as long as the patient is on GC treatment and could be stopped after weaning from GC, because there is more than circumstantial evidence of some recovery of BMD when GCs are stopped. There is no indication in GC-OP for any combination of two antiresorptive agents (except for calcium and vitamin D) or for an antiresorptive and an anabolic agent. There is indeed no proof that the increased costs of combined treatments will translate into increased therapeutic efficacy. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence-based guidelines for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis: a consensus document of the Belgian Bone Club
Boonen, S.; Body, Jean-Jacques; Boutsen, Y. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2005), 16(3), 239-254

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