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See detailProlactin-induced activation of nuclear factor kappa B in bovine mammary epithelial cells: Role in chronic mastitis
Boutet, Philippe ULg; Sulon, Joseph ULg; Closset, R. et al

in Journal of Dairy Science (2007), 90(1), 155-164

We sought to determine whether prolactin (PRL) could influence the neutrophilic inflammation that characterizes chronic mastitis. Most of the genes encoding inflammatory proteins depend on the nuclear ... [more ▼]

We sought to determine whether prolactin (PRL) could influence the neutrophilic inflammation that characterizes chronic mastitis. Most of the genes encoding inflammatory proteins depend on the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) for their expression. We addressed the hypothesis that immunomodulatory activities of PRL might arise from an increase in NF-kappa B activity. MAC-T cells, a bovine mammary epithelial cell line, were stimulated with increasing concentrations of bovine PRL ( 1, 5, 25, 125, and 1,000 ng/mL). Level of NF-kappa B binding activity was measured and mRNA was evaluated for IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF), IFN-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, cytokines known to require NF-kappa B for their maximal transcription. Prolactin activated NF-kappa B; maximal NF-kappa B activation was weaker with PRL than with TNF-alpha at 30 or 180 min poststimulation. In addition, PRL significantly amplified, in a dose-dependent manner, mRNA expression of IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, GMCSF, and TNF-a. We measured PRL concentrations in blood and milk from healthy and chronic mastitis-infected cows, and studied the relationship between the PRL concentration and the degree of inflammation in the mammary gland as indirectly assessed by somatic cell counts (SCC). Plasma PRL did not differ significantly between healthy and chronic mastitis-affected cows (63.7 and 67.5 ng/mL, respectively). Milk PRL concentration was significantly increased in chronic mastitis-affected quarters with the highest SCC, and had a positive significant correlation between SCC, as well as between the number of neutrophils present in milk samples. The present findings show that PRL promotes an inflammatory response in bovine mammary epithelial cells via NF-kappa B activation, and suggest a role for PRL in the pathogenesis of chronic mastitis. [less ▲]

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See detailSTAT5 is an Ambivalent Regulator of Neutrophil Homeostasis
Fievez, Laurence ULg; Desmet, Christophe ULg; Henry, E. et al

Poster (2007)

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See detailLa mammite bovine : de l’initiation à la résolution
Boutet, Philippe ULg; Bureau, Fabrice ULg; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2006), 150(1), 1-26

The bovine mastitis : from initiation to resolution The cure of a cow suffering from a bacterial mastitis relies on the balance between the eradication of the pathogen and the resolution of the ... [more ▼]

The bovine mastitis : from initiation to resolution The cure of a cow suffering from a bacterial mastitis relies on the balance between the eradication of the pathogen and the resolution of the inflammatory response, two processes that are essential to come back to a normal milk composition with low somatic cell count. The persistence of the inflammatory response, which main consequence is a reduction in milk yield, is a feature of chronic mastitis. This frequent disease depends on inappropriate host-pathogen interactions and is not yet well understood. This review resumes the main defence mechanisms of the bovine mammary gland, emphasizing the predominant roles played by the neutrophil, and brings some precisions on lipoxin implications in the resolution of inflammation. Reasons that may explain the persistence of the inflammatory reaction, a phenomenon found in the Staphylococcus aureus chronic mastitis, are also discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailProlactine triggers a pro-inflamatory response in bovine mammary epithelial cells
Boutet, Philippe ULg; Sulon, Joseph; Detilleux, Johann ULg et al

in Proceedings: 24th World Buiatrics Congress (2006)

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See detailEffect of carprofen treatment following experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis in primiparous cows.
Vangroenweghe, F.; Duchateau, L.; Boutet, Philippe ULg et al

in Journal of Dairy Science (2005), 88(7), 2361-2376

Acute Escherichia coli mastitis is one of the major sources of economic loss in the dairy industry due to reduced milk production, treatment costs, discarded milk, and occasional fatal disease ... [more ▼]

Acute Escherichia coli mastitis is one of the major sources of economic loss in the dairy industry due to reduced milk production, treatment costs, discarded milk, and occasional fatal disease. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are frequently used as adjunctive therapy to antibiotics. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of carprofen treatment following infusion of Escherichia coli into the mammary glands of primiparous cows during the periparturient period. Severity of mastitis was scored based on the average milk production in the uninfected quarters on d +2 postinoculation and a clinical severity score. Carprofen was administered intravenously at 9 h postchallenge, when clinical signs of mastitis appeared. In previous work, efficacy of NSAIDs was mainly evaluated using clinical symptoms. In the present study, the effect of carprofen on innate immune response was also assessed by quantification of inflammatory mediators. All primiparous cows reacted as moderate responders throughout the experimental period. Primiparous cows were intramammarily inoculated with 1 x 10(4) cfu of E. coli P4:O32 in 2 left quarters. Analysis of blood and milk parameters, including IL-8, complement component C5a, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), soluble CD14, prostaglandin E2, and thromboxane B2 was performed from d 0 to d +6 relative to intramammary inoculation. Rectal temperature in carprofen-treated animals was lower than in control animals at 3 and 6 h posttreatment. Treatment also restored the decreased reticulorumen motility that occurs during E. coli mastitis to preinfection levels faster than in control animals. Carprofen treatment resulted in an earlier normalization of the clinical severity score. Eicosanoid (prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane B2) production in milk tended to be inhibited by carprofen. No significant differences in the kinetic patterns of somatic cell count, IL-8, complement component C5a, LBP, and soluble CD14 were observed. In conclusion, carprofen treatment improved general clinical condition by effective antipyrexia and restoration of reticulorumen motility but did not significantly inhibit eicosanoid production. Carprofen treatment did not result in a significant decrease of chemotactic inflammatory mediators, IL-8 and C5a, and early innate immune molecules, sCD14 and LBP. Therefore, major modulatory effects from NSAID administration were not observed in this mastitis model, although a larger study might confirm some apparent trends obtained in the present results. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude des variables spirométriques et des mesures morphométriques des veaux croisés Blanc-Bleu Belge x Holsteins pie noire
Jacqmot, Olivier ULg; Michaux, Charles ULg; Borceux, Ph et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2004), 148(1), 39-46

The bovine species is highly susceptible to respiratory dis-eases. A previous experiment has shown that Belgian Blue and White calves have lower spiro-metric variables than Holstein calves. The first aim ... [more ▼]

The bovine species is highly susceptible to respiratory dis-eases. A previous experiment has shown that Belgian Blue and White calves have lower spiro-metric variables than Holstein calves. The first aim of this study was to measure the spirometric variables (peak inspiratory flow, peak expiratory flow, maximal tidal volume, maximal ventilation in 15 seconds and ventilatory reserve) of 18 crossed Belgian Blue x Holstein calves and of 32 Dual purpose calves by the lobelin test and to compare them with 19 Holstein calves and 22 Belgian Blue and White calves. The second aim was to test the correlation between some mor-phometrical parameters (chest girth, thoracic width, thoracic length, thoracic height, thoracic section and costal angle) and those spirometric variables. The spirometric variables of the crossed calves and of the Dual purpose calves are situated between the ones of the Belgian Blue and White and of the Holstein. There is a positive sig-nificant correlation between these parameters and the spirometric variables. The higher cor-relation is obtained with the chest girth. All these parameters are easier and quicker measura-ble, and at lower cost than the spirometric variables [less ▲]

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See detailChronic mastitis-affected cows display lower lipoxin levels than acute mastitis-affected cows
Boutet, Philippe ULg; Bureau, Fabrice ULg; Degand, Guy ULg et al

in Pflügers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology (2004), 447

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See detailDelayed neutrophil apoptosis in bovine subclinical mastitis.
Boutet, Philippe ULg; Boulanger, D.; Gillet, Laurent ULg et al

in Journal of Dairy Science (2004), 87(12), 4104-4114

Bovine subclinical mastitis can be defined as a moderated inflammatory disease characterized by a persistent accumulation of neutrophils in milk. As GMCSF-mediated delay of neutrophil apoptosis ... [more ▼]

Bovine subclinical mastitis can be defined as a moderated inflammatory disease characterized by a persistent accumulation of neutrophils in milk. As GMCSF-mediated delay of neutrophil apoptosis contributes to the accumulation of inflammatory cells at the site of inflammation in many human diseases, we sought to determine whether subclinical mastitis in cows is also associated with a GMCSF-dependent increase in milk-neutrophil survival. We first addressed the hypothesis that GMCSF delays bovine neutrophil apoptosis by activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) family members STAT3 and STAT5, which are critical regulators of the expression of various Bcl-2 family proteins. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor significantly delayed apoptosis of blood neutrophils obtained from healthy cows. In these cells, GMCSF activated STAT5, but not STAT3, and induced an increase in the mRNA of the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 member, Bcl-xL. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-dependent STAT5 activation and up-regulation of Bcl-xL mRNA were blocked by the Jak inhibitor, AG-490. This inhibition was associated with abrogation of the prosurvival effect of GMCSF, demonstrating a key role for STAT5 in delayed neutrophil apoptosis. We further found that GMCSF expression was increased in milk cells from cows affected with subclinical mastitis. Neutrophils from these cows demonstrated a significant delay of apoptosis as compared with neutrophils obtained from healthy cows and were unresponsive to GMCSF. Active STAT5 complexes were detected in these neutrophils. Finally, in the presence of AG-490, apoptosis was induced and a time-dependent down-regulation of Bcl-xL mRNA was observed in milk neutrophils from mastitis-affected cows. These results indicate that neutrophil survival is enhanced in milk of subclinical mastitis-affected cows and suggest a role for a GMCSF-activated STAT5 signaling pathway in this phenomenon. This pathway could thus represent a target for the control of persistent accumulation of neutrophils in the bovine mammary gland [less ▲]

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See detailChronic mastitis-affected cows display lower lipoxin levels than acute mastitis-affected cows
Boutet, Philippe ULg; Bureau, Fabrice ULg; Degand, Guy ULg et al

in Recueil "Le Médecin Vétérinaire du Québec" (2004), 34(1 et 2), 160

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See detailAntiapoptotic effect of GM-CSF activated STAT5 signaling pathway in chronic mastitis-affected cows : possible involvement in persistent accumulation of neutrophils in milk
Boutet, Philippe ULg; Bureau, Fabrice ULg; Gillet, Laurent ULg et al

in Congress COST Action 844: “Apoptosis and programmed cell death : molecular mechanisms and applications in Biotechnology and Agriculture” (2004)

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See detailImbalance between lipoxin A(4) and leukotriene B-4 in chronic mastitis-affected cows
Boutet, Philippe ULg; Bureau, Fabrice ULg; Degand, Guy ULg et al

in Journal of Dairy Science (2003), 86(11), 3430-3439

Persistent accumulation of inflammatory cells in the udder, with neutrophils being the predominant cell type, is a characteristic feature of chronic mastitis in dairy cows. Leukotriene (LT) B-4 is a ... [more ▼]

Persistent accumulation of inflammatory cells in the udder, with neutrophils being the predominant cell type, is a characteristic feature of chronic mastitis in dairy cows. Leukotriene (LT) B-4 is a potent chemotactic agent, known to induce recruitment and accumulation of neutrophils in the bovine mammary gland. The LTB4-stimulated neutrophil functional responses are closely opposed by lipoxin (LX) A(4), which promotes the resolution of inflammation. We thus hypothesized that the chronic inflammation of the udder could be associated with an unfavorable ratio between these two eicosanoids and that the persistence of neutrophil accumulation could be due to an increase in LTB4 synthesis and/or an impaired LXA(4) production. In an attempt to verify this hypothesis, we first measured LXA(4), LTB4, and their ratio in the milk of healthy and acute and chronic mastitis-affected quarters. Next, we studied the relationships between these variables and the degree of udder inflammation as assessed by somatic cell count measurement. The LTB4 concentration was low in healthy quarters, drastically increased in acute mastitis, and reached intermediate levels in chronic mastitis-affected quarters. However, whereas LXA(4) concentration was highly increased in acute mastitis, healthy and chronic quarters had similarly low values. The LXA(4):LTB4 ratio was thus significantly lower in chronic mastitis-affected cows. The LTB4 concentrations measured in chronic quarters were highly correlated to somatic cell count and to milk neutrophil and macrophage numbers. A weaker correlation was observed between LXA(4) and these variables. For both eicosanoids, the highest correlation was observed with the number of neutrophils. These results show the existence of an LXA(4):LTB4 imbalance in chronic mastitis-affected cows because of low LXA(4) concentrations. Further studies are needed to determine whether administration of LX or stable analogs could have therapeutic potential in the control of chronic bovine mastitis. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison between three therapeutic strategies in the bovine respiratory disease complex
Boutet, Philippe ULg; Coghe, J.; Borceux, J. P. et al

in Pflügers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology (2002), 443

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See detailRecent advances in bovine pneumology
Lekeux, Pierre ULg; Borceux, J.; Boutet, Philippe ULg et al

in Kaske, Martin; Scholz, Henner; Höltershinken, Martin (Eds.) Recent developments and perspectives in bovine medicine (2002)

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See detailNuove strategie per migliorare l'efficacia della terapia nella sindrome respiratoria bovina negli animali da allevamento
Lekeux, Pierre ULg; Coghe, J.; Boutet, Philippe ULg

in Proceedings: 4° Congresso Nazionale Multisala SIVAR (2002)

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See detailB2 agonists cross the bovine placenta
Boutet, Philippe ULg; Uysterpruyst, C. H.; Degand, Guy ULg et al

in Pflügers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology (2001), 442(R41),

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See detailMécanismes de l'inflammation subclinique de la glande mammaire
Lekeux, Pierre ULg; Boulanger, D.; Boutet, Philippe ULg et al

in Proceedings : Congrès de la Société française de Buiatrie "Actualités en Buiatrie" (2001)

Detailed reference viewed: 89 (5 ULg)