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See detailInnovative Methodology for the Definition of Design Spaces of Chromatographic Methods
Rozet, Eric ULg; Debrus, B; Lebrun, Pierre ULg et al

Conference (2013, June 06)

As defined by ICH [1] and FDA, Quality by Design (QbD) stands for “a systematic approach to development that begins with predefined objectives and emphasizes product and process understanding and process ... [more ▼]

As defined by ICH [1] and FDA, Quality by Design (QbD) stands for “a systematic approach to development that begins with predefined objectives and emphasizes product and process understanding and process control, based on sound science and quality risk management”. A risk–based QbD–compliant approach is proposed for the robust development of analytical methods. This methodology based on Design of Experiments (DoE) to study the experimental domain models the retention times at the beginning, the apex and the end of each peak corresponding to the compounds of a mixture and uses the separation criterion (S) rather than the resolution (RS) as a Critical Quality Attribute. Stepwise multiple linear regressions are used to create the models. The estimated error is propagated from the modelled responses to the separation criterion (S) using Monte Carlo simulations in order to estimate the predictive distribution of the separation criterion (S) over the whole experimental domain. This allows finding ranges of operating conditions that will guarantee a satisfactory quality of the method in its future use. These ranges define the Design Space (DS) of the method. In chromatographic terms, the chromatograms processed at operating conditions within the DS will assuredly show high quality, with well separated peaks and short run time, for instance. This Design Space can thus be defined as the subspace, necessarily encompassed in the experimental domain (i.e. the knowledge space), within which the probability for the criterion to be higher than an advisedly selected threshold is higher than a minimum quality level. Precisely, the DS is defined as “the multidimensional combination and interaction of input variables (e.g., material attributes) and process parameters that have been demonstrated to provide assurance of quality” [1]. Therefore, this DS defines a region of operating conditions that provide prediction of assurance of quality rather than only quality as obtained with traditional mean response surface optimisation strategies. For instance, in the liquid chromatography there is a great difference in e.g. predicting a resolution (RS) higher than 1.5 vs. predicting that the probability for RS to be higher than 1.5 (i.e. P(RS> 1.5)) is high. The presentation of this global methodology will be illustrated for the robust optimisation and DS definition of several liquid chromatographic methods dedicated to the separation of different mixtures: pharmaceutical formulations, API and impurities/degradation products, plant extracts, separation of enantiomers, … [less ▲]

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See detailMethodology for the Validation of Analytical Methods involved in Uniformity of Dosage Units tests
Rozet, Eric ULg; Ziemons, Eric ULg; Marini Djang'Eing'A, Roland ULg et al

in Analytica Chimica Acta (2013), 760

Validation of analytical methods is required prior to their routine use. In addition, the current implementation of the Quality by Design (QbD) framework in the pharmaceutical industries aims at improving ... [more ▼]

Validation of analytical methods is required prior to their routine use. In addition, the current implementation of the Quality by Design (QbD) framework in the pharmaceutical industries aims at improving the quality of the end products starting from its early design stage. However, no regulatory guideline or none of the published methodologies to assess method validation propose decision methodologies that effectively take into account the final purpose of developed analytical methods. In this work a solution is proposed for the specific case of validating analytical methods involved in the assessment of the Content Uniformity or Uniformity of Dosage Units of a batch of pharmaceutical drug products as proposed in the European or US pharmacopoeias. This methodology uses statistical tolerance intervals as decision tools. Moreover it adequately defines the Analytical Target Profile of analytical methods in order to obtain analytical methods that allow to make correct decisions about Content Uniformity or Uniformity of Dosage Units with high probability. The applicability of the proposed methodology is further illustrated using an HPLC-UV assay as well as a Near Infra-Red Spectrophotometric method. [less ▲]

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See detailComments on “Uncertainty profiles for the validation of analytical methods” by Saffaj and Ihssane
Rozet, Eric ULg; Ziemons, Eric ULg; Marini Djang'Eing'A, Roland ULg et al

in Talanta (2012), 88

Saffaj et al., recently proposed an uncertainty profile for evaluating the validity of analytical methods using the statistical methodology of γ-confidence β-content tolerance intervals. This profile ... [more ▼]

Saffaj et al., recently proposed an uncertainty profile for evaluating the validity of analytical methods using the statistical methodology of γ-confidence β-content tolerance intervals. This profile assesses the validity of the method by comparing the method measurement uncertainty to a pre defined acceptance limit stating the maximum uncertainty suitable for the method under study. Several years earlier as stated by these authors a SFSTP (Société Française des Sciences et Techniques Pharmaceutique) commission has developed a similar profile called accuracy profile used to assess the validity of analytical methods. This accuracy profile also uses the methodology of statistical tolerance intervals, but β-expectation tolerance intervals. The uncertainty profile of Saffaj et al. and the accuracy profile of the SFSTP commission are both fulfilling the same final purpose. The core question is finally what statistical tolerance interval to use ? The aim of this letter to the editor is to discuss this question and provide arguments that β-expectation tolerance intervals should be prefered to assess the validity of the method as this type of interval give the guarantee that each future results has high probability to fall within pre-specified acceptance limits. [less ▲]

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See detailValidation of analytical methods involved in dissolution assays: Acceptance limits and decision methodologies
Rozet, Eric ULg; Ziemons, Eric ULg; Marini Djang'Eing'A, Roland ULg et al

in Analytica Chimica Acta (2012), 751

Dissolution tests are key elements to ensure continuing product quality and performance. The ultimate goal of these tests is to assure consistent product quality within a defined set of specification ... [more ▼]

Dissolution tests are key elements to ensure continuing product quality and performance. The ultimate goal of these tests is to assure consistent product quality within a defined set of specification criteria. Validation of an analytical method aimed at assessing the dissolution profile of products or at verifying pharmacopoeias compliance should demonstrate that this analytical method is able to correctly declare two dissolution profiles as similar or drug products as compliant with respect to their specifications. It is essential to ensure that these analytical methods are fit for their purpose. Method validation is aimed at providing this guarantee. However, even in the ICHQ2 guideline there is no information explaining how to decide whether the method under validation is valid for its final purpose or not. Are the entire validation criterion needed to ensure that a Quality Control (QC) analytical method for dissolution test is valid? What acceptance limits should be set on these criteria? How to decide about method’s validity? These are the questions that this work aims at answering. Focus is made to comply with the current implementation of the Quality by Design (QbD) principles in the pharmaceutical industry in order to allow to correctly defining the Analytical Target Profile (ATP) of analytical methods involved in dissolution tests. Analytical method validation is then the natural demonstration that the developed methods are fit for their intended purpose and is not any more the inconsiderate checklist validation approach still generally performed to complete the filing required to obtain product marketing authorization. [less ▲]

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See detailUsefulness of capability indices in the framework of analytical methods validation
Bouabidi, Abderrahim ULg; Ziemons, Eric ULg; Marini Djang'Eing'A, Roland ULg et al

in Analytica Chimica Acta (2012), 714

Analytical methods capability evaluation can be a useful methodology to assess the fitness of purpose of these methods for their future routine application. However, care on how to compute the capability ... [more ▼]

Analytical methods capability evaluation can be a useful methodology to assess the fitness of purpose of these methods for their future routine application. However, care on how to compute the capability indices has to be made. Indeed, the commonly used formulas to compute capability indices such as Cpk, will highly overestimate the true capability of the methods. Especially during methods validation or transfer, there are only few experiments performed and, using in these situations the commonly applied capability indices to declare a method as valid or as transferable to a receiving laboratory will conduct to inadequate decisions. In this work, an improved capability index, namely Cpk-tol and the corresponding estimator of proportion of non conforming results ( ) has been proposed. Through Monte-Carlo simulations, they have been shown to greatly increase the estimation of analytical methods capability in particular in low sample size situations as encountered during methods validation or transfer. Additionally, the usefulness of this capability index has been illustrated through several case studies covering applications commonly encountered in the pharmaceutical industry. Finally a methodology to determine the optimal sample size required to validate analytical methods is also given using the proposed capability metric. [less ▲]

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See detailQuality by design compliant analytical method validation
Rozet, Eric ULg; Ziemons, Eric ULg; Marini Djang'Eing'A, Roland ULg et al

in Analytical Chemistry (2012), 84

The concept of quality by design (QbD) has recently been adopted for the development of pharmaceutical processes to ensure a predefined product quality. Focus on applying the QbD concept to analytical ... [more ▼]

The concept of quality by design (QbD) has recently been adopted for the development of pharmaceutical processes to ensure a predefined product quality. Focus on applying the QbD concept to analytical methods has increased as it is fully integrated within pharmaceutical processes and especially in the process control strategy. In addition, there is the need to switch from the traditional checklist implementation of method validation requirements to a method validation approach that should provide a high level of assurance of method reliability in order to adequately measure the Critical Quality Attributes (CQAs) of the drug product. The intended purpose of analytical methods is directly related to the final decision that will be made with the results generated by these methods under study. The final aim for quantitative impurity assays is to correctly declare a substance or a product as compliant with respect to the corresponding product specifications. For content assays, the aim is similar: making the correct decision about product compliance with respect to their specification limits. It is for these reasons that the fitness of these methods should be defined, as they are key elements of the Analytical Target Profile (ATP). Therefore, validation criteria, corresponding acceptance limits and method validation decision approaches should be settled in accordance with the final use of these analytical procedures. This work proposes a general methodology to achieve this in order to align method validation within the QbD framework and philosophy. β-expectation tolerance intervals are implemented to decide about the validity of analytical methods. The proposed methodology is also applied to the validation of analytical procedures dedicated to the quantification of impurities or active product ingredients (API) in drug substances or drug products and its applicability is illustrated with two case studies. [less ▲]

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See detailValidation and Routine of Ligand-Binding Assays, a Bayesian Perspective
Lebrun, Pierre ULg; Boulanger, Bruno; Hubert, Philippe ULg

Conference (2011, April 29)

The way to apply Bayesian modeling is illustrated to validate a ligand-binding assay such as ELISA. Hierarchical non-linear model and the associated predictive distribution of back-calculated responses ... [more ▼]

The way to apply Bayesian modeling is illustrated to validate a ligand-binding assay such as ELISA. Hierarchical non-linear model and the associated predictive distribution of back-calculated responses allow quantifying the total uncertainty of every future measurement with the assays, through the use of precision and risk profiles. It is also shown how the obtained posterior distribution of the parameters can be used as prior for new the calibration curves during routine. [less ▲]

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See detailDesign Space and desirability index. A Bayesian predictive risk-based approach to flexibly achieve multi-criteria decision methods.
Lebrun, Pierre ULg; Boulanger, Bruno; Hubert, Philippe ULg et al

Conference (2011, March 02)

The Design Space (DS) is defined as the set of factors settings (input conditions) that will provide results at least better than pre-defined acceptance limits. The proposed methodology aims at ... [more ▼]

The Design Space (DS) is defined as the set of factors settings (input conditions) that will provide results at least better than pre-defined acceptance limits. The proposed methodology aims at identifying a region in the space of factors that will likely provide satisfactory results during the future use of an analytical method or process in routine, through an optimization process. In a Bayesian framework, the responses are modelled using a multivariate multiple regression model allowing deriving their joint predictive posterior distribution. On the basis of this consequent distribution, a multi-criteria risk-based decision is taken with respect to the pre-defined acceptance limits. This aims to identify the DS. In this context, desirability methodologies are also applied to take the risk-based decision in a more flexible way. An example based on high-performance liquid chromatography illustrates the applicability of the methodology with highly correlated and constrained responses. [less ▲]

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See detailTrial predictions vs. trial simulations in Model-based Drug Development: integrating uncertainties to evaluate the predictive probability of success.
Lebrun, Pierre ULg; Boulanger, Bruno; Jullion, Astrid

Conference (2011, March 02)

In a Model-Based Drug Development strategy, the first objective is to design studies such that the most reliable model estimates are obtained, in order to optimize the design of future studies and to take ... [more ▼]

In a Model-Based Drug Development strategy, the first objective is to design studies such that the most reliable model estimates are obtained, in order to optimize the design of future studies and to take decisions based on predictions. The objectives of the work is to present from a theoretical and practical point of view how to perform trial predictions, as opposed to trial simulations, by integrating the uncertainty of the parameters. The difference between prediction and simulation is important in early development when limited data or prior information are available. Indeed ignoring the uncertainty of parameter estimates can lead to wrong decisions. First, will be provided methodology, derived from Bayesian statistics, to perform trial predictions from the parameter estimates and their uncertainty, when obtained with conventional frequentist population methods. Second, a practical implementation in R will be shown. This generalized prediction shell can cope with any kind of structural population models: Ordinary Differential Equation, single & multiple doses, infusion, etc... The proposed shell is also flexible to allow the testing of various scenarios and study designs, and therefore evaluate the predictive probability of success of different protocols. When joint models for efficacy and safety are established, the Prediction-based Clinical Utility Index (p-CUI) and its distribution can directly be obtained for more riskless decision making. Examples will be shown to highlight in early phases the differences existing between trial prediction and trial simulation. This approach is required to permit Model-Based Drug Development strategy, and impact successfully decision in early clinical phases. [less ▲]

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See detailAdvances in validation, risk and uncertainty assessment of bioanalytical methods
Rozet, Eric ULg; Marini Djang'Eing'A, Roland ULg; Ziemons, Eric ULg et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2011), 55

Bioanalytical method validation is a mandatory step to evaluate the ability of developed methods to provide accurate results for their routine application in order to trust the critical decisions that ... [more ▼]

Bioanalytical method validation is a mandatory step to evaluate the ability of developed methods to provide accurate results for their routine application in order to trust the critical decisions that will be made with them. Even if several guidelines exist to help perform bioanalytical method validations, there is still the need to clarify the meaning and interpretation of bioanalytical method validation criteria and methodology. Yet, different interpretations can be made of the validation guidelines as well as for the definitions of the validation criteria. This will lead to diverse experimental designs implemented to try fulfilling these criteria. Finally, different decision methodologies can also be interpreted from these guidelines. Therefore, the risk that a validated bioanalytical method may be unfit for its future purpose will depend on analysts personal interpretation of these guidelines. The objective of this review is thus to discuss and highlight several essential aspects of methods validation, not only restricted to chromatographic ones but also to ligand binding assays owing to their increasing role in biopharmaceutical industries. The points that will be reviewed are the common validation criteria, which are selectivity, standard curve, trueness, precision, accuracy, limits of quantification and range, dilutional integrity and analyte stability. Definitions, methodology, experimental design and decision criteria are reviewed. Two other points closely connected to method validation are also examined: incurred sample reproducibility testing and measurement uncertainty as they are highly linked to bioanalytical results reliability. Their additional implementation is foreseen to strongly reduce the risk of having validated a bioanalytical method unfit for its purpose. [less ▲]

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See detailTotal Error and Uncertainty: Friends or Foes?
Rozet, Eric ULg; Dewe, Walthere; Rudaz, Serge et al

in Trends in Analytical Chemistry [=TRAC] (2011), 30(5), 797-806

The guidelines ISO 17025 and ISO 15189 aim at improving the quality assurance scheme of laboratories. Reliable analytical results are of core importance due to the critical decisions that are taken with ... [more ▼]

The guidelines ISO 17025 and ISO 15189 aim at improving the quality assurance scheme of laboratories. Reliable analytical results are of core importance due to the critical decisions that are taken with them. Therefore among other topics, these documents require that analytical methods be validated and that laboratories should be able to provide measurement uncertainty of their measured routine results. To evaluate analytical methods fitness of purpose, total error has been and is more and more applied to assess reliability of results generated by analytical methods. However, the ISO requirement to estimate measurement uncertainty seems in opposition with the total error concept, leading to delays in their implementation by laboratories and increased confusion for the analysts. Thus, this article aims at clarifying the divergences between total error and measurement uncertainty, but also to discuss their main similarities and give some emphasise to their implementations. [less ▲]

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See detailNouvelle méthodologie pour le développement automatisé de méthodes analytiques en chromatographie liquide pour l’analyse de mélanges de composés inconnus
Debrus, Benjamin ULg; Lebrun, Pierre ULg; Rozet, Eric ULg et al

in Spectra Analyse (2009), 268

Nowadays, many strategies to optimize chromatographic methods are available. However, the development of chromatographic methods remains the most limiting step in the process of synthesis or ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, many strategies to optimize chromatographic methods are available. However, the development of chromatographic methods remains the most limiting step in the process of synthesis or identification of new molecules that could lead to therapeutic agents or new biomarkers despite the availability of new technologies both in chemistry (chemical combinatorial, high throughput screening...) and in analytical biochemistr y (proteomics, metabolomics, herbal ... fingerprinting). Therefore, the aim of this study is to test a new methodology for developing automated chromatographic methods combining experimental planning, independent component analysis, analysis of predictive error propagation and multiple linear regression modeling. Finally, this automated methodology has enabled us to successfully separate the components of an unknown mixture. [less ▲]

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