Benefits of napping and an extended duration of recovery sleep on alertness and immune cells after acute sleep restriction.
; ; et al
in Brain, Behavior & Immunity (2011), 25(1), 16-24
Understanding the interactions between sleep and the immune system may offer insight into why short sleep duration has been linked to negative health outcomes. We, therefore, investigated the effects of ... [more ▼]
Understanding the interactions between sleep and the immune system may offer insight into why short sleep duration has been linked to negative health outcomes. We, therefore, investigated the effects of napping and extended recovery sleep after sleep restriction on the immune and inflammatory systems and sleepiness. After a baseline night, healthy young men slept for a 2-h night followed by either a standard 8-h recovery night (n=12), a 30-min nap (at 1 p.m.) in addition to an 8-h recovery night (n=10), or a 10-h extended recovery night (n=9). A control group slept 3 consecutive 8-h nights (n=9). Subjects underwent continuous electroencephalogram polysomnography and blood was sampled every day at 7 a.m. Leukocytes, inflammatory and atherogenesis biomarkers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-8, myeloperoxidase, fibrinogen and apolipoproteins ApoB/ApoA), sleep patterns and sleepiness were investigated. All parameters remained unchanged in the control group. After sleep restriction, leukocyte and - among leukocyte subsets - neutrophil counts were increased, an effect that persisted after the 8-h recovery sleep, but, in subjects who had a nap or a 10-h recovery sleep, these values returned nearly to baseline. Inflammatory and atherogenesis biomarkers were unchanged except for higher myeloperoxidase levels after sleep restriction. The increased sleepiness after sleep restriction was reversed better in the nap and extended sleep recovery conditions. Saliva cortisol decreased immediately after the nap. Our results indicate that additional recovery sleep after sleep restriction provided by a midday nap prior to recovery sleep or a sleep extended night can improve alertness and return leukocyte counts to baseline values. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 62 (3 ULg)
Microarray analyses of the effects of NF-kappaB or PI3K pathway inhibitors on the LPS-induced gene expression profile in RAW264.7 cells: synergistic effects of rapamycin on LPS-induced MMP9-overexpression.
; ; et al
in Cellular Signalling (2009), 21(7), 1109-22
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activates a broad range of signalling pathways including mainly NF-kappaB and the MAPK cascade, but recent evidence suggests that LPS stimulation also activates the PI3K pathway ... [more ▼]
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activates a broad range of signalling pathways including mainly NF-kappaB and the MAPK cascade, but recent evidence suggests that LPS stimulation also activates the PI3K pathway. To unravel the specific roles of both pathways in LPS signalling and gene expression profiling, we investigated the effects of different inhibitors of NF-kappaB (BAY 11-7082), PI3K (wortmannin and LY294002) but also of mTOR (rapamycin), a kinase acting downstream of PI3K/Akt, in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages, analyzing their effects on the LPS-induced gene expression profile using a low density DNA microarray designed to monitor the expression of pro-inflammatory genes. After statistical and hierarchical cluster analyses, we determined five clusters of genes differentially affected by the four inhibitors used. In the fifth cluster corresponding to genes upregulated by LPS and mainly affected by BAY 11-7082, the gene encoding MMP9 displayed a particular expression profile, since rapamycin drastically enhanced the LPS-induced upregulation at both the mRNA and protein levels. Rapamycin also enhanced the LPS-induced NF-kappaB transactivation as determined by a reporter assay, phosphorylation of the p38 and Erk1/2 MAPKs, and counteracted PPAR activity. These results suggest that mTOR could negatively regulate the effects of LPS on the NF-kappaB and MAPK pathways. We also performed real-time RT-PCR assays on mmp9 expression using rosiglitazone (agonist of PPARgamma), PD98059 (inhibitor of Erk 1/2) and SB203580 (inhibitor of p38(MAPK)), that were able to counteract the rapamycin mediated overexpression of mmp9 in response to LPS. Our results suggest a new pathway involving mTOR for regulating specifically mmp9 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 520 (0 ULg)
Resveratrol inhibits the activity of equine neutrophil Myeloperoxidase by a direct interaction with the enzyme
Kohnen, Stephan ; Franck, Thierry ; et al
in Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2007), 55(20), 8080-8087
Resveratrol is a polyphenolic antioxidant present in beverage and food known for its multiple protective effects. We report the inhibitory effects of resveratrol on equine myeloperoxidase (MPO), a hemic ... [more ▼]
Resveratrol is a polyphenolic antioxidant present in beverage and food known for its multiple protective effects. We report the inhibitory effects of resveratrol on equine myeloperoxidase (MPO), a hemic peroxidase present in the granules of the neutrophils involved in the inflammatory response. Resveratrol inhibited the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by stimulated equine neutrophils by acting as a direct scavenger of the ROS released by the cells but did not modify the degranulation of the stimulated neutrophils as the amounts of released MPO were unchanged. Resveratrol strongly inhibited the chlorination, oxidation, and nitration activities of MPO in a dose-dependent manner. By an original technique of specific immunological extraction followed by enzymatic detection (SIEFED), we demonstrated that resveratrol inhibited the peroxidasic activity of the MPO measured by a direct interaction such as the fixation of resveratrol on the enzyme. The observation of a decrease of the accumulation of compound II suggested that resveratrol acts as an electron donor for MPO reduction. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 124 (8 ULg)