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See detailCrop association to improve aphid biological control
Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULg; Bosquée, Emilie ULg; Bodson, Bernard ULg et al

Poster (2014, August)

This research focused on the development of sustainable alternative methods to control aphids, giving special emphasis on cultural practices and plant management systems. Increasing the diversity within ... [more ▼]

This research focused on the development of sustainable alternative methods to control aphids, giving special emphasis on cultural practices and plant management systems. Increasing the diversity within crops may have several beneficial effects on pest control, creating attractive habitats for indigenous beneficial fauna and simultaneously deterring pests (“push-pull” approach). In this field study, two wheat/pea associations (mixed cropping and strip cropping) where compared to monocultures of pea and wheat. The abundance and diversity of adult aphidophagous beneficials (predators and parasitoids) were accessed weekly, using yellow traps, while aphids were observed directly on plants. All individuals were identified down to the level of species. In both crops, the percentage of aphid infestation and density of colonies were significantly higher in monocultures during the abundance periods. The mixing was particularly beneficial for the pea, while strip cropping was more efficient for the wheat. Concerning beneficials, their abundance was also significantly higher in monocultures, comparing with the other treatments. This study shows that increasing diversity within crops can prevent them from aphid infestations. However, additional methods are needed to attract more efficiently the aphidophagous beneficials, in order to promote the natural control of aphids. [less ▲]

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See detailImpacts d’une association culturale de pois et de pommes de terre sur les pucerons et auxiliaires aphidiphages en Chine
Bosquée, Emilie ULg; Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULg; Serteyn, Laurent et al

in Entomologie Faunistique = Faunistic Entomology (2014), 67

Crop associations can have beneficial effects on the control of insect pests. This study was conducted in the Shandong province (China) to assess the impact of potatoes and peas association on the ... [more ▼]

Crop associations can have beneficial effects on the control of insect pests. This study was conducted in the Shandong province (China) to assess the impact of potatoes and peas association on the populations of aphids and their natural enemies. Observations on potato plants and trapping (yellow pan traps) were performed. During the season, the degree of infestation didn’t differ significantly between the association and the pure stand. However, one week after the aphids abundance peak, predators and parasitoid mummies were significantly more abundant in the association compared with the pure stand. Trapping give a more general idea about the richness and diversity of adult natural enemies present in the environment. The parasitoid specie Aphidius gifuensis (Ashmead) was the most abundant among beneficials. Propylea japonica (Thunberg) and Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) were prevalent among predators. Few hoverflies and lacewings were trapped. This study contributes to better evaluate the potential of crop associations as an alternative method to control aphids without insecticides in this region. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification and comparison of proteome patterns of English Grain Aphids on resistant and susceptible wheat
Bosquée, Emilie ULg; Barrios San Martin, Joceline; C. RAMÍREZ, Claudio et al

Poster (2014, August)

Some varieties of wheat are resistant to some aphid clones of the English Grain Aphid (Sitobion avenae). This study used 2D-DIGE coupled with protein identification by Maldi-Tof-MS to compare the proteome ... [more ▼]

Some varieties of wheat are resistant to some aphid clones of the English Grain Aphid (Sitobion avenae). This study used 2D-DIGE coupled with protein identification by Maldi-Tof-MS to compare the proteome patterns of English Grain Aphids on resistant (Llareta) and susceptible (Huayún) wheat lines. Aphids were exposed to wheat during 2 weeks (short term: ST) and 4 weeks (long term: LT). Four treatments were compared: Llareta-ST, Llareta-LT, Huayún-ST, Huayún-LT. Experiment was conducted using different Sitobion avenae clones whose symbionts were previously characterized. Results showed that aphids had low performance on resistant plants. Seventy-two protein spots showed significant quantitative differences among the four treatment groups. Proteomic approach will allow a better understanding of interaction mechanisms between aphids and wheat. [less ▲]

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See detailAphid - symbiont interactions : multitrophic "omic" approaches to investigate multitrophic interactions
Bosquée, Emilie ULg; Bauwens, Julien ULg; Mazzucchelli, Gabriel ULg et al

Poster (2014, August)

« Omics » found recent developments due to significant improvement and availability of both separation and identification methods. For proteomics, functional information’s linked to the studied proteins ... [more ▼]

« Omics » found recent developments due to significant improvement and availability of both separation and identification methods. For proteomics, functional information’s linked to the studied proteins was brought when compared to genomic approach. For these reasons, a panel of tools is available to determine the proteome patterns related to differential adaptation of insects to cope with plant defence mechanisms or to transmit virus. The adaptation and metabolic changes of aphids in relation to host plants focusing on the role of the bacterial endosymbionts was investigated. Use of artificial diet including diverse antibiotics but also the comparison of proteomes related to whole aphid and respective purified bacterial symbionts were studied to identify the respective origin and function of proteins constituting the studied proteomes. Diverse methods including 2D-DIGE, liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and data bank investigations were developed. From the proteome investigation, characterisation of good and bad virus vectors was also performed in different aphid - plant - virus models. Particular proteins of interest were selected. This broad proteomic approach will be discussed as an interesting and reliable tool to study the biologically involved proteins from aphids in response to several environmental changes [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of lectins as virus competitors in aphid vectors: from fundamental to applied approaches
Bosquée, Emilie ULg; Chen, Ju Lian; Yong, Liu et al

Poster (2014, August)

Aphids remain difficult virus vectors to be controlled in many crops. Within this context of biological control against aphids and investigation on virus transmission (both non persistent Potato virus Y ... [more ▼]

Aphids remain difficult virus vectors to be controlled in many crops. Within this context of biological control against aphids and investigation on virus transmission (both non persistent Potato virus Y (PVY) and Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) and persistent Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus, the use of lectins was developed. Indeed, the effects of lectin binding to glycoprotein aphid receptors on virus transmission were tested in laboratory via the use of artificial diets using different virus models. Differential effects on virus transmission efficiency were determined. By example, a strong interference between GNA and PVY was observed. In consequence, the lectin was considered as promising proteins and could be potential competitors to virus. For further research, a fast protein liquid chromatography was performed to identify aphid proteins related to binding to efficient lectin competitors. Moreover, to detect involved proteins in aphids, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis approach coupled to mass spectrometry was developped to identify the glycosylated proteins determining virus transmission efficiency. Use of lectins for both fundamental and applied approaches were discussed to investigate aphid – virus interactions [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigation of differential virus transmission efficiency in aphid strains: from biological to proteomic assays
Bosquée, Emilie ULg; Francis, Frédéric ULg

Poster (2014, June)

Aphids are well known for their variable efficiency in virus transmission to host plant. Not only aphid species but also aphid strain is an important factor to consider in the plant-aphid-virus ... [more ▼]

Aphids are well known for their variable efficiency in virus transmission to host plant. Not only aphid species but also aphid strain is an important factor to consider in the plant-aphid-virus interactions. In order to investigate these relations, different approaches should be developped from biological observations assessing the virus transmission efficiency to molecular tasks to better know the involved mechanisms in the aphid vector. After a period of virus acquisition on an artificial diet (depending on the kind of transmission, permanent or non permanent ways), the virus transmission rate were assayed and followed by the determination of the presence of virus in the aphid by PCR or immudetection. The aphids were then collected to investigate the variation of aphid proteome and potential involvement in virus interactions. Changes in protein expressions were investigated using a 2D-DIGE approach comparing most and least efficient aphid strains selecting different aphid – virus models (PVY and PLRV in potato, BYDV in wheat, CMV on tobacco) . The proteome changes were analysed using the samespot software. Protein spots with significant up- and down expressions were then mechanically picked, trypsin digested and analysed by Maldi-Tof-Tof. Significantly changed proteins were classify according to metablic pathways and biological functions. Interesting proteins found to probably interact with virus were not only detected from aphid but also from related bacterial symbionts. Theses results were discussed in order to better understand virus – vector relations and potentially promote new ways to control virus transmitted by hemipteran pest. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of plant defence elicitor on aphid and disease cross infestations
Bosquée, Emilie ULg; Oumarou, Saadatou; Qiu, Dewen et al

Poster (2014, June)

Various bio-aggressors can infest potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L.) throughout its life cycle. In addition to aphids, in particular Myzus persicae Sulzer which transmits Potato virus Y (PVY), plant ... [more ▼]

Various bio-aggressors can infest potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L.) throughout its life cycle. In addition to aphids, in particular Myzus persicae Sulzer which transmits Potato virus Y (PVY), plant pathogenic fungus such as Botrytis cinerea are able to cause damage. To determine the interactions between various bio-aggressors on potato plant defence mechanisms, (1) the effect of an attack by M. persicae followed by an attack by B. cinerea and vice versa, as well as (2) the effect of an elicitor on biological parameters of M. persicae and development of B. cinerea were assessed. On the other hand, (3) the effect of Botrytis cinerea and an elicitor on the efficiency of transmission of PVY by M. persicae was examined. The previous infection by B. cinerea resulted in a significant decrease in growth rate and a sharp reduction of M. persicae fertility, while the infection level of B. cinerea followed by M. persicae infestation was non-significant. Despite a reduction in growth and fertility of M. persicae during the first days of observation, the effect of elicitor on the biological parameters of M. persicae as well as on the development of B. cinerea was non-significant. Regarding the investigations on the PVY transmission by M. persicae, when the elicitor or Botrytis is previously applied on the plant, a significant reduction in the rate of transmission was observed. [less ▲]

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See detailInhibitors of glycosylhydrolases as potential insecticides : focus on aphid model
Bosquée, Emilie ULg; Vandermoten, Sophie; Richel, Aurore ULg et al

Poster (2014, June)

Beside conventional neurotoxic compounds, new kinds of insecticides are investigated and new specific targets are in current research. According to the energy metabolic pathway, several enzymes are ... [more ▼]

Beside conventional neurotoxic compounds, new kinds of insecticides are investigated and new specific targets are in current research. According to the energy metabolic pathway, several enzymes are interesting to bring potential specific control of arthropods. Indeed, glycosylhydrolase group is very diversified from glucanases to trehalases, until chitinases. Different kinds of inhibitors were here tested to determine their potential role as new targetted aphicides. After different assays using the selected inhibitors in artificial diets, the most efficient molecules at 50-100 μg ml-1were kept for further proteomic tasks. The proteome patterns of aphids related to different inhibitor treatments were determined by two dimension electrophoresis, 2D-Differencial In Gel Expression (2D-Dige) coupled with mass spectrometry (ESI-MS-MS and Maldi-Tof-MS-MS) and data bank investigations. Particular proteins of interest were selected and accurately characterised with both fundamental but also applied views. Not only the carbohydrate metabolic pathway was disturbed with the use of glycosylhydolases inhibitors, other primary functions were also modified (amino acid synthesis, stress response, etc). This proteomic approach was discussed as an interesting and reliable tool to study the biologically involved proteins from aphids in response to specific tested enzymatic inhibitors with further ideas to be promoted as new insecticides to control insect pests. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of the aphid and aphidophagous beneficials diversity in a pea and potato association
Bosquée, Emilie ULg; Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULg; Serteyn, Laurent et al

Poster (2014, May 20)

Crop associations can have beneficial effects on the control of insect pests. This study was conducted in the Shandong province (China) to assess the impact of potatoes and peas association on the ... [more ▼]

Crop associations can have beneficial effects on the control of insect pests. This study was conducted in the Shandong province (China) to assess the impact of potatoes and peas association on the populations of aphids and aphidophagous beneficials. Observations on potato plants and trapping were performed. During the season, the degree of infestation didn’t differ significantly between the association and the pure stand. However, the aphidophagous beneficials were more abundant in the association comparing to the pure stand. Trapping results give a more general idea about the richness and diversity of natural enemies present in the environment. Aphidius gifuensis (Ashmead) and Aphelinus abdominalis Dalman are the most abundant parasitoids. Among predators, Propylea japonica (Thunberg) and Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) are prevalent. Few hoverflies and lacewings were trapped. Results from the observations on plants do not support the resource concentration hypothesis. However, the enemy hypothesis was confirmed for the aphidophagous beneficials. Therefore, this association can have a beneficial effect on the control of aphid populations. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of wheat/oilseed rape and wheat/pea associations on the diversity of aphids and aphidophagous beneficials
Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULg; Bosquée, Emilie ULg; Honba, David et al

Poster (2014, May 20)

This study was conducted in the Shandong province (China) to better characterize the effect of wheat/oilseed rape and wheat/pea associations on the populations of aphids and aphidophagous beneficials. At ... [more ▼]

This study was conducted in the Shandong province (China) to better characterize the effect of wheat/oilseed rape and wheat/pea associations on the populations of aphids and aphidophagous beneficials. At specific times of the season, the observations on wheat tillers confirm the resource concentration and the enemy hypotheses. In fact, aphids were more abundant in the pure stand of wheat, while more ladybirds were observed in the associations. As for the trapping of aphidophagous beneficials, the parasitoid species Aphidius gifuensis (Ashmead) was prevalent. Among predators, Propylea japonica (Thunberg) and Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) were the most abundant species. Few lacewings and hoverflies were trapped. This study shows a beneficial effect of crop associations on the control of aphid populations. [less ▲]

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See detailBiological control of aphids in wheat and vegetable crops : a multi-approach case study in Shandong province (China)
Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULg; Bosquée, Emilie ULg; Chen, Julian et al

Poster (2014, April 02)

This multi-approach study was conducted in the Shandong province (China) to assess the effectiveness of different biological control methods against aphids in wheat and vegetable crops. Three approaches ... [more ▼]

This multi-approach study was conducted in the Shandong province (China) to assess the effectiveness of different biological control methods against aphids in wheat and vegetable crops. Three approaches were tested: (1) wheat/oilseed rape and wheat/pea associations, (2) potatoes/peas association, and (3) E-β-farnesene (aphid alarm pheromone) releasers in squashes under plastic tunnels. Aphids and aphidophagous beneficials were monitored by observations on plants. Wheat associations and E-β-farnesene reduced aphid infestations compared with control treatments, while no effect was observed in the potatoes/peas association. Moreover, aphidophagous beneficials were significantly more abundant in the three kinds of associations compared with control treatments. Few individuals were observed on squashes. Additionally, adult aphidophagous beneficials were monitored using yellow pan traps. The parasitoid species Aphidius gifuensis (Ashmead) was prevalent, while Propylea japonica (Thunberg) and Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) were the most abundant species among predators. Globally, wheat associations were more efficient to reduce aphid infestations and attract aphidophagous beneficials to promote biological control. The trapping of natural enemies allowed to assess the diversity and abundance of aphidophagous species in this region. This study shows a beneficial effect of crop associations and E-β-farnesene on the control of aphid populations and contributes to assess the potentialities of these alternative methods to the use of insecticides. [less ▲]

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See detailEffets de deux associations culturales avec du blé sur les populations de pucerons (Homoptera: Aphididae) et d’auxiliaires aphidiphages: étude préliminaire menée en Chine
Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULg; Bosquée, Emilie ULg; Honba, David et al

in Entomologie Faunistique = Faunistic Entomology (2014)

Crop associations have several advantages when the plant species and the crop production methods, including the harvesting, are well selected. This preliminary study was conducted in the Shandong province ... [more ▼]

Crop associations have several advantages when the plant species and the crop production methods, including the harvesting, are well selected. This preliminary study was conducted in the Shandong province (China) to better characterize the effect of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)/oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and wheat/pea (Pisum sativum L.) associations on the aphid and aphidophagous beneficial populations. Aphids observed on wheat tillers were more abundant in the pure stand of wheat during the two weeks prior to their population peak, compared with crop associations. Considering the aphidophagous beneficials, more ladybirds were observed in the associations, compared with the pure crop stand. Yellow pan traps were also used to assess the diversity and abundance of adult beneficial species. The parasitoid species Aphidius gifuensis (Ashmead) was prevalent. Among predators, Propylea japonica (Thunberg) and Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) were the most abundant species. This study contributes to better understand the potential of crop associations with wheat as a sustainable method to control aphid populations in this region of China. [less ▲]

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See detailAlternative methods for virus control: the role of symbionts and lectins in viral transmission
Bosquée, Emilie ULg; Chen, Ju Lian; Yong, Lui et al

Conference (2013, May 16)

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See detailEvaluation de la diversité de l’entomofaune en cultures maraîchères dans l’est de la Chine
Polo Lozano, Damien ULg; Bosquée, Emilie ULg; Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULg et al

in Entomologie Faunistique = Faunistic Entomology (2013), 66

Within the framework of research aimed at developing biological control in vegetable crops in Shandong province in China, a pest and associated auxiliary entomophagous insects monitoring was conducted to ... [more ▼]

Within the framework of research aimed at developing biological control in vegetable crops in Shandong province in China, a pest and associated auxiliary entomophagous insects monitoring was conducted to determine entomological groups of agricultural interest and compare them to the situation in Belgium. The diversity and abundance of the entomofauna were assessed in potato and zucchini fields between May 9th and June 13th, 2011, using yellow traps and in situ observations on host plants. A total of 36 466 and 34 806 insects were trapped or observed on the plants in zucchini and potato fields, respectively. Ten orders and more than sixty families in each crop were identified. Aphids widely predominated in the traps and exerted a strong pressure on both crops early in the season. Other families of pests have been identified but no specific pest of these two crops and the investigated region is among the collections. [less ▲]

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See detailRole of aphid endosymbionts on virus transmission efficiency
Bosquée, Emilie ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg; Francis, Frédéric ULg

Poster (2012, July 26)

A large number of phytoviruses are transmitted exclusively by aphids in a circulative manner after transport by the aphid haemolymph to the salivary glands before transmission to new plant short time ... [more ▼]

A large number of phytoviruses are transmitted exclusively by aphids in a circulative manner after transport by the aphid haemolymph to the salivary glands before transmission to new plant short time later. Some proteins, synthesized in aphids by symbiotic bacteria, are hypothesized to bind to virus particles in the haemolymph, to help transfer inside the aphid without any problem and finally promoting viral transmission efficiency. Multiple endosymbionts commonly coexist in the same host insects. The endosymbiotic bacterial partners of aphids fall into two categories: the obligate “primary” symbiont such as Buchnera sp. found in almost all aphids and the facultative “secondary” bacteria that are not always present. Particular associations between aphids and both Buchnera sp. and secondary symbionts well documented according to adaptation to host plant specificity. In contrast, the impact of specific associations between Buchnera and other facultative secondary endosymbionts on the virus transmission is less well understood. In order to understand the role of some ensymbionts associated to the primary one in the PeMV (Pea enation Mosaic Virus) transmission, several Acyrthosiphon pisum clones presenting different patterns of endosymbionts (Buchnera-Serratia, Buchnera-Spiroplasma, Buchnera-Rickettsia), were used in PeMV efficiency transmission assays on broad bean. The PeMV occurrence in plants was tested by enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay technique (ELISA). The higher virus transmission was found when Serratia bacteria was present in the pea aphid. The occurrence of Serratia endosymbiotic bacteria was concluded to be very important in the PeMV transmission. Finally, the aphid symbiont pattern modulation was discussed in multitrophic approach and potential control of aphid and associated dispersion of viral diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation de la diversité des pucerons et de leurs ennemis naturels en cultures maraîchères dans l’est de la Chine
Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULg; Bosquée, Emilie ULg; Polo Lozano, Damien ULg et al

in Entomologie Faunistique = Faunistic Entomology (2012), 64(3), 63-71

The aim of this study was to evaluate the diversity and abundance of aphids and aphidophagous beneficials in courgettes and potato fields in the Shandong province, East of China. The assessment of aphid ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to evaluate the diversity and abundance of aphids and aphidophagous beneficials in courgettes and potato fields in the Shandong province, East of China. The assessment of aphid and related beneficial populations was conducted between May 9th and June 13th, 2011, using yellow traps and in situ observations on plants. A total of 53,206 insects were trapped and 35,144 observed on the plants. Aphids widely predominated in the traps and exerted a strong pressure on both crops early in the season. Two main species were identified on the plants, namely Aphis gossypii on the courgettes and Myzus persicae on the potatoes. Ladybirds were the most abundant aphidophagous predators, especially Coccinella septempunctata on the courgettes and Propylea japonica on the potato fields, the first one being earlier than the second. Only few hoverflies and lacewings were captured. Microhymenoptera appeared later in the season. The Aphidius gifuensis species represented the majority of trapped Braconidae, while the family Aphelinidae contained the largest number of individuals in the aphidiphagous. [less ▲]

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