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See detailProcess-evaluation of tropospheric humidity simulated by general circulation models using water vapor isotopologues: 1. Comparison between models and observations
Risi, C; Noone, D; Worden, J et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research (2012), 117(D5), 05303

N2 - The goal of this study is to determine how H2O and HDO measurements in water vapor can be used to detect and diagnose biases in the representation of processes controlling tropospheric humidity in ... [more ▼]

N2 - The goal of this study is to determine how H2O and HDO measurements in water vapor can be used to detect and diagnose biases in the representation of processes controlling tropospheric humidity in atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs). We analyze a large number of isotopic data sets (four satellite, sixteen ground-based remote-sensing, five surface in situ and three aircraft data sets) that are sensitive to different altitudes throughout the free troposphere. Despite significant differences between data sets, we identify some observed HDO/H2O characteristics that are robust across data sets and that can be used to evaluate models. We evaluate the isotopic GCM LMDZ, accounting for the effects of spatiotemporal sampling and instrument sensitivity. We find that LMDZ reproduces the spatial patterns in the lower and mid troposphere remarkably well. However, it underestimates the amplitude of seasonal variations in isotopic composition at all levels in the subtropics and in midlatitudes, and this bias is consistent across all data sets. LMDZ also underestimates the observed meridional isotopic gradient and the contrast between dry and convective tropical regions compared to satellite data sets. Comparison with six other isotope-enabled GCMs from the SWING2 project shows that biases exhibited by LMDZ are common to all models. The SWING2 GCMs show a very large spread in isotopic behavior that is not obviously related to that of humidity, suggesting water vapor isotopic measurements could be used to expose model shortcomings. In a companion paper, the isotopic differences between models are interpreted in terms of biases in the representation of processes controlling humidity. [less ▲]

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See detailErgot poisoning in cattle
Brihoum, M.; Desmecht, Daniel ULg; Bony, S. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2004), 148(2), 97-101

In addition to the financial losses that ergot ( Claviceps purpurea) contamination causes in crops, the ingestion of ergot-contaminated food by cattle results in an intoxication that develops in several ... [more ▼]

In addition to the financial losses that ergot ( Claviceps purpurea) contamination causes in crops, the ingestion of ergot-contaminated food by cattle results in an intoxication that develops in several patterns. The observed clinical troubles may involve different systems. In this paper, we reviewed the clinical signs observed in ergot-poisoned cattle and some diagnostic and prevention aspects. [less ▲]

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See detailEpisode de dyspnée consécutive à une intoxication par l’ergot dans une exploitation laitière
Brihoum, Mounir ULg; Desmecht, Daniel ULg; Bony, S. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2003), 147(5), 353-358

A chronic consumption (3.5 months) of ergot (Claviceps purpurea) contaminated triticale in dairy cows resulted in dyspnea, mainly expiratory, consistent with interstitial pneumonia and emphysema. These ... [more ▼]

A chronic consumption (3.5 months) of ergot (Claviceps purpurea) contaminated triticale in dairy cows resulted in dyspnea, mainly expiratory, consistent with interstitial pneumonia and emphysema. These troubles can be compared to many observations done in humans after long lasting treatments with ergot derivatives [less ▲]

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