References of "Boisson, Sylvain"
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See detailConcilier la conservation des métallophytes et la phytoremédiation des sols pollués par les éléments traces métalliques
Boisson, Sylvain ULg; Ngoy Shutcha, Mylor; Mahy, Grégory ULg

in Colinet, Gilles; Mahy, Grégory; Bogaert, Jan (Eds.) Anthropisation des paysages katangais (R.D.C.) (in press)

La conservation de la biodiversité est devenue un challenge social, politique et économique au niveau mondial. Etant donné que certaines régions du monde sont fortement soumises à l’anthropisation et à ... [more ▼]

La conservation de la biodiversité est devenue un challenge social, politique et économique au niveau mondial. Etant donné que certaines régions du monde sont fortement soumises à l’anthropisation et à ses impacts, il est indispensable de modifier notre perception et notre réflexion en ce qui concerne la conservation de la biodiversité et la restauration écologique. Ce chapitre explore les possibilités existantes et les adapte pour associer la conservation des espèces végétales d’intérêt avec la phytoremédiation des sols pollués. Cette nouvelle stratégie semble encourageante pour conserver le lien entre la société et l’environnement. En utilisant la diversité végétale locale, il est possible de créer de nouvelles communautés végétales afin de réhabiliter des sols pollués par les éléments traces métalliques. Le cas de la ville de Lubumbashi et de la flore de l’Arc Cuprifère Katangais en est un exemple marquant qui a été récemment testé avec succès. Cependant, d’autres études sur les métallophytes sont essentielles pour les utiliser de manière appropriée. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantification of anthropogenic effects in the landscape of Lubumbashi
Andre, Marie ULg; Vranken, Isabelle ULg; Boisson, Sylvain ULg et al

in Mahy, Grégory; Colinet, Gilles; Bogaert, Jan (Eds.) Anthropisation au Katanga (in press)

In order to understand the dynamic of the (sub)urbanisation and so, to quantify the anthropogenic effects of the rapid growth of tropical cities, it is crucial to find and apply valuable methods. In this ... [more ▼]

In order to understand the dynamic of the (sub)urbanisation and so, to quantify the anthropogenic effects of the rapid growth of tropical cities, it is crucial to find and apply valuable methods. In this contribution, the transferability of the Rüdisser et al. (2012) «Distance to Nature» hemeroby assessment method to the landscape surrounding the city of Lubumbashi (DRC) is evaluated. That methodology has the advantage of taking structural connectivity into account by computing the distance to natural habitats. As it had never been applied to an African city before, some adjustments (fitting of the local land uses types into the hemeroby levels designed to Austria) and amendments (suppression of the final classification into hemeroby level simplification) are proposed. Moreover, an analysis of the decanal (2002-2013) hemeroby dynamics is presented. Results suggest that the Distance to Nature methodology is transferable but requires good field knowledge to define reference habitats and identify them in the Landsat classified images. There was a dramatic decrease of the «natural» and «near-natural» levels in the study extent during the studied period. In addition, 32% of the land underwent anthropisation increase, mostly around cities and following a ribbon development. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing phytostabilisation as a way to conserve threatened endemic species from the Southeastern D.R. Congo
Boisson, Sylvain ULg; Le Stradic, Soizig ULg; Seleck, Maxime ULg et al

Conference (2016, June 22)

Metalliferous outcrops of the southeastern Democratic Republic of Congo are recognized as some of the largest copper-cobalt deposits of the world. They support unique vegetation with around 600 ... [more ▼]

Metalliferous outcrops of the southeastern Democratic Republic of Congo are recognized as some of the largest copper-cobalt deposits of the world. They support unique vegetation with around 600 metallophyte species including rare and endemic species. Since 1900s, the exploitation of the Cu-Co outcrops in D.R. Congo has considerably increased, impacting environment and putting public health at risk. Phytostabilisation is a suitable technology to decrease the bioavailability of heavy metals in highly polluted soils. This technic has been successfully implemented in the vicinity of Lubumbashi with the grass Microchloa altera. The long term maintenance of such technic requires a good understanding of the interspecific relationship like competition and facilitation. This study aims to test the success of establishment of four herbaceous species from the southeastern DRC presenting conservation priority and to assess the potential role of M. altera as nurse plant in this context. Two annual species and two perennial species were sown in experimental design with soil amendments crossed with vegetation cover. The emergence, the growth and the survival were followed during the vegetation season and the resprout was measured for perennial species. M. altera had a distinct effect on the emergence and the survival of the annual and perennial species but affected negatively the growth of individuals for all species. [less ▲]

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See detailPotential of copper-tolerant grasses to implement phytostabilisation strategies on polluted soils in South D. R. Congo: Poaceae candidates for phytostabilisation
Boisson, Sylvain ULg; Le Stradic, Soizig ULg; Collignon, Julien et al

in Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2016)

Phytostabilisation (i.e. using plants to immobilise contaminants) represents a well-known technology to hamper heavy metal spread across landscapes. In Katanga (D. R. Congo), Microchloa altera, a tolerant ... [more ▼]

Phytostabilisation (i.e. using plants to immobilise contaminants) represents a well-known technology to hamper heavy metal spread across landscapes. In Katanga (D. R. Congo), Microchloa altera, a tolerant grass from the copper hills, was recently identified as a candidate species to stabilise copper in the soil. More than 50 grasses compose this flora, which may be studied to implement phytostabilisation strategies. However, little is known about their phenology, tolerance, reproductive strategy or demography. The present study aims to characterize the other Poaceae that may be used in phytostabilisation purposes based on the following criteria: their ecological distribution, seed production at two times, abundance, soil coverage and the germination percentage of their seeds. We selected seven perennial Poaceae that occur on the copper hills. Their ecological distributions (i.e. species response curves) have been modelled along copper or cobalt gradients with generalized additive models using logic link based on 172 presence/absence samples on three sites. For other variables, a total of 69 quadrats (1 m2) were randomly placed across three sites and habitats. For each species, we compared the number of inflorescence-bearing stems (IBS) by plot, the percentage of cover, the number of seeds by IBS and the estimated number of seeds by plot between sites and habitat. Three species (Andropogon schirensis, Eragrostis racemosa and Loudetia simplex) were very interesting for phytostabilisation programs. They produced a large quantity of seeds and had the highest percentage of cover. However, A. schirensis and L. simplex presented significant variations in the number of seeds and the percentage of cover according to site. [less ▲]

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See detailEdaphic niches of metallophytes from southeastern Democratic Republic of Congo: implications for post-mining restoration
Boisson, Sylvain ULg; Monty, Arnaud ULg; Lebrun, Julie et al

in Journal for Nature Conservation (2016)

In southeastern D. R. Congo, about 550 metallophytes grow on soils with high copper and cobalt concentrations, 57 of which are endemics to these metalliferous environments. About 70% of those endemics are ... [more ▼]

In southeastern D. R. Congo, about 550 metallophytes grow on soils with high copper and cobalt concentrations, 57 of which are endemics to these metalliferous environments. About 70% of those endemics are considered threatened by destruction of habitats through mining activities. To provide guidelines for future restoration programs, the edaphic ecological niches of eight copper endemics were studied using a pragmatic sampling method adapted for urgent conservation needs. Niches were modelled using violin plot along Cu, Co and C:N gradients representing the two main independent edaphic gradients among nine edaphic variables (C, N, C:N, K, P, pH, Co, Cu, and Mn). Copper endemics presented distinct edaphic niches along the copper and cobalt gradients, but differentiation was lower along the C:N gradient. In addition, edaphic elements presented covariations among them and metalliferous soils had higher nutrient and element content compared to the non-metalliferous soils of the region dominated by the Miombo woodland. The complexity of the soil composition and the edaphic niches of copper endemics revealed an important challenge in the implementation of the species conservation and the habitat restoration strategies of post-mining sites. [less ▲]

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See detailCaractérisation de la niche édaphique des espèces cupro-cobalticoles du katanga (R.D. Congo) en vue de leur conservation et de leur valorisation dans des stratégies de phytostabilisation
Boisson, Sylvain ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

Natural metalliferous habitats represent unique study cases for scientific research as geopedology, biology and eco-evolution of metallophytes. Southeastern Democratic Republic of Congo hosts among the ... [more ▼]

Natural metalliferous habitats represent unique study cases for scientific research as geopedology, biology and eco-evolution of metallophytes. Southeastern Democratic Republic of Congo hosts among the most important copper and cobalt deposits of the world, having a high economic value. Copper and cobalt outcroups have been formed during billion years by geological successions. More than one hundred hills are now scattered in an area of 300 km long and 50 km large in vegetation matrix consisting on an open forest called Miombo. This area is called Katangan Copperbelt. At the top of hills, the close proximity between the deposit and the soil surface lead to a high concentration of bioavailable copper and cobalt in soil solution exceeding the tolerance threshold of most of plants. More than 550 taxa including 10 % are identified as endemics and compose two distinct herbaceous plant formations: the steppic savanna is found on the lowest minralised soils and the steppe occurs in the highest mineralized soils at the top of hills. Mining activities have dramatic consequences on environement and public health, leading to the destruction of natural meatlliferous habitats and to the creation of anthropogenic polluted sites. Considering the threat on endemic plant species of the Katangan Copperbelt, several in situ and ex situ conservation strategies have been implemented for the last ten years in collaboration with several institutions. Furthermore, metallophytes constitute remarkable resources for the biotechnologies such as phytoremediation due to their metal tolerance or their accumulation ability. Anthropogenic metalliferous sites of the Katangan Copperbelt could be considered for the conservation of metallophyte with a perspective of remediation of polluted soils. Both challenges require the characterization of the environmental factors determining the distribution of plant species in natural sites and their performance in anthropogenic sites. This thesis aims at characterising the edaphic niche of metallophytes from the Katangan Copperbelt in order to propose actions combining the conservation of metallophyte and the phytostabilisation of polluted soils. The first axis focused on the study of two fundamental concepts in ecology, the theory of ecological niche and the concept of edaphic endemism, in order to understand the plant-soil relationships. Threatened endemic species were chosen as study case to determine the cause of the restricted distributions of metallophytes on metalliferous soils. The second axis tested the success of the establishment of endemic metallophytes in phytostabilisation strategies using the grass Microchloa altera. An assessment of the potential of other grasses was performed based on the specific criterions needed in phytostabilisation in order to identify candidate species for conservation–phystabilisation strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailCopper tolerance of three Crotalaria species from southeastern D.R. Congo at the early development stage
Boisson, Sylvain ULg; Le Stradic, Soizig ULg; Commans, Morgane et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment (2016), 20(2), 151-160

Description of the subject. Microevolutionary processes in metallophytes established on copper enriched soils can lead to a diversity of plant species showing distinct tolerance capacities among genus ... [more ▼]

Description of the subject. Microevolutionary processes in metallophytes established on copper enriched soils can lead to a diversity of plant species showing distinct tolerance capacities among genus. Researches about the relationship between these endangered plants and soil copper concentrations are critical in order to improve ex situ conservation methods in southeastern Democratic Republic of Congo (Katangan Copperbelt). Objectives. The aim of the study was to test the effect of copper on the germination and root elongation of three Crotalariaspecies naturally occurring along a natural copper gradient. The hypothesis is that copper concentrations have different effects on germination and root elongation according to the species of Crotalaria genus.Method. Three species were selected: Crotalaria cobalticola, Crotalaria peschiana and Crotalariacornetii, occurring on soils with the highest to the lowest copper concentrations respectively. Germination and root elongation tests were performed in vitro (MS vitamin-enriched medium) in six copper mediums ranging from 0 to 125 μM Cu2+. Results. No significant differences in germination percentage were observed according to the copper concentrations. Crotalaria cornetii had the lowest germination percentage. Root elongation of C. peschiana did not differ with copper concentration, but root elongation of C. cobalticola was higher at the greatest copper concentration (125 μM Cu2+). Conclusions. Even if C. cobalticola presented better growth at highest Cu concentrations, it appeared that C. cobalticola and C. peschiana do not require copper for their early stages of development and could thus be conserved in non-contaminated substrate. Crotalariacornetii seemed to present a physical seed dormancy. [less ▲]

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See detailConcilier la phytostabilisation des sols pollués avec la conservation de la flore cupro-cobalticole dans la région de Lubumbashi : une stratégie nouvelle pour valoriser les écosystèmes extrêmes ?
Boisson, Sylvain ULg; Collignon, Julien; Langunu, Serge et al

in Bogaert, Jan; Halleux, Jean-Marie (Eds.) Territoires périurbains. Développement, enjeux et perspectives dans les pays du Sud (2015)

Tropical cities extend from the urban area in parallel with their economic growth, delimiting a distinct section, the periurban area. In Katanga (Democratic Republic of the Congo), the human health of ... [more ▼]

Tropical cities extend from the urban area in parallel with their economic growth, delimiting a distinct section, the periurban area. In Katanga (Democratic Republic of the Congo), the human health of populations and the environment are threatened by mining activities in these specific areas. Species occurring naturally on copper-cobalt outcrops have a high conservation value and a potential interest in the rehabilitation of sites polluted with trace metals. This study aims to evaluate the success of the combination of the conservation of two copper-cobalt tolerant species (Crotalaria cobalticola and Anisopappus davyi) with phytostabilisation strategies. The establishment of two species from seed to seedling was analyzed in one site in a polluted periurban area and one control site; both were phytostabilized with the grass Microchloa altera. The rate of emergence, the survival and the growth of plants were compared according to the presence of M. altera and amendments (calcium and organic matter). The results highlighted the importance and necessity of the grass cover to the success of seedling establishment of the two studied species. [less ▲]

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See detailChallenges for the restoration of dry calcareous grasslands in quarries: does nature need help?
Pitz, Carline ULg; Piqueray, Julien; Harzé, Mélanie ULg et al

Conference (2015, August 26)

In order to maximize the biodiversity potential of dry calcareous grasslands in former quarries two options are available to managers: (i) allow species to spontaneously recolonize the site, (ii ... [more ▼]

In order to maximize the biodiversity potential of dry calcareous grasslands in former quarries two options are available to managers: (i) allow species to spontaneously recolonize the site, (ii) implement technical support for ecosystem restoration. This study aimed at characterizing the spontaneous communities established in dry area of unexploited quarries and at comparing communities encountered to the succession panel of dry grasslands. To evaluate the ecological succession in quarries, three successional stages where defined: (i) less than three years; (ii) three to 20 years; and (iii) more than 20 years after exploitation. For each successional stage, six parcels were selected and 20 1m2 plots were randomly marked in each parcel. All selected parcels presented dry grasslands abiotic conditions: filtering and stony soils and south orientation. During the 2014 vegetation period, percentage cover of higher plant species was recorded in each plot. Explaining environmental variables including coordinates, altitude, slope (degrees), soil depth, exposure, maximum vegetation height, bare ground cover, moss cover, and shrub cover (%) were measured. Our main results showed that, over decades of time, the ecological succession in dry area of unexploited quarries does not approach a typical formation of dry calcareous grassland. Most recolonizations tended to form meadows communities, except for three sites belonging to a specific landscape context. Potential implications for future quarries restoration will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailCopperflora – an online species-level database of biology, ecology, geography of the flora from the Katangan Copperbelt (D.R. Congo) to manage their conservation
Boisson, Sylvain ULg; Seleck, Maxime ULg; Le Stradic, Soizig ULg et al

Poster (2015, May 21)

Storage and accessibility to structured data are essential in all fields of scientific research. In ecology, conservation managers regularly use thousands qualitative and quantitative data from different ... [more ▼]

Storage and accessibility to structured data are essential in all fields of scientific research. In ecology, conservation managers regularly use thousands qualitative and quantitative data from different partners and studies. In recent years, online databases concerning climate, species traits and distribution have been developed but few offer a comprehensive tool for the management of species conservation at several steps. The Copperflora database was created in order to include a diversity of informations about species (taxonomy, habitats, phenology, pictures, distribution, etc.) but also information concerning seeds collection, conservation, monitoring and tests applied to target species. Copperflora is meant to be an interactive and a dynamic project enhancing the exchange of data. Our project also contributes to the advance in the understanding of metallophyte communities’ conservation and restoration projects. Our database structure is expected to be easily transferable to other conservation actions. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude de la flore spontanée de la carrière de Loën (Belgique) pour de futures restaurations
Pitz, Carline ULg; Monty, Arnaud ULg; Piqueray, Julien et al

Conference (2015, March 04)

Afin de maximiser le potentiel de biodiversité d’une carrière en fin d’exploitation deux options s’offrent au gestionnaire : (1) laisser les espèces recoloniser spontanément le site, (2) mettre en œuvre ... [more ▼]

Afin de maximiser le potentiel de biodiversité d’une carrière en fin d’exploitation deux options s’offrent au gestionnaire : (1) laisser les espèces recoloniser spontanément le site, (2) mettre en œuvre des appuis techniques à la restauration d’écosystèmes. Une méthode hybride associant une recolonisation naturelle et une assistance technique peut également être une opportunité pour le gestionnaire. La recolonisation spontanée des carrières peut, dans certains cas, créer une mosaïque d’habitats diversifiés pour des coûts faibles par rapport à des projets de réhabilitation ou de restauration couteux. Toutefois, l’intérêt biologique des habitats issus de successions spontanées peut fortement varier d’un site à l’autre en fonction de l’historique de gestion, des conditions climatiques et édaphiques locales, de l’isolement du site dans le paysage et du pool régional d’espèces présentes. Afin d’évaluer la nécessité ou non de mise en œuvre d’une restauration active d’habitats en carrière, il est nécessaire de caractériser les habitats issus de la succession spontanée ainsi que leur valeur biologique. L’évaluation de l’intérêt biologique d’un habitat prend en compte à la fois la diversité biologique locale (diversité alpha) et l’originalité des communautés présentes par rapport à un référentiel paysager (diversité béta). Ce projet a pour objectif de caractériser la flore recolonisant spontanément les zones xériques non exploitées dans une carrière située en Belgique (Loën, en région wallonne), du point de vue de la diversité spécifique et de la fonctionnalité écologique. Les communautés végétales ont été caractérisées au sein du site de Loën (diversité alpha) et d’un ensemble d’autres carrières représentatives de la diversité des contextes géographiques des carrières calcaires en Région wallonne (diversité béta). [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of translocation methods to conserve metallophyte communities in the Southeastern D.R. Congo
Le Stradic, Soizig ULg; Seleck, Maxime ULg; Lebrun, Jean ULg et al

in Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2015)

In southeastern Democratic Republic of Congo, unique metallophyte communities supporting numerous endemic species occurred on the highly mineralized copper cobalt (Cu–Co) hills throughout the province ... [more ▼]

In southeastern Democratic Republic of Congo, unique metallophyte communities supporting numerous endemic species occurred on the highly mineralized copper cobalt (Cu–Co) hills throughout the province. These hills are economically valuable mineral reserves; mining activities represent therefore a threat to the long-term persistence of these communities. Ex situ conservation program was set up by a mining company to rescue and conserve the diversity of Cu–Co communities until restoration activities are initiated. Two kinds of Cu–Co communities: the steppe and the steppic savanna, were translocated using topsoil spreading and whole-turf translocation. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of these two techniques in conserving Cu–Co communities and their potential use in future restoration programs. More than 2 years after the translocation, whole-turf translocation appeared to be the better technique for ex situ conservation of endemic Cu–Co species. Not only did whole-turf successfully translocate numerous target species that were not present in the topsoil areas, but it also resulted in fewer ruderal and non-target species compared to topsoil spreading. Topsoil spreading recorded low seedling emergence from seed bank due to large proportions of dormant seeds or the absence of a seed bank, especially for the steppic savanna. Restoration of the steppe is currently more successful than for steppic savanna where the lack of dominant and structuring species likely contributed to divergence in species composition compared to reference ecosystem. Our study stresses the fact that tropical old-growth grasslands, which require probably several centuries to assemble, are difficult to restore or translocate. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg [less ▲]

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See detailImplication of plant-soil relationships for conservation and restoration of copper-cobalt ecosystems
Faucon, M.-P.; Le Stradic, Soizig ULg; Boisson, Sylvain ULg et al

in Plant and Soil (2015)

Background: Chemical soil factors play an important role in generating and maintaining plant diversity. Naturally metal-enriched habitats support highly distinctive plant communities consisting of many ... [more ▼]

Background: Chemical soil factors play an important role in generating and maintaining plant diversity. Naturally metal-enriched habitats support highly distinctive plant communities consisting of many rare and endemic species. Species of these plant communities possess remarkable physiological adaptations and are now being considered key elements in the implementation of green technologies aimed at phytoremediation of contaminated soils and post-mined soils. Several studies have emphasised that industrial mineral extraction results in serious damage to ecosystems and serious threats to human health and leads to the extinction of metallophyte species. In the southeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), mining activities represent a threat to the long-term persistence of communities located on metalliferous copper and cobalt outcrops and their associated endemic metallophytes, which are currently considered some of the most critically endangered plants in the world. Scope: Plant diversity conservation of metal-rich soils must assess soil-plant relationships at different scales (ecosystems, communities, and populations) to define in-situ and ex-situ conservation and restoration projects. This paper proposes a review of soil-plant relationships involved in plant diversity and endemism and their implications for biodiversity conservation and restoration. © 2015 Springer International Publishing Switzerland [less ▲]

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See detailUn partenariat pour promouvoir la biodiversité dans les carrières belges
Harzé, Mélanie ULg; Lussis, Benoît; Boisson, Sylvain ULg et al

Conference (2015)

Plus que toute autre industrie, les carrières entretiennent un lien étroit avec les écosystèmes. L’exploitation d’une carrière crée des conditions abiotiques propices au développement d’une mosaïque ... [more ▼]

Plus que toute autre industrie, les carrières entretiennent un lien étroit avec les écosystèmes. L’exploitation d’une carrière crée des conditions abiotiques propices au développement d’une mosaïque d’habitats comme les falaises et arènes rocheuses, les plans d’eau temporaires ou les pelouses pionnières, favorables à certaines espèces protégées en Europe comme le hibou grand-duc et le crapaud calamite. Nombre d’entre eux sont d’intérêt communautaire et sont devenus rares dans le Nord de l’Europe. Ces habitats temporaires s’installent souvent spontanément pendant l’exploitation d’une carrière mais une action conservatoire peut s’avérer nécessaire pour leur conservation sur le long terme. En fin de vie de la carrière une restauration écologique adéquate pourra favoriser l’installation de milieux plus permanents d’intérêt. Afin de promouvoir le développement de cette biodiversité, une planification réfléchie des plans d’exploitation et de réhabilitation est nécessaire. La fédération des industries extractives belge FEDIEX s’est engagée en 2012 avec la Région wallonne dans une charte sectorielle « carrières et biodiversité », définissant un plan d’action basé sur trois axes principaux : (1) la sensibilisation des membres ; (2) la diffusion de recommandations pratiques pour intégrer la protection et la gestion de la biodiversité dans les plans l’exploitation ; (3) la formation du personnel des carrières. Dans ce cadre, l’unité Biodiversité et paysage de la Faculté de Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech (Université de Liège) collabore depuis 2012 avec la FEDIEX. Notre présentation portera sur les réalisations de cette collaboration ; notamment les formations « Carrières et Biodiversité » organisées à l’attention du secteur carrier, les résultats des actions concrètes mise en place en carrière, les documents de vulgarisation réalisés afin de donner aux gestionnaires les clés pour gérer et restaurer différents habitats et espèces protégées et notre collaboration à la rédaction d’un projet LIFE Biodiversity «LIFE in quarries » qui a été présenté à l’union européenne. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude de la flore spontanée de la carrière de Loën pour de futures restaurations - Résultats
Pitz, Carline ULg; Monty, Arnaud ULg; Piqueray, Julien et al

Conference given outside the academic context (2014)

Ce projet a pour objectif de caractériser la flore recolonisant spontanément les zones xériques non exploitées récemment de la carrière de Loën, du point de vue de la diversité spécifique et de la ... [more ▼]

Ce projet a pour objectif de caractériser la flore recolonisant spontanément les zones xériques non exploitées récemment de la carrière de Loën, du point de vue de la diversité spécifique et de la fonctionnalité écologique. Les communautés végétales ont été caractérisées au sein du site de Loën (diversité alpha) et d’un ensemble d’autres carrières représentatives de la diversité des contextes géographiques des carrières calcaires en Région Wallonne (diversité béta). L’étude a montré que, sur des laps de temps de plusieurs décennies, un processus de succession écologique s’est mis en place au sein du site de Loën, mais que cette succession ne tend pas vers une formation typique de pelouse sèche. Les explications peuvent être d’une part, que la disponibilité et l’apport de graines de pelouses sèches avoisinantes est insuffisant, et d’autre part, que le contexte abiotique pourrait être plus favorable à d’autres types de végétations herbacées. Cette étude illustre que des expériences de semis seraient souhaitable afin de définir les objectifs de restauration de la carrière de Loën et des carrières qui se trouvent dans des situations comparables. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude de la flore spontanée de la carrière de Loën pour de futures restaurations - Rapport final
Pitz, Carline ULg; Piqueray, Julien; Harzé, Mélanie ULg et al

Report (2014)

Ce projet a pour objectif de caractériser la flore recolonisant spontanément les zones xériques non exploitées récemment de la carrière de Loën, du point de vue de la diversité spécifique et de la ... [more ▼]

Ce projet a pour objectif de caractériser la flore recolonisant spontanément les zones xériques non exploitées récemment de la carrière de Loën, du point de vue de la diversité spécifique et de la fonctionnalité écologique. Les communautés végétales ont été caractérisées au sein du site de Loën (diversité alpha) et d’un ensemble d’autres carrières représentatives de la diversité des contextes géographiques des carrières calcaires en Région Wallonne (diversité béta). L’étude a montré que, sur des laps de temps de plusieurs décennies, un processus de succession écologique s’est mis en place au sein du site de Loën, mais que cette succession ne tend pas vers une formation typique de pelouse sèche. Les explications peuvent être d’une part, que la disponibilité et l’apport de graines de pelouses sèches avoisinantes est insuffisant, et d’autre part, que le contexte abiotique pourrait être plus favorable à d’autres types de végétations herbacées. Cette étude illustre que des expériences de semis seraient souhaitable afin de définir les objectifs de restauration de la carrière de Loën et des carrières qui se trouvent dans des situations comparables. [less ▲]

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See detailRestoration of threatened metallophyte populations in Katanga (D.R. Congo): lessons learnt.
Le Stradic, Soizig ULg; Seleck, Maxime ULg; Le Brun, Julie et al

Conference (2014, August 05)

One of the current major challenges consists in integrating economic activities with environmental integrity and social concerns. One of the world’s largest concentrations of copper and cobalt deposits is ... [more ▼]

One of the current major challenges consists in integrating economic activities with environmental integrity and social concerns. One of the world’s largest concentrations of copper and cobalt deposits is located in Katanga (Democratic Republic of Congo) and represents an important source of income for the country. Unique communities and several endemic species are hosted on copper outcrops and are threatened by the extension of mining activities in the area. In theory, translocation or transplantation of structuring and/or endemic species is a suitable substitute to spontaneous succession and a good mean to rescue and conserve the more threatened species. Here we present briefly the global framework developed with a mining company in order to conserve and restore the biodiversity of Cu-Co communities, including, among others, translocation and transplantation of highly threatened species. We recorded low survival of translocated individuals. An alternative was then to produce seedlings of endemic and/or structuring species under nursery conditions for their later transplantation in degraded areas or for conservation purposes. However, the diversity of plant forms and life-forms found in such tropical area limited the production of many species. We highlighted that poor understanding of many of these tropical plants often hampered their regeneration and their use in restoration program. As already noticed, transplantation results are not always reported, especially in case of failure, while such results appear as even more important than successes and have to be presented. [less ▲]

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See detailTopsoil and community translocation as a mean to restore metallophyte communities of katangan copper hills (D.R. Congo)
Seleck, Maxime ULg; Le Stradic, Soizig ULg; Lebrun, Julie et al

Conference (2014, August 04)

One of the current major challenges consists in integrating economic activities with environmental integrity. One of the world’s largest concentrations of copper and cobalt deposits is located in Katanga ... [more ▼]

One of the current major challenges consists in integrating economic activities with environmental integrity. One of the world’s largest concentrations of copper and cobalt deposits is located in Katanga (Democratic Republic of Congo) and represents an important source of income for the country. Unique communities and several endemic species are hosted on copper outcrops and are threatened by the extension of mining activities in the area. In theory, translocation or transplantation of structuring and/or endemic species is a suitable substitute to spontaneous succession and a good mean to rescue and conserve the more threatened species. Here we present the global framework developed with a mining company in order to conserve and restore the biodiversity of Cu-Co communities, including, translocation and transplantation of highly threatened species. We recorded low survival of translocated individuals. An alternative was then to produce seedlings of native species under nursery conditions for their later transplantation in degraded areas or for conservation purposes. However, we highlighted that the diversity of plant forms found in such tropical area limited the production of many species and poor understanding of many of these tropical plants often hampered their regeneration and their use in restoration. Transplantation results are not always reported, especially in case of failure, while such results appear as even more important than successes and have to be presented. [less ▲]

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See detailIntraspecific variation of copper tolerance of four endemic plant species from the katangan Copperbelt (D. R. Congo)
Boisson, Sylvain ULg; garin, olivier; Seleck, Maxime ULg et al

Conference (2014, August 04)

Harsh ecosystems are at the origin of speciation processes in plant communities. In metalliferous areas, plants develop physiological adaptations to tolerate metal excesses which lead to high species and ... [more ▼]

Harsh ecosystems are at the origin of speciation processes in plant communities. In metalliferous areas, plants develop physiological adaptations to tolerate metal excesses which lead to high species and population diversity. South of the Katanga province (D.R. Congo), plant communities occur on soils with one of the world’s largest concentrations of copper and cobalt. More than 600 species including 54 endemics are distributed along a copper gradient (up to 10 000 mg kg-1 available Cu) and the populations are isolated on more than 100 copper hills scattered in miombo forest. In order to improve restoration strategies of threatened species, we aimed to identify intraspecific copper tolerance of 4 endemic plant species from katangan copper outcrops: Crotalaria cobalticola, Diplolophium marthozianum, Gladiolus ledoctei and Triumfetta welwitschii. Seeds were collected in 3 different populations in the katangan Copperbelt and sown according three soil contamination modalities: control (no addition of Cu), 100 mg kg-1 and 1000 mg kg-1 of Cu concentration using hydrated copper (II) sulfate. For each combination (species x populations x soils), we had 10 repetitions. For each population, sample of 5 seeds was weighed before seedling in pot in November 2013. One individual by pot was kept for measures. Height (cm), number of leaves, number of flowers and number of fruits were measured once a week during one rainy season. For all species, no significant difference of copper tolerance appeared between populations. In contrast, populations had distinct germination rate and growth rate, especially for T. welwitshii and D. marthozianum. C. cobalticola grew significantly better in highly contaminated soil than other soils. G. ledoctei did not show any significant difference between populations and soil treatments. [less ▲]

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