Behavior in the open field predicts the number of KCl-induced cortical spreading depressions in rats.
; ; Koulchitsky, Stanislav et al
in Behavioural Brain Research (2013), 236(1), 90-3
Anxiety disorders are known to be comorbid with migraine, and cortical spreading depression (CSD) is the most likely cause of the migraine aura. To search for possible correlations between susceptibility ... [more ▼]
Anxiety disorders are known to be comorbid with migraine, and cortical spreading depression (CSD) is the most likely cause of the migraine aura. To search for possible correlations between susceptibility to CSD and anxiety we used the open field test in male Sprague-Dawley rats chronically treated with the preventive anti-migraine drugs valproate or riboflavin. Animals avoiding the central area of the open field chamber and those with less exploratory activity (i.e. rearing) were considered more anxious. After 4 weeks of treatment CSDs were elicited by application of 1M KCl over the occipital cortex and the number of CSDs occurring over a 2h period was compared to the previously assessed open field behavior. Higher anxiety-like behavior was significantly correlated with a higher frequency of KCl-induced CSDs. In saline-treated animals, fewer rearings were found in animals with more frequent CSDs (R=-1.00). The duration of ambulatory episodes in the open field center correlated negatively with number of CSDs in the valproate group (R=-0.83; p<0.005) and in riboflavin treated group (R=-0.69; p<0.05) as well as total time spent in the open field center in both groups (R=-0.75; p<0.05 and R=-0.58; p<0.1 respectively). These results suggest that anxiety symptoms are associated with susceptibility to CSD and might explain why it can be an aggravating factor in migraine with aura. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 39 (14 ULg)
Migraine preventive drugs differentially affect cortical spreading depression in rat.
Bogdanov, Vladimir ; Multon, Sylvie ; Chauvel, Virginie et al
in Neurobiology of Disease (2011), 41(2), 430-5
Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is the most likely cause of the migraine aura. Drugs with distinct pharmacological properties are effective in the preventive treatment of migraine. To test the ... [more ▼]
Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is the most likely cause of the migraine aura. Drugs with distinct pharmacological properties are effective in the preventive treatment of migraine. To test the hypothesis that their common denominator might be suppression of CSD we studied in rats the effect of three drugs used in migraine prevention: lamotrigine which is selectively effective on the aura but not on the headache, valproate and riboflavin which have a non-selective effect. Rats received for 4 weeks daily intraperitoneal injections of one of the three drugs. For valproate and riboflavin we used saline as control, for lamotrigine its vehicle dimethyl sulfoxide. After treatment, cortical spreading depressions were elicited for 2h by occipital KCl application. We measured CSD frequency, its propagation between a posterior (parieto-occipital) and an anterior (frontal) electrode, and number of Fos-immunoreactive nuclei in frontal cortex. Lamotrigine suppressed CSDs by 37% and 60% at posterior and anterior electrodes. Valproate had no effect on posterior CSDs, but reduced anterior ones by 32% and slowed propagation velocity. Riboflavin had no significant effect at neither recording site. Frontal Fos expression was decreased after lamotrigine and valproate, but not after riboflavin. Serum levels of administered drugs were within the range of those usually effective in patients. Our study shows that preventive anti-migraine drugs have differential effects on CSD. Lamotrigine has a marked suppressive effect which correlates with its rather selective action on the migraine aura. Valproate and riboflavin have no effect on the triggering of CSD, although they are effective in migraine without aura. Taken together, these results are compatible with a causal role of CSD in migraine with aura, but not in migraine without aura. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 115 (13 ULg)