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See detailSystematic analysis of site-specific yield distributions resulting from nitrogen management and climatic variability interactions
Dumont, Benjamin ULg; Basso, Bruno; Leemans, Vincent ULg et al

in Precision Agriculture (2014)

At the plot level, crop simulation models such as STICS have the potential to evaluate risk associated with management practices. In nitrogen (N) management, however, the decision-making process is ... [more ▼]

At the plot level, crop simulation models such as STICS have the potential to evaluate risk associated with management practices. In nitrogen (N) management, however, the decision-making process is complex because the decision has to be taken without any knowledge of future weather conditions. The objective of this paper is to present a general methodology for assessing yield variability linked to climatic uncertainty and variable N rate strategies. The STICS model was coupled with the LARS-Weather Generator. The Pearson system and coefficients were used to characterise the shape of yield distribution. Alternatives to classical statistical tests were proposed for assessing the normality of distributions and conducting comparisons (namely, the Jarque-Bera and Wilcoxon tests, respectively). Finally, the focus was put on the probability risk assessment, which remains a key point within the decision process. The simulation results showed that, based on current N application practice among Belgian farmers (60 60 60 kgN ha-1), yield distribution was very highly significantly non normal, with the highest degree of asymmetry characterised by a skewness value of -1.02. They showed that this strategy gave the greatest probability (60%) of achieving yields that were superior to the mean (10.5 t ha-1) of the distribution. [less ▲]

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See detail4. Qualité des froments en 2014: une récolte prometteuse et puis la douche froide
Sinnaeve, Georges; Gofflot, Sébastien; Chandelier, Anne et al

in Bodson, Bernard; Destain, Jean-Pierre (Eds.) Livre Blanc Céréales (2014, September 11)

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See detail2. Variétés - 2. Escourgeon et orge d'hiver fourragers
Monfort, Bruno; Mahieu, Olivier; Couvreur, Luc et al

in Bodson, Bernard; Destain, Jean-Pierre (Eds.) Livre Blanc céréales (2014, September 11)

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See detail2. Variétés - 1. Froment d'hiver
Meza Morales, Walter ULg; Couveur, Luc; Eylenbosch, Damien ULg et al

in Bodson, Bernard; Destain, Jean-Pierre (Eds.) Livre Blanc Céréales (2014, September 11)

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See detail1. Implantation des cultures
Eylenbosch, Damien ULg; Hiel, Marie-Pierre ULg; Meza Morales, Walter ULg et al

in Bodson, Bernard; Destain, Jean-Pierre (Eds.) Livre Blanc - Céréales (2014, September 11)

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See detailLivre Blanc Céréales
Bodson, Bernard ULg; Destain, Jean-Pierre ULg

Book published by Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech (2014)

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See detailDetection of wheat root and straw in soil by use of Near Infrared hyperspectral imaging system and Partial Least Square discriminant analysis
Eylenbosch, Damien ULg; Fernández Pierna, Juan Antonio; Baeten, Vincent et al

Poster (2014, August 26)

Monitoring of root systems development and crop residues decomposition is only possible if these constituents can be discriminated from soil and quantified. In this work, Near Infrared (NIR) combined with ... [more ▼]

Monitoring of root systems development and crop residues decomposition is only possible if these constituents can be discriminated from soil and quantified. In this work, Near Infrared (NIR) combined with Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) and Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) is proposed as a new rapid and reliable method to discriminate soil, roots and straws. NIR-HSI provides simultaneously spectral and spatial information and PLS-DA allows discrimination between classes based on spectra of each pixel linked to chemical nature of sample constituents on the image. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of wheat root and straw in soil by use of NIR hyperspectral imaging spectroscopy and Partial Least Square discriminant analysis
Eylenbosch, Damien ULg; Fernández Pierna, Juan Antonio; Baeten, Vincent et al

in Szilvássy, Zoltán; Pepó, Péter; Csajbók, József (Eds.) Book of Abstracts, ESA XIIIth Congress : ESA, Debrecen 25-29 August 2014 (2014, August)

Monitoring of root systems development and crop residues decomposition is only possible if these constituents can be discriminated from soil and quantified. In this work, Near Infrared (NIR) combined with ... [more ▼]

Monitoring of root systems development and crop residues decomposition is only possible if these constituents can be discriminated from soil and quantified. In this work, Near Infrared (NIR) combined with Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) and Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) is proposed as a new rapid and reliable method to discriminate soil, roots and straws. NIR-HSI provides simultaneously spectral and spatial information and PLS-DA allows discrimination between classes based on spectra of each pixel linked to chemical nature of sample constituents on the image. [less ▲]

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See detailCrop association to improve aphid biological control
Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULg; Bosquée, Emilie ULg; Bodson, Bernard ULg et al

Poster (2014, August)

This research focused on the development of sustainable alternative methods to control aphids, giving special emphasis on cultural practices and plant management systems. Increasing the diversity within ... [more ▼]

This research focused on the development of sustainable alternative methods to control aphids, giving special emphasis on cultural practices and plant management systems. Increasing the diversity within crops may have several beneficial effects on pest control, creating attractive habitats for indigenous beneficial fauna and simultaneously deterring pests (“push-pull” approach). In this field study, two wheat/pea associations (mixed cropping and strip cropping) where compared to monocultures of pea and wheat. The abundance and diversity of adult aphidophagous beneficials (predators and parasitoids) were accessed weekly, using yellow traps, while aphids were observed directly on plants. All individuals were identified down to the level of species. In both crops, the percentage of aphid infestation and density of colonies were significantly higher in monocultures during the abundance periods. The mixing was particularly beneficial for the pea, while strip cropping was more efficient for the wheat. Concerning beneficials, their abundance was also significantly higher in monocultures, comparing with the other treatments. This study shows that increasing diversity within crops can prevent them from aphid infestations. However, additional methods are needed to attract more efficiently the aphidophagous beneficials, in order to promote the natural control of aphids. [less ▲]

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See detailDiversity of Bacterial Communities in a Profile of a Winter Wheat Field: Known and Unknown Members
Stroobants, Aurore ULg; Degrune, Florine ULg; Olivier, Claire et al

in Microbial Ecology (2014)

In soils, bacteria are very abundant and diverse. They are involved in various agro-ecosystem processes such as the nitrogen cycle, organic matter degradation, and soil formation. Yet, little is known ... [more ▼]

In soils, bacteria are very abundant and diverse. They are involved in various agro-ecosystem processes such as the nitrogen cycle, organic matter degradation, and soil formation. Yet, little is known about the distribution and composition of bacterial communities through the soil profile, particularly in agricultural soils, as most studies have focused only on topsoils or forest and grassland soils. In the present work, we have used bar-coded pyrosequencing analysis of the V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene to analyze bacterial diversity in a profile (depths 10, 25, and 45 cm) of a well-characterized field of winter wheat. Taxonomic assignment was carried out with the Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) Classifier program with three bootstrap scores: a main run at 0.80, a confirmation run at 0.99, and a run at 0 to gain information on the unknown bacteria. Our results show that biomass and bacterial quantity and diversity decreased greatly with depth. Depth also had an impact, in terms of relative sequence abundance, on 81 % of the most represented taxonomic ranks, notably the ranks Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteridae, and Acidobacteria. Bacterial community composition differed more strongly between the topsoil (10 and 25 cm) and subsoil (45 cm) than between levels in the topsoil, mainly because of shifts in the carbon, nitrogen, and potassium contents. The subsoil also contained more unknown bacteria, 53.96 % on the average, than did the topsoil, with 42.06 % at 10 cm and 45.59 % at 25 cm. Most of these unknown bacteria seem to belong to Deltaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Rhizobiales, and Acidobacteria. [less ▲]

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See detailAre agricultural ecosystems important BVOC « exchangers »? Evidences from 2 measurement years on croplands at Lonzée (Belgium)
Bachy, Aurélie ULg; Aubinet, Marc ULg; Schoon, Niels et al

Poster (2014, July 01)

For the last decades, agricultural ecosystems have been a key biome for diverse socio-economical, environmental and climatic issues. And one of these climatic issues is just BVOC (Biogenic Volatile ... [more ▼]

For the last decades, agricultural ecosystems have been a key biome for diverse socio-economical, environmental and climatic issues. And one of these climatic issues is just BVOC (Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds) emission from terrestrial ecosystems. Indeed, those compounds which are mostly emitted by plants play a great role in the atmospheric chemistry, thereby influencing the Earth surface radiative budget and the tropospheric air quality. However, so far, very few is known about BVOC exchange by crops, implying that huge uncertainties remain about qualifying, quantifying and determining sources/sinks and driving mechanisms of BVOC exchanges between croplands ecosystems and the atmosphere. We present here the first long term BVOC fluxes measurement study conducted on maize (2012) and winter wheat (2013), respectively the second and first most important worldwide crops (FAOSTAT). BVOC exchange was measured using the disjunct by mass scanning eddy covariance technique (+ PTR-MS, Ionicon) at the Lonzée Terrestrial Observatory (ICOS site) in Belgium. Main results are: (i) crops emit mainly methanol; (ii) BVOC fluxes from studied crops is lower than in literature, suggesting that agricultural ecosystems are poor BVOC exchangers; (iii) soil is a significant BVOC source. [less ▲]

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See detailSoil infrastructure evolution and its effect on water transfer processes under contrasted tillage systems - overview of methodologies with preliminary results
Parvin, Nargish ULg; Colinet, Gilles ULg; Garré, Sarah ULg et al

Conference (2014, June 10)

The heterogeneity of soil structure and porosity are highly influenced by external factors like tillage systems and other land management approaches. The aim of this project is to investigate the effect ... [more ▼]

The heterogeneity of soil structure and porosity are highly influenced by external factors like tillage systems and other land management approaches. The aim of this project is to investigate the effect of soil tillage along with residue management on the changing pattern of soil structure. This investigation will help to emphasize the different water flow dynamics especially the preferential flow processes through the soil that are influenced by the changes in structural distribution in the soil profile. The experimentation has been started from June 2013 in the research field in Gembloux. Soil profile description together with soil sampling has been carried out in the four objects of land management. Soil samples will be used for the measurement of water retention capacity (done), hydraulic conductivity and x-ray microtomography. The assessment of soil water retention curves with pressure plate technique show significantly (p<0.05) higher water retention (Hwr) in WP than ST at 9.8 to 98 hPa, Hwr in WP than NI at 39 to 14710 hPa, Hwr in ST than NI at 294 to 14710 hPa and Hwr in WP than NO at 69 to 98 hPa. There was no significant difference in the water retention between NO and NI and ST and NO. Since, tillage practices generally increase soil porosity, the correlation between soil hydraulics and porosity distribution would expect to be different for different tillage systems. In our study, WP retains more water due to the increase of macroporosity than ST, NI and NO. As the changes in soil structure are usually noticed in the range of 9.8 to 98 hPa, so, we can conclude that there is certainly structural change between WP and conservation practices of ST, NI and NO. In our study, there will be also soil moisture sensors (Decagon 10HS, 5TM and ML3 Thetaprobe) to capture the total soil moisture networks in the field under four different trials. The soils from the different trials and also from different depths (0-15, 25-30 and 50-60 cm) were used for zone specific calibration of the sensors. All the experiments will be repeated twice a year. For the specific spatio-temporal comparison, the monitoring results from electrical resistance tomography will be available from the collaborated project of the same faculty. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of tillage practices and crop residue exportation on earthworm communities and soil physico-­chemical properties in silt loam arable soil (Belgium)
Lemtiri, Aboulkacem ULg; Colinet, Gilles ULg; Alabi, Taofic ULg et al

Poster (2014, June 08)

Earthworms are known to play integral roles in soils, and are often referred to as vital soil and ecosystem engineers due to their capacity to influence a wide range of chemical, physical, and biological ... [more ▼]

Earthworms are known to play integral roles in soils, and are often referred to as vital soil and ecosystem engineers due to their capacity to influence a wide range of chemical, physical, and biological properties of soil environments. Therefore, it is important to understand how earthworm communities are impacted by tillage systems and crop management practices. In the present study, earthworm and soil samples were collected from wheat cultivated fields in Gembloux, Belgium under the following four experimental treatments: (1) conventional tillage with crop residues left in the soil (CT/IN); (2) conventional tillage with crop residues removed from the field (CT/OUT); (3) reduced tillage with crop residues left in the soil (RT/IN); and (4) reduced tillage with crop residues removed from the field (RT/OUT). The different tillage systems were applied for four consecutive years prior to the initiation of the current study. Results indicated soil compaction was significantly higher in RT compared with CT up to a depth of 6–49 cm. Significant differences were not detected between residue incorporation depth systems, where results showed mean earthworm abundance was respectively 182.25 and 180 individuals.m-2 in CT and RT. Mean earthworm biomass was similarly not significantly different between CT and RT, where results were respectively 48.52 and 57.27 g.m-2. However, a significant difference was observed between IN and OUT treatments, suggesting the exportation of wheat residues will limit earthworm abundance and biomass in CT and RT plots. Data showed high representation of the endogeic earthworm ecological category, notably N. c. caliginosus regardless of treatment. Despite tillage system and exportation of crop residues, N. c. caliginosus, L. terrestris, and A. r. rosea exhibited high abundance, indicating tolerance to soil environmental conditions. For each depth, measures of soil physico-chemical properties showed significant differences among treatments. Furthermore, soil chemical property attributes were significantly higher in the first soil centimetres compared to lower soil layers. These results were attributable to earthworm activity and wheat residues, suggesting earthworms contributed to nutrient dynamics, particularly at increased soil depths. Overall, the results emphasise the influence of exportation of crop residues on earthworm community and also, the important influence of earthworm activity on soil physico-chemical properties change, processes which are closely linked. [less ▲]

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See detailSorting of crop residues and fossil bones from soil by NIR Hyperspectral Imaging
Vincke, Damien; Eylenbosch, Damien ULg; Baeten, Vincent et al

Poster (2014, June)

Soil is a complex matrix containing a wide variety of constituents of interest for disciplines like agronomy or archaeology; it could either be crop residues like roots and straws or bones and ceramics ... [more ▼]

Soil is a complex matrix containing a wide variety of constituents of interest for disciplines like agronomy or archaeology; it could either be crop residues like roots and straws or bones and ceramics. Current challenges comprise the detection of these constituents as well as the assessment of their qualitative parameters by means of fast and non-destructive analytical methods. The scope of this work is to present two applications using Near Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging (NIR-HSI) combined with chemometrics to sort constituents of soil and to assess their qualitative parameters. The first application concerns the feasibility study of using NIR-HSI to sort crop residues such as roots and straws in soil. The second application aim to develop a method to assess the level of collagen preservation in fossil bones. [less ▲]

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See detailSorting of crop residues and fossil bones from soil by NIR Hyperspectral Imaging
Vincke, Damien; Eylenbosch, Damien ULg; Fernández Pierna, Juan Antonio et al

Conference (2014, June)

The scope of this paper is to present two applications using Near Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging (NIR-HSI) combined with chemometrics to sort constituents of soil and assess their qualitative parameters ... [more ▼]

The scope of this paper is to present two applications using Near Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging (NIR-HSI) combined with chemometrics to sort constituents of soil and assess their qualitative parameters. In the first application, the feasibility of using NIR-HSI to sort crop residues such as roots and straws in soil has been demonstrated. In the second application the potential of such instrumentation and method to assess the level of collagen preservation in fossil bones has been proved. [less ▲]

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See detailWildflower strips: a help for crop protection ?
Hatt, Séverin ULg; Uyttenbroeck, Roel ULg; Bodson, Bernard ULg et al

Poster (2014, March 05)

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See detailWildflower strips: a help for crop protection ?
Hatt, Séverin ULg; Uyttenbroeck, Roel ULg; Bodson, Bernard ULg et al

Conference (2014, March 05)

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See detailLivre Blanc céréales
Destain, Jean-Pierre ULg; Bodson, Bernard ULg

Book published by Université de Liège (2014)

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