References of "Blomme, R"
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See detailThe 2.35 year itch of Cygnus OB2 #9. III. X-ray and radio emission analysis based on 3D hydrodynamical modelling
Parkin, E. R.; Pittard, J. M.; Nazé, Yaël ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 570

Context. The wind-wind collision in a massive star binary system leads to the generation of high temperature shocks that emit at X-ray wavelengths and, if particle acceleration is effective, may exhibit ... [more ▼]

Context. The wind-wind collision in a massive star binary system leads to the generation of high temperature shocks that emit at X-ray wavelengths and, if particle acceleration is effective, may exhibit non-thermal radio emission. Cyg OB2#9 is one of a small number of massive star binary systems in this class. <BR /> Aims: X-ray and radio data recently acquired as part of a project to study Cyg OB2#9 are used to constrain physical models of the binary system, providing in-depth knowledge about the wind-wind collision and the thermal, and non-thermal, emission arising from the shocks. <BR /> Methods: We use a 3D, adaptive mesh refinement simulation (including wind acceleration, radiative cooling, and the orbital motion of the stars) to model the gas dynamics of the wind-wind collision. The simulation output is used as the basis for radiative transfer calculations considering the thermal X-ray emission and the thermal/non-thermal radio emission. <BR /> Results: The flow dynamics in the simulation show that wind acceleration (between the stars) is inhibited at all orbital phases by the opposing star's radiation field, reducing pre-shock velocities below terminal velocities. To obtain good agreement with the X-ray observations, our initial mass-loss rate estimates require a down-shift by a factor of ˜7.7 to 6.5 × 10[SUP]-7[/SUP] M[SUB]⊙[/SUB] yr[SUP]-1[/SUP] and 7.5 × 10[SUP]-7[/SUP] M[SUB]⊙[/SUB] yr[SUP]-1[/SUP] for the primary and secondary star, respectively. Furthermore, the low gas densities and high shock velocities in Cyg OB2 #9 are suggestive of unequal electron and ion temperatures, and the X-ray analysis indicates that an immediately post-shock electron-ion temperature ratio of ≃0.1 is also required. The radio emission is dominated by non-thermal synchrotron emission. A parameter space exploration provides evidence against models assuming equipartition between magnetic and relativistic energy densities. However, fits of comparable quality can be attained with models having stark contrasts in the ratio of magnetic-to-relativistic energy densities. Both X-ray and radio lightcurves are largely insensitive to viewing angle. The variations in X-ray emission with orbital phase can be traced back to an inverse relation with binary separation and pre-shock velocity. The radio emission also scales with pre-shock velocity and binary separation, but to positive powers (i.e. not inversely). The radio models also reveal a subtle effect whereby inverse Compton cooling leads to an increase in emissivity as a result of the synchrotron characteristic frequency being significantly reduced. Finally, using the results of the radio analysis, we estimate the surface magnetic field strengths to be ≈0.3 - 52G. [less ▲]

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See detailA multi-method approach to radial-velocity measurement for single-object spectra
David, M.; Blomme, R.; Frémat, Y. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 562

Context. The derivation of radial velocities from large numbers of spectra that typically result from survey work, requires automation. However, except for the classical cases of slowly rotating late-type ... [more ▼]

Context. The derivation of radial velocities from large numbers of spectra that typically result from survey work, requires automation. However, except for the classical cases of slowly rotating late-type spectra, existing methods of measuring Doppler shifts require fine-tuning to avoid a loss of accuracy due to the idiosyncrasies of individual spectra. The radial velocity spectrometer (RVS) on the Gaia mission, which will start operating very soon, prompted a new attempt at creating a measurement pipeline to handle a wide variety of spectral types. <BR /> Aims: The present paper describes the theoretical background on which this software is based. However, apart from the assumption that only synthetic templates are used, we do not rely on any of the characteristics of this instrument, so our results should be relevant for most telescope-detector combinations. <BR /> Methods: We propose an approach based on the simultaneous use of several alternative measurement methods, each having its own merits and drawbacks, and conveying the spectral information in a different way, leading to different values for the measurement. A comparison or a combination of the various results either leads to a "best estimate" or indicates to the user that the observed spectrum is problematic and should be analysed manually. <BR /> Results: We selected three methods and analysed the relationships and differences between them from a unified point of view; with each method an appropriate estimator for the individual random error is chosen. We also develop a procedure for tackling the problem of template mismatch in a systematic way. Furthermore, we propose several tests for studying and comparing the performance of the various methods as a function of the atmospheric parameters of the observed objects. Finally, we describe a procedure for obtaining a knowledge-based combination of the various Doppler-shift measurements. [less ▲]

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See detailThe 2.35 year itch of Cyg OB2 #9. II. Radio monitoring
Blomme, R.; Nazé, Yaël ULg; Volpi, D. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2013), 550

Cyg OB2 #9 is one of a small set of non-thermal radio emitting massive O-star binaries. The non-thermal radiation is due to synchrotron emission in the colliding-wind region. Cyg OB2 #9 was only recently ... [more ▼]

Cyg OB2 #9 is one of a small set of non-thermal radio emitting massive O-star binaries. The non-thermal radiation is due to synchrotron emission in the colliding-wind region. Cyg OB2 #9 was only recently discovered to be a binary system and a multiwavelength campaign was organized to study its 2011 periastron passage. We want to better determine the parameters of this system and model the wind-wind collision. This will lead to a better understanding of the Fermi mechanism that accelerates electrons up to relativistic speeds in shocks, and its occurrence in colliding-wind binaries. We report here on the results of the radio observations obtained in the monitoring campaign and present a simple model to interpret the data. We used the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) radio interferometer to obtain 6 and 20 cm continuum fluxes during the Cyg OB2 #9 periastron passage in 2011. We introduce a simple model to solve the radiative transfer in the stellar winds and the colliding-wind region, and thus determine the expected behaviour of the radio light curve. The observed radio light curve shows a steep drop in flux sometime before periastron. The fluxes drop to a level that is comparable to the expected free-free emission from the stellar winds, suggesting that the non-thermal emitting region is completely hidden at that time. After periastron passage, the fluxes slowly increase. We use the asymmetry of the light curve to show that the primary has the stronger wind. This is somewhat unexpected if we use the astrophysical parameters based on theoretical calibrations. But it becomes entirely feasible if we take into account that a given spectral type – luminosity class combination covers a range of astrophysical parameters. The colliding-wind region also contributes to the free-free emission, which can help to explain the high values of the spectral index seen after periastron passage. Combining our data with older Very Large Array (VLA) data allows us to derive a period P = 860:0 3:7 days for this system. With this period, we update the orbital parameters that were derived in the first paper of this series. A simple model introduced to explain only the radio data already allows some constraints to be put on the parameters of this binary system. Future, more sophisticated, modelling that will also include optical, X-ray and interferometric information will provide even better constraints. [less ▲]

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See detailCoRoT Observations of O Stars: Diverse Origins of Variability
Blomme, R.; Briquet, Maryline ULg; Degroote, P. et al

in Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series (2013, January 01)

Six O-type stars were observed continuously by the CoRoT satellite during a 34.3-day run. The unprecedented quality of the data allows us to detect even low-amplitude stellar pulsations in some of these ... [more ▼]

Six O-type stars were observed continuously by the CoRoT satellite during a 34.3-day run. The unprecedented quality of the data allows us to detect even low-amplitude stellar pulsations in some of these stars (HD 46202 and the binaries HD 46149 and Plaskett's star). These cover both opacity-driven modes and solar-like stochastic oscillations, both of importance to the asteroseismological modeling of O stars. Additional effects can be seen in the CoRoT light curves, such as binarity and rotational modulation. Some of the hottest O-type stars (HD 46223, HD 46150 and HD 46966) are dominated by the presence of red-noise: we speculate that this is related to a sub-surface convection zone. [less ▲]

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See detailMassive Non-Thermal Radio Emitters: New Data and their Modeling
Volpi, D.; Blomme, R.; De Becker, Michaël ULg et al

in Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series (2013, January 01)

During recent years some non-thermal radio emitting OB stars have been discovered to be binary or multiple systems. The non-thermal emission is due to synchrotron radiation that is emitted by electrons ... [more ▼]

During recent years some non-thermal radio emitting OB stars have been discovered to be binary or multiple systems. The non-thermal emission is due to synchrotron radiation that is emitted by electrons accelerated up to high energies. The electron acceleration occurs at the strong shocks created by the collision of radiatively-driven winds. Here we summarize the available radio data and more recent observations for the binary Cyg OB2 No. 9. We also show a new emission model which is being developed to compare the theoretical total radio flux and the spectral index with the observed radio light curves. This comparison will be useful in order to solve fundamental questions, such as the determination of the stellar mass-loss rates, which are perturbed by clumping. [less ▲]

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See detailThe 2.35 year itch of Cygnus OB2 #9. I. Optical and X-ray monitoring
Nazé, Yaël ULg; Mahy, Laurent ULg; Damerdji, Yassine ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2012), 546

Context. Nonthermal radio emission in massive stars is expected to arise in wind-wind collisions occurring inside a binary system. One such case, the O-type star Cyg OB2 #9, was proven to be a binary only ... [more ▼]

Context. Nonthermal radio emission in massive stars is expected to arise in wind-wind collisions occurring inside a binary system. One such case, the O-type star Cyg OB2 #9, was proven to be a binary only four years ago, but the orbital parameters remained uncertain. The periastron passage of 2011 was the first one to be observable under good conditions since the discovery of binarity. <BR /> Aims: In this context, we have organized a large monitoring campaign to refine the orbital solution and to study the wind-wind collision. <BR /> Methods: This paper presents the analysis of optical spectroscopic data, as well as of a dedicated X-ray monitoring performed with Swift and XMM-Newton. <BR /> Results: In light of our refined orbital solution, Cyg OB2 #9 appears as a massive O+O binary with a long period and high eccentricity; its components (O5-5.5I for the primary and O3-4III for the secondary) have similar masses and similar luminosities. The new data also provide the first evidence that a wind-wind collision is present in the system. In the optical domain, the broad Hα line varies, displaying enhanced absorption and emission components at periastron. X-ray observations yield the unambiguous signature of an adiabatic collision, because as the stars approach periastron, the X-ray luminosity closely follows the 1/D variation expected in that case. The X-ray spectrum appears, however, slightly softer at periastron, which is probably related to winds colliding at slightly lower speeds at that time. <BR /> Conclusions: It is the first time that such a variation has been detected in O+O systems, and the first case where the wind-wind collision is found to remain adiabatic even at periastron passage. [less ▲]

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See detailThe long period eccentric orbit of the particle accelerator HD 167971 revealed by long baseline interferometry
De Becker, Michaël ULg; Sana, H; Absil, Olivier ULg et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2012), 423

Using optical long baseline interferometry, we resolved for the first time the two wide components of HD167971, a candidate hierarchical triple system known to efficiently accelerate particles. Our multi ... [more ▼]

Using optical long baseline interferometry, we resolved for the first time the two wide components of HD167971, a candidate hierarchical triple system known to efficiently accelerate particles. Our multi-epoch VLTI observations provide direct evidence for a gravitational link between the O8 supergiant and the close eclipsing O + O binary. The separation varies from 8 to 15 mas over the three-year baseline of our observations, suggesting that the components evolve on a wide and very eccentric orbit (most probably e>0.5). These results provide evidence that the wide orbit revealed by our study is not coplanar with the orbit of the inner eclipsing binary. From our measurements of the near-infrared luminosity ratio, we constrain the spectral classification of the components in the close binary to be O6-O7, and confirm that these stars are likely main-sequence objects. Our results are discussed in the context of the bright non-thermal radio emission already reported for this system, and we provide arguments in favour of a maximum radio emission coincident with periastron passage. HD167971 turns out to be an efficient O-type particle accelerator that constitutes a valuable target for future high angular resolution radio imaging using VLBI facilities. [less ▲]

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See detailVariability in the CoRoT photometry of three hot O-type stars. HD 46223, HD 46150, and HD 46966
Blomme, R.; Mahy, Laurent ULg; Catala, C. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2011), 533

Context. The detection of pulsational frequencies in stellar photometry is required as input for asteroseismological modelling. The second short run (SRa02) of the CoRoT mission has provided photometric ... [more ▼]

Context. The detection of pulsational frequencies in stellar photometry is required as input for asteroseismological modelling. The second short run (SRa02) of the CoRoT mission has provided photometric data of unprecedented quality and time-coverage for a number of O-type stars. <BR /> Aims: We analyse the CoRoT data corresponding to three hot O-type stars, describing the properties of their light curves and search for pulsational frequencies, which we then compare to theoretical model predictions. <BR /> Methods: We determine the amplitude spectrum of the data, using the Lomb-Scargle and a multifrequency HMM-like technique. Frequencies are extracted by prewhitening, and their significance is evaluated under the assumption that the light curve is dominated by red noise. We search for harmonics, linear combinations, and regular spacings among these frequencies. We use simulations with the same time sampling as the data as a powerful tool to judge the significance of our results. From the theoretical point of view, we use the MAD non-adiabatic pulsation code to determine the expected frequencies of excited modes. <BR /> Results: A substantial number of frequencies is listed, but none can be convincingly identified as being connected to pulsations. The amplitude spectrum is dominated by red noise. Theoretical modelling shows that all three O-type stars can have excited modes, but the relation between the theoretical frequencies and the observed spectrum is not obvious. <BR /> Conclusions: The dominant red noise component in the hot O-type stars studied here clearly points to a different origin than the pulsations seen in cooler O stars. The physical cause of this red noise is unclear, but we speculate on the possibility of sub-surface convection, granulation, or stellar wind inhomogeneities being responsible. The CoRoT space mission was developed and is operated by the French space agency CNES, with participation of ESA's RSSD and Science Programmes, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Germany and Spain.Tables 2-4 are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/533/A4">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/533/A4</A> [less ▲]

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See detailGaia spectroscopy: processing, performances and scientific returns
Katz, D.; Cropper, M.; Meynadier, F. et al

in EAS Publication Series (2011, February 01)

During the five years of the mission, the Gaia spectrograph, the Radial Velocity Spectrometer (RVS) will repeatedly survey the celestial sphere down to magnitude V ~ 17-18. This talk presents: (i) the ... [more ▼]

During the five years of the mission, the Gaia spectrograph, the Radial Velocity Spectrometer (RVS) will repeatedly survey the celestial sphere down to magnitude V ~ 17-18. This talk presents: (i) the system which is currently developed within the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) to reduce and calibrate the spectra and to derive the radial and rotational velocities, (ii) the RVS expected performances and (iii) scientific returns. [less ▲]

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See detailPlaskett's star: analysis of the CoRoT photometric data
Mahy, Laurent ULg; Gosset, Eric ULg; Baudin, F. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2011), 525

Context. The second short run (SRa02) of the CoRoT space mission for asteroseismology was partly devoted to stars belonging to the Mon OB2 association. An intense monitoring has been performed on Plaskett ... [more ▼]

Context. The second short run (SRa02) of the CoRoT space mission for asteroseismology was partly devoted to stars belonging to the Mon OB2 association. An intense monitoring has been performed on Plaskett's star (HD 47129) and the unprecedented quality of the light curve allows us to shed new light on this very massive, non-eclipsing binary system. <BR /> Aims: We particularly aimed at detecting periodic variability that might be associated with pulsations or interactions between both components. We also searched for variations related to the orbital cycle that could help to constrain the inclination and the morphology of the binary system. <BR /> Methods: We applied an iterative Fourier-based prewhitening and a multiperiodic fitting procedure to analyse the time series and extract the frequencies of variations from the CoRoT light curve. We describe the noise properties to tentatively define an appropriate significance criterion and, in consequence, to only point out the peaks at a certain significance level. We also detect the variations related to the orbital motion and study them with the NIGHTFALL programme. <BR /> Results: The periodogram computed from Plaskett's star CoRoT light curve mainly exhibits a majority of peaks at low frequencies. Among these peaks, we highlight a list of 43 values, notably including two different sets of harmonic frequencies whose fundamental peaks are located at about 0.07 and 0.82 d[SUP]-1[/SUP]. The former represents the orbital frequency of the binary system, whilst the latter could probably be associated with non-radial pulsations. The study of the 0.07 d[SUP]-1[/SUP] variations reveals a hot spot most probably situated on the primary star and facing the secondary. <BR /> Conclusions: The investigation of this unique dataset constitutes a further step in the understanding of Plaskett's star. These results provide a first basis for future seismic modelling and put forward the probable existence of non-radial pulsations in Plaskett's star. Moreover, the fit of the orbital variations confirms the problem of the distance of this system which was already mentioned in previous works. A hot region between both components renders the determination of the inclination ambiguous. The CoRoT space mission was developed and is operated by the French space agency CNES, with participation of ESA's RSSD and Science Programmes, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Germany and Spain.Table 2 is only available in electronic form at <A href="http://www.aanda.org">http://www.aanda.org</A> [less ▲]

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See detailMassive non-thermal radio emitters: new data and their modelling
Volpi, D.; Blomme, R.; De Becker, Michaël ULg et al

Poster (2011)

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See detailNon-thermal radio emission from O-type stars. IV. Cygnus OB2 No. 8A
Blomme, R.; De Becker, Michaël ULg; Volpi, D. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2010), 519

Context. Several early-type colliding-wind binaries are known to emit synchrotron radiation due to relativistic electrons, which are most probably accelerated by the Fermi mechanism. By studying such ... [more ▼]

Context. Several early-type colliding-wind binaries are known to emit synchrotron radiation due to relativistic electrons, which are most probably accelerated by the Fermi mechanism. By studying such systems we can learn more about this mechanism, which is also relevant in other astrophysical contexts. Colliding-wind binaries are furthermore important for binary frequency determination in clusters and for understanding clumping and porosity in stellar winds. Aims: We study the non-thermal radio emission of the binary Cyg OB2 No. 8A, to see if it is variable and if that variability is locked to the orbital phase. We investigate if the synchrotron emission generated in the colliding-wind region of this binary can explain the observations and we verify that our proposed model is compatible with the X-ray data. Methods: We use both new and archive radio data from the Very Large Array (VLA) to construct a light curve as a function of orbital phase. We also present new X-ray data that allow us to improve the X-ray light curve. We develop a numerical model for the colliding-wind region and the synchrotron emission it generates. The model also includes free-free absorption and emission due to the stellar winds of both stars. In this way we construct artificial radio light curves and compare them with the observed one. Results: The observed radio fluxes show phase-locked variability. Our model can explain this variability because the synchrotron emitting region is not completely hidden by the free-free absorption. In order to obtain a better agreement for the phases of minimum and maximum flux we need to use stellar wind parameters for the binary components which are somewhat different from typical values for single stars. We verify that the change in stellar parameters does not influence the interpretation of the X-ray light curve. Our model has trouble explaining the observed radio spectral index. This could indicate the presence of clumping or porosity in the stellar wind, which - through its influence on both the Razin effect and the free-free absorption - can considerably influence the spectral index. Non-thermal radio emitters could therefore open a valuable pathway to investigate the difficult issue of clumping in stellar winds. [less ▲]

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See detailHot stars survey with the GAIA space mission
Lobel, A.; Liu, C.; Frémat, Y. et al

Poster (2009)

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See detailEmission line stars in the Milky Way with the GAIA space mission
Martayan, C.; Frémat, Y.; Blomme, R. et al

Poster (2009)

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See detailRadial velocities with the Gaia RVS spectrometer
Viala, Y. P.; Blomme, R.; Damerdji, Yassine ULg et al

in Charbonnel, C.; Combes, F.; Samadi, R. (Eds.) SF2A-2008; Annual Meeting of the French Society of Astronomy (2008, November 01)

Four different method are used to derive radial velocities from spectra observed by the Gaia Radial Velocity Spectrometer (RVS). They are briefly presented here together with very preliminary results.

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See detailThe Gaia satellite: a tool for Emission Line Stars and Hot Stars
Martayan, C.; Frémat, Y.; Blomme, R. et al

in SF2A-2008 (2008, November 01)

The Gaia satellite will be launched at the end of 2011. It will observe at least 1 billion stars, and among them several million emission line stars and hot stars. Gaia will provide parallaxes for each ... [more ▼]

The Gaia satellite will be launched at the end of 2011. It will observe at least 1 billion stars, and among them several million emission line stars and hot stars. Gaia will provide parallaxes for each star and spectra for stars till V magnitude equal to 17. After a general description of Gaia, we present the codes and methods, which are currently developed by our team. They will provide automatically the astrophysical parameters and spectral classification for the hot and emission line stars in the Milky Way and other close local group galaxies such as the Magellanic Clouds. [less ▲]

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See detailThe spectra of massive stars with GAIA
Bouret, J C; Lanz, T; Frémat, Y et al

in Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica (2008), 33

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See detailThe investigation of particle acceleration in colliding-wind massive binaries with SIMBOL-X.
De Becker, Michaël ULg; Rauw, Grégor ULg; Pittard, J. M. et al

in Memorie della Società Astronomica Italiana : Journal of the Italian Astronomical Society (2008), 79

An increasing number of early-type (O and Wolf-Rayet) colliding wind binaries (CWBs) is known to accelerate particles up to relativistic energies. In this context, non-thermal emission processes such as ... [more ▼]

An increasing number of early-type (O and Wolf-Rayet) colliding wind binaries (CWBs) is known to accelerate particles up to relativistic energies. In this context, non-thermal emission processes such as inverse Compton (IC) scattering are expected to produce a high energy spectrum, in addition to the strong thermal emission from the shock-heated plasma. SIMBOL-X will be the ideal observatory to investigate the hard X-ray spectrum (above 10 keV) of these systems, i.e. where it is no longer dominated by the thermal emission. Such observations are strongly needed to constrain the models aimed at understanding the physics of particle acceleration in CWB. Such systems are important laboratories for investigating the underlying physics of particle acceleration at high Mach number shocks, and probe a different region of parameter space than studies of supernova remnants. [less ▲]

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See detailA multi-wavelength investigation of the non-thermal radio emitting O-star 9 Sgr
Rauw, Grégor ULg; Blomme, R.; Waldron, W. L. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2002), 394(3), 993-1008

We report the results of a multi-wavelength investigation of the O4 V star 9 Sgr (= HD164794). Our data include observations in the X-ray domain with XMM-Newton, in the radio domain with the VLA as well ... [more ▼]

We report the results of a multi-wavelength investigation of the O4 V star 9 Sgr (= HD164794). Our data include observations in the X-ray domain with XMM-Newton, in the radio domain with the VLA as well as optical spectroscopy. 9 Sgr is one of a few presumably single OB stars that display non-thermal radio emission. This phenomenon is attributed to synchrotron emission by relativistic electrons accelerated in strong hydrodynamic shocks in the stellar wind. Given the enormous supply of photospheric UV photons in the wind of 9 Sgr, inverse Compton scattering by these relativistic electrons is a priori expected to generate a non-thermal power law tail in the X-ray spectrum. Our EPIC and RGS spectra of 9 Sgr reveal a more complex situation than expected from this simple theoretical picture. While the bulk of the thermal X-ray emission from 9 Sgr arises most probably in a plasma at temperature similar to3 x 10(6) K distributed throughout the wind, the nature of the hard emission in the X-ray spectrum is less clear. Assuming a non-thermal origin, our best fitting model yields a photon index of greater than or equal to2.9 for the power law component which would imply a low compression ratio of less than or equal to1.79 for the shocks responsible for the electron acceleration. However, the hard emission can also be explained by a thermal plasma at a temperature greater than or equal to2 x 10(7) K. Our VLA data indicate that the radio emission of 9 Sgr was clearly non-thermal at the time of the XMM-Newton observation. Again, we derive a low compression ratio (1.7) for the shocks that accelerate the electrons responsible for the synchrotron radio emission. Finally, our optical spectra reveal long-term radial velocity variations suggesting that 9 Sgr could be a long-period spectroscopic binary. [less ▲]

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