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See detailThe SWAP EUV Imaging Telescope. Part II: In-flight Performance and Calibration
Halain, Jean-Philippe ULg; Berghmans, David; Seaton, Dan et al

in Solar Physics (2013), 286

The Sun Watcher with Active Pixel System detector and Image Processing (SWAP) telescope was launched on 2 November 2009 onboard the ESA PROBA2 technological mission and has acquired images of the solar ... [more ▼]

The Sun Watcher with Active Pixel System detector and Image Processing (SWAP) telescope was launched on 2 November 2009 onboard the ESA PROBA2 technological mission and has acquired images of the solar corona every one to two minutes for more than two years. The most important technological developments included in SWAP are a radiation-resistant CMOS-APS detector and a novel onboard data-prioritization scheme. Although such detectors have been used previously in space, they have never been used for long-term scientific observations on orbit. Thus SWAP requires a careful calibration to guarantee the science return of the instrument. Since launch we have regularly monitored the evolution of SWAP’s detector response in-flight to characterize both its performance and degradation over the course of the mission. These measurements are also used to reduce detector noise in calibrated images (by subtracting dark-current). Because accurate measurements of detector dark-current require large telescope off-points, we also monitored straylight levels in the instrument to ensure that these calibration measurements are not contaminated by residual signal from the Sun. Here we present the results of these tests and examine the variation of instrumental response and noise as a function of both time and temperature throughout the mission. [less ▲]

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See detailThe SWAP EUV Imaging Telescope Part I: Instrument Overview and Pre-Flight Testing
Seaton, Daniel; Berghmans, David; Nicula, Bogdan et al

in Solar Physics (2013), 286

The Sun Watcher with Active Pixels and Image Processing (SWAP) is an EUV solar telescope onboard ESA’s Project for Onboard Autonomy 2 (PROBA2) mission launched on 2 November 2009. SWAP has a spectral ... [more ▼]

The Sun Watcher with Active Pixels and Image Processing (SWAP) is an EUV solar telescope onboard ESA’s Project for Onboard Autonomy 2 (PROBA2) mission launched on 2 November 2009. SWAP has a spectral bandpass centered on 17.4 nm and provides images of the low solar corona over a 54 × 54 arcmin field-of-view with 3.2 arcsec pixels and an imaging cadence of about two minutes. SWAP is designed to monitor all space-weatherrelevant events and features in the low solar corona. Given the limited resources of the PROBA2 microsatellite, the SWAP telescope is designed with various innovative technologies, including an off-axis optical design and a CMOS–APS detector. This article provides reference documentation for users of the SWAP image data. [less ▲]

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See detailEUV high resolution imager on-board Solar Orbiter: optical design and detector performances.
Halain, Jean-Philippe ULg; Mazzoli, Alexandra ULg; Rochus, Pierre ULg et al

Poster (2012, October)

The EUV high resolution imager (HRI) channel of the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUI) on-board Solar Orbiter will observe the solar atmospheric layers at 17.4 nm wavelength with a 200 km resolution. The ... [more ▼]

The EUV high resolution imager (HRI) channel of the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUI) on-board Solar Orbiter will observe the solar atmospheric layers at 17.4 nm wavelength with a 200 km resolution. The HRI channel is based on a compact two mirrors off-axis design. The spectral selection is obtained by a multilayer coating deposited on the mirrors and by redundant Aluminum filters rejecting the visible and infrared light. The detector is a 2k x 2k array back-thinned silicon CMOS-APS with 10 µm pixel pitch, sensitive in the EUV wavelength range. Due to the instrument compactness and the constraints on the optical design, the channel performance is very sensitive to the manufacturing, alignments and settling errors. A trade-off between two optical layouts was therefore performed to select the final optical design and to improve the mirror mounts. The effect of diffraction by the filter mesh support and by the mirror diffusion has been included in the overall error budget. Manufacturing of mirror and mounts has started and will result in thermo-mechanical validation on the EUI instrument structural and thermal model (STM). Because of the limited channel entrance aperture and consequently the low input flux, the channel performance also relies on the detector EUV sensitivity, readout noise and dynamic range. Based on the characterization of a CMOS-APS back-side detector prototype, showing promising results, the EUI detector has been specified and is under development. These detectors will undergo a qualification program before being tested and integrated on the EUI instrument. [less ▲]

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See detailTHE EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET IMAGER (EUI) ONBOARD THE SOLAR ORBITER MISSION
Rochus, Pierre ULg; Halain, Jean-Philippe ULg; Renotte, Etienne ULg et al

in A3. 4. Space-based Astronomy (2009)

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See detailCMOS-APS Detectors for Solar Physics: Lessons Learned during the SWAP Preflight Calibration
De Groof, Anik; Berghmans, David; Nicula, Bogdan et al

in Solar Physics (2008)

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See detailSWAP: a novel EUV telescope for space weather
Defise, Jean-Marc ULg; Halain, Jean-Philippe ULg; Berghmans, David et al

in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series (2007, September 01)

The SWAP telescope (Sun Watcher using Active Pixel System detector and Image Processing) is being developed to be part of the PROBA2 payload, an ESA technological mission to be launched in early 2008 ... [more ▼]

The SWAP telescope (Sun Watcher using Active Pixel System detector and Image Processing) is being developed to be part of the PROBA2 payload, an ESA technological mission to be launched in early 2008. SWAP is directly derived from the concept of the EIT telescope that we developed in the '90s for the SOHO mission. Several major innovations have been introduced in the design of the instrument in order to be compliant with the requirements of the PROBA2 mini-satellite: compactness with a new of-axis optical design, radiation resistance with a new CMOS-APS detector, a very low power electronics, an athermal opto-mechanical system, optimized onboard compression schemes combined with prioritization of collected data, autonomy with automatic triggering of observation and off-pointing procedures in case of Solar event occurrence, ... All these new features result from the low resource requirements (power, mass, telemetry) of the mini-satellite, but also take advantage of the specificities of a modern technological platform, such as quick pointing agility, new powerful on-board processor, Packetwire interface and autonomous operations. These new enhancements will greatly improve the operations of SWAP as a space weather sentinel from a low Earth orbit while the downlink capabilities are limited. This paper summarizes the conceptual design, the development and the qualification of the instrument, the autonomous operations and the expected performances for science exploitation. [less ▲]

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See detailSolar activity : nowcasting and forecasting at the SIDC
Berghmans, David; Van der Linden, Ronald; Vanlommel, Petra et al

in Annals of Geophysics (2005), 23

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See detailSWAP: Sun watcher with a new EUV telescope on a technology demonstration platform
Defise, Jean-Marc ULg; Lecat, Jean-Hervé ULg; Mazy, Emmanuel ULg et al

in 5th International Conference on Space Optics (2004, June 01)

SWAP (SWAP (Sun Watcher using Active Pixel System detector and Image Processing) is an instrument that has been selected to fly on the PROBA-2 technology demonstration platform, a program of the European ... [more ▼]

SWAP (SWAP (Sun Watcher using Active Pixel System detector and Image Processing) is an instrument that has been selected to fly on the PROBA-2 technology demonstration platform, a program of the European Space Agency (ESA) to be launched in 2006. SWAP is based on an off-axis degraded Ritchey Chretien telescope that will image the EUV solar corona at 19.5 nm on a specifically fabricated extreme ultraviolet (EUV) sensitivity enhanced CMOS APS detector. The optical design and the optical coatings are derived from the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) operating on-board SOHO since 1995. It has been adapted for a single wavelength telescope with off-axis optics. It allows to use smaller optics and filters, with simple internal baffles avoiding external protruding parts. The superpolished optics will receive a multilayer coating that provides spectral selection centred on 19.5 nm and EUV reflectivity in normal incidence. This compact design is specifically adapted for accommodation on PROBA-2, where mass and envelope requirements are very stringent The SWAP PROBA-2 program will be an opportunity to demonstrate this new optical concept, while it will also validate space remote sensing with APS detectors, as well as on-board image processing capabilities. On the science outcomes, SWAP will provide solar corona images in the Fe XII line on a baselined 2-min cadence. Observations with this specific wavelength allow detecting phenomena, such as solar flares or 'EIT-waves', associated with the early phase of coronal mass ejections. The SWAP data will complement the observations provided by SOHO-EIT, and STEREO-SECCHI. [less ▲]

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See detailMAGRITTE: an instrument suite for the solar atmospheric imaging assembly (AIA) aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory
Rochus, Pierre ULg; Defise, Jean-Marc ULg; Halain, Jean-Philippe ULg et al

in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series (2004, February 01)

The Solar Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory will characterize the dynamical evolution of the solar plasma from the chromosphere to the corona, and will follow the ... [more ▼]

The Solar Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory will characterize the dynamical evolution of the solar plasma from the chromosphere to the corona, and will follow the connection of plasma dynamics with magnetic activity throughout the solar atmosphere. The AIA consists of 7 high-resolution imaging telescopes in the following spectral bandpasses: 1215Å. Ly-a, 304 Å He II, 629 Å OV, 465 Å Ne VII, 195 Å Fe XII (includes Fe XXIV), 284 Å Fe XV, and 335 Å Fe XVI. The telescopes are grouped by instrumental approach: the MAGRITTE Filtergraphs (R. MAGRITTE, famous 20th Century Belgian Surrealistic Artist), five multilayer EUV channels with bandpasses ranging from 195 to 1216 Å, and the SPECTRE Spectroheliograph with one soft-EUV channel at OV 629 Å. They will be simultaneously operated with a 10-second imaging cadence. These two instruments, the electronic boxes and two redundant Guide Telescopes (GT) constitute the AIA suite. They will be mounted and coaligned on a dedicated common optical bench. The GTs will provide pointing jitter information to the whole SHARPP assembly. This paper presents the selected technologies, the different challenges, the trade-offs to be made in phase A, and the model philosophy. From a scientific viewpoint, the unique combination high temporal and spatial resolutions with the simultaneous multi-channel capability will allow MAGRITTE / SPECTRE to explore new domains in the dynamics of the solar atmosphere, in particular the fast small-scale phenomena. We show how the spectral channels of the different instruments were derived to fulfill the AIA scientific objectives, and we outline how this imager array will address key science issues, like the transition region and coronal waves or flare precursors, in coordination with other SDO experiments. We finally describe the real-time solar monitoring products that will be made available for space-weather forecasting applications. [less ▲]

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See detailSWAP: Sun watcher using APS detector on-board PROBA-2, a new EUV off-axis telescope on a technology demonstration platform
Defise, Jean-Marc ULg; Berghmans, David; Hochedez, Jean-Francois E et al

in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series (2003)

SWAP (Sun Watcher using Active Pixel System detector and Image Processing) is an instrument that has been selected to fly on the PROBA-II technology demonstration platform, a program of the European Space ... [more ▼]

SWAP (Sun Watcher using Active Pixel System detector and Image Processing) is an instrument that has been selected to fly on the PROBA-II technology demonstration platform, a program of the European Space Agency (ESA) to be launched in 2006. This paper presents the instrument concept and its scientific goals. SWAP uses an off-axis Ritchey Chretien telescope that will image the EUV solar corona at 19.5 nm on a specifically fabricated extreme ultraviolet (EUV) sensitivity enhanced CMOS APS detector. This type of detector has advantages that promise to be very profitable for solar EUV imaging. The SWAP design is built on a similar concept as the MAGRITTE instrument suite for the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) mission to be launched in 2007. The optics have been adapted to the detector size. The SWAP PROBA-2 program will be an opportunity to demonstrate and validate the optical concept of MAGRITTE, while it will also validate space remote sensing with APS detectors. On the science outcomes, SWAP will provide solar corona images in the Fe XII line on a baselined 1-min cadence. Observations with this specific wavelength allow detecting phenomena, such as solar flares or 'EIT-waves", associated with the early phase of coronal mass ejections. Image recognition software will be developed that automatically detects these phenomena and sends out space weather warnings. Different modules of this software will run both on the ground system as well as on the onboard computer of PROBA II. The SWAP data will complement the observations provided by SOHO-EIT, and STEREO-SECCHI. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Solar Influences Data Centre : A Partnership for Space Weather
Cugnon, P.; Van der Linden, Roland; Berghmans, David et al

Conference (2003)

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