References of "Belboom, Sandra"
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See detailLife Cycle Analysis (LCA) of photovoltaic panels: A review
Gerbinet, Saïcha ULg; Belboom, Sandra ULg; Léonard, Angélique ULg

in Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (2014), 38

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See detailImportance of LUC and ILUC on the carbon footprint of bioproduct: case of bio-HDPE
Belboom, Sandra ULg; Léonard, Angélique ULg

in Matériaux et Techniques (2014), 102(2),

Suite à la diminution des ressources fossiles et à l’augmentation des émissions des gaz à effet de serre, des solutions sont nécessaires pour remplacer les produits issus du pétrole. Cela a pour ... [more ▼]

Suite à la diminution des ressources fossiles et à l’augmentation des émissions des gaz à effet de serre, des solutions sont nécessaires pour remplacer les produits issus du pétrole. Cela a pour conséquence une constante augmentation du nombre de produits biobasés développés à partir de ressources agricoles. Cette étude évalue l’empreinte carbone du polyéthylène haute densité (PEHD) produit à partir de canne à sucre brésilienne ou de betterave belge. Le but de cette étude est de comparer l’empreinte carbone du bio-PEHD avec le PEHD fossile en considérant l’effet du changement d’affectation des sols. Les frontières communes des systèmes agricoles regroupent l’étape de culture de la canne à sucre et de la betterave, avec toutes les consommations associées d’énergie et d’engrais, le transport depuis le champ jusqu’à l’unité industrielle, la transformation des plantes sucrières en bioéthanol hydraté, la valorisation des sous-produits, la polymérisation et l’incinération du PEHD. Le scénario fossile comprend la production d’éthylène, sa polymérisation et l’incinération du PEHD. La comparaison du cycle de vie entier des PEHD biobasé et fossile montre des émissions de GES plus faibles avec le produit biobasé, ce qui est l’effet voulu. Ce résultat est uniquement valide s’il n’y pas de changement direct ou indirect d’affectation des sols. Pour évaluer l’impact environnemental de la déforestation ou de la transformation d’un pâturage en champ, les lignes directrices de l’Union Européenne ont été suivies afin de calculer les émissions de CO2 en fonction de divers paramètres. Pour la canne à sucre, le changement direct d’affectation des sols (LUC) est défini par la transformation de pâturages en champs dans la région de Sao Paulo au Brésil. Trois scénarios ont été développés, basés sur différentes pratiques agricoles pour les pâturages et les champs (labour et engrais) : le meilleur, le pire et le moyen. Le meilleur cas engendre un gain environnemental supplémentaire pour le produit biobasé. Le pire et le moyen amènent des émissions complémentaires. Un temps de retour, considérant le temps nécessaire pour récupérer à nouveau un gain environnemental comparativement au produit fossile, a été calculé pour le scenario moyen et s’élève à 12 ans. Le changement indirect d’affectation des sols pour la canne à sucre est modélisé comme étant la transformation d’une forêt en champ induite par les effets du changement direct décrit ci-avant. Le taux de déforestation peut varier entre 16 et 100%, dépendant des statistiques utilisées et entrainant un temps de retour de respectivement 26 et 101 ans. Pour la betterave, aucun changement direct n’est considéré. En effet, aucune expansion des terres agricoles ne peut être envisagée en Belgique au vu des faibles surfaces disponibles. Si une augmentation en termes de production de bioplastiques a lieu, la Belgique devra importer de la betterave provenant des pays voisins, ce qui peut induire un changement indirect d’affectation des sols. Dans cette étude, la betterave est supposée provenir des Pays-Bas. Celle-ci est cultivée sur des pâturages préalablement transformés en champs. Ce scénario moyen induit un temps de retour de 8 ans. Cette étude a mis en évidence l’importance du changement direct et indirect d’affectation des sols, spécialement pour les cultures énergétiques dédiées au remplacement des produits fossiles. Cet effet peut renverser les résultats attendus et engendrer de longs temps de retour. [less ▲]

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See detailEnvironmental Product Declaration of purified and defluorinated phosphoric acid – difficulties and limitations of the methodology
Belboom, Sandra ULg; Scözs, Carl; Léonard, Angélique ULg

Poster (2013, November)

The awareness of environment and the development of environmental product declarations (EPDs) are increasing through years. EPD becomes a need for producers in both B to B and B to C relations. EPD ... [more ▼]

The awareness of environment and the development of environmental product declarations (EPDs) are increasing through years. EPD becomes a need for producers in both B to B and B to C relations. EPD elaboration process is not without difficulties. Such a declaration requires a considerable amount of time and information, a full comprehension of the applied methodology but it also causes confidentiality problems. All these difficulties can lead to the use of simpler tools, as Carbon Footprint, which only focuses on a single impact and misses a part of the message. This case study is based on the production of phosphoric acid in Belgium using PCR for inorganic chemicals. It takes into account the use of raw materials as phosphate rocks or chemicals, their transportation to site and the manufacturing of defluorinated and purified phosphoric acid. This process also requires steam, electricity, demineralised water and sulphuric acid. These inputs are produced on site and their modelling is taken into account in this study. The first step of this process is the production of weak phosphoric acid with transformation of phosphate rocks into 30% phosphoric acid using sulphuric acid attack. The particularity of this process is the production, in this company, of a recoverable coproduct, called gypsum. The amount of this product is about 1.6 t per t of weak acid. A stoichiometric relation connects both products and is used as allocation factor, as recommended by the PCR. Through next concentration steps, fluosilicic acid is produced, also linked to the production of phosphoric acid by a stoichiometric relation. For facilities production plant, repartition of impact between coproducts is not so easy. As mentioned before, the production of steam, electricity, demineralised water and sulphuric acid are performed on site. Sulphuric acid is produced by the combustion of liquid sulphur provided by oil refineries. Two different units produce both sulphuric acid and steam through the combustion of liquid sulphur but only one of them transforms a part of steam into electricity. Repartition of impact between sulphuric acid and steam can be achieved using a physical relation based on thermodynamic values which can be transformed into mass relation. For repartition between electricity, steam and sulphuric acid, the main difficulty is that electricity does not have a weight and a transformation into steam shall be achieved to use the same relationship that previously. This way of allocating is not very obvious for producers, even if it is the one recommended by the PCR. As electricity and steam are coproduced, an energetic allocation is also relevant and gives completely opposite results for repartition of impact of each product. In that case, sulphuric acid impact achieves a non-negligible part of the impact which modifies greatly results of phosphoric acid production. This is a problem when you know that environmental product declarations are used to compare products on environmental criteria, using mainly values of climate change or energy impacts. Producers are then reticent to publish such a value which can lead to a loss of customer confidence, even more when they occupy a leading position on the market and taking into account that a comparison with other producers is quite impossible. More specific guidelines should be set to indicate the best way to perform an environmental product declaration in specific fields using a specific way of allocation. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes Belgian bioethanol comply with European Renewable Energy Directive ?
Belboom, Sandra ULg; Bodson, Bernard ULg; Léonard, Angélique ULg

Poster (2013, November)

The craze for biofuels has increased in recent years mainly to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel consumptions. The European Renewable Energy Directive (RED), published in 2009, defined ... [more ▼]

The craze for biofuels has increased in recent years mainly to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel consumptions. The European Renewable Energy Directive (RED), published in 2009, defined guidelines to assess carbon footprint of a biofuel depending on biomass source. It also provided generic values of GHG emissions relative to each step of the life cycle taking into account all steps from the cultivation to the end-of-life. These values are used to evaluate the sustainability of European biofuels depending on the used crops and the used transformation technology. This study, based on local crops cultivated in Belgium (sugar beet and wheat), compares specific Belgian values with European generic ones. Belgium yields for both crops are among the best of the continent. Specific Belgian values for fertilizers and pesticides are used. The transformation of wheat into bioethanol is modelled using industrial data. As recommended by the RED, no land use change is taken into account for Belgium. Greenhouse gas emissions induce by the life cycle of Belgium sugar beet bioethanol are similar to the ones mentioned in the European directive but impact repartition is different. In our case, the transformation step achieves a higher part of the impact. That can be explained by the higher cultivation yield. Belgian wheat bioethanol obtains better results than those mentioned by the European directive with a 9% higher reduction. Cultivation step is the major step for this impact. Importance of fertilizers consumptions and associated emissions are highlighted. The comparison of both bioethanols impacts for climate change category, using an energy basis, shows that wheat allows a higher reduction of GHG emissions than sugar beet. If the comparison is performed on a cultivated area basis, results are reversed and sugar beet achieves a twofold reduction compared with wheat. Sensitivity analyses are performed on the importance of N fertilizers and associated emissions and on energy consumptions relative to the transformation step. These analyses reveal non-negligible impact variations. A range of GHG reduction that can be reached using Belgian sugar beet and wheat bioethanol are then calculated. In any case, sugar beet does not achieve the amount of reduction given by the RED, while the opposite effect is shown for wheat with a reduction at least as high as the RED default value. These results indicate the importance of make use of specific values to assess the sustainability of bioethanol for a specific country using a specific crop and a specific technology. Further measurements and research about emission factors due to fertilizers application could improve the accuracy of our results. [less ▲]

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See detailComparing technologies for municipal solid waste management using life cycle assessment methodology: a Belgian case study
Belboom, Sandra ULg; Digneffe, Jean-Marc; Renzoni, Roberto ULg et al

in International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment (2013), 18(8), 1513-1523

Purpose The present study aims at identifying the best practice in residual municipal solid waste management using specific data from Liège, a highly industrialized and densely populated region of Belgium ... [more ▼]

Purpose The present study aims at identifying the best practice in residual municipal solid waste management using specific data from Liège, a highly industrialized and densely populated region of Belgium. We also illustrate the importance of assumptions relative to energy through sensitivity analyses and checking uncertainties regarding the results using a Monte Carlo analysis. Methods We consider four distinct household waste management scenarios. A life cycle assessment is made for each of them using the ReCiPe method. The first scenario is sanitary landfill, which is considered as the base case. In the second scenario, the refuse-derived fuel fraction is incinerated and a sanitary landfill is used for the remaining shredded organic and inert waste only. The third scenario consists in incinerating the whole fraction of municipal solid waste. In the fourth scenario, the biodegradable fraction is collected and the remaining waste is incinerated. The extracted biodegradable fraction is then treated in an anaerobic digestion plant. Results and discussion The present study shows that various scenarios have significantly different environmental impact. Compared to sanitary landfill, scenario 4 has a highly reduced environmental impact in terms of climate change and particulate matter formation. An environmental gain, equal to 10, 37, or 1.3 times the impact of scenario 1 is obtained for, respectively, human toxicity, mineral depletion, and fossil fuel depletion categories. These environmental gains are due to energetic valorization via the incineration and anaerobic digestion. Considering specific categories, greenhouse gas emissions are reduced by 17 % in scenario 2 and by 46 % in scenarios 3 and 4. For the particulate matter formation category, a 71 % reduction is achieved by scenario 3. The figures are slightly modified by the Monte Carlo analysis but the ranking of the scenarios is left unchanged. Conclusions The present study shows that replacing a sanitary landfill by efficient incineration significantly reduces both emissions of pollutants and energy depletion, thanks to electricity recovery. [less ▲]

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See detailImportance of LUC and ILUC on the carbon footprint of bioproduct:case of bio-HDPE
Belboom, Sandra ULg; Léonard, Angélique ULg

in International seminar on society and materials (2013)

Due to the depletion of fossil fuels and the increase of greenhouse gas emissions, solutions are needed to replace petrol based products. As a consequence, the number of biobased products developed using ... [more ▼]

Due to the depletion of fossil fuels and the increase of greenhouse gas emissions, solutions are needed to replace petrol based products. As a consequence, the number of biobased products developed using agricultural feedstock is continuously increasing. This study focuses on the carbon footprint of bio-HDPE produced either from Brazilian sugar cane or Belgian sugar beet. The goal of this study is to compare the carbon footprint of bio-HDPE with the fossil one, taking into account the effect of land use change. Common boundaries of the agricultural systems comprise the cultivation step for both crops, i.e. sugar cane and sugar beet, with all associated energy and fertilizer consumptions, the transportation step from field to the industrial plant, the sugar crops transformation into hydrate bioethanol, the by-products valorisation, the dehydration and polymerization steps and the HDPE incineration as end of life issue. Fossil scenario includes the production of ethylene, its polymerization and its incineration. When comparing the entire life cycle of bio and fossil HDPE, the GHG emissions are lower for the biobased product which is the willing effect. This result is only valid if no Land Use Change (LUC) or Indirect Land Use Change (ILUC) effect appears. To assess the environmental impact of the deforestation or of the transformation of a pasture into a field, the EC-Guidelines from the European Union were used in order to calculate the CO2 emissions depending on several parameters. For sugar cane, LUC consists in the transformation of pastures into fields in the region of Sao Paulo in Brazil. Three scenarios can be developed based on different agricultural practices for pasture and field (tillage and fertilizers inputs): the best, the worst and the average. The best case leads to a supplementary environmental gain. The worst and average achieve additional emissions. A payback time, considering the time needed to find again an environmental gain compared to the fossil counterpart, was calculated for the average scenario which is equal to 12 years. The ILUC effect for sugar cane is assumed to be deforestation due to the transformation of forest into pasture induced by the previous LUC effect. The rate of deforestation can vary between 16% or 100% depending on used statistics and leads to a payback time of respectively 26 and 101 years. For sugar beet, no LUC is considered. Indeed, no land expansion is available in Belgium due to small available areas. In the case of an increase of bioplastics production, Belgium should import sugar beet from neighboring countries which can induce ILUC. In this study, sugar beet is assumed to be provided by the Netherlands on pastures previously transformed into fields. The average scenario implies a payback time of 8 years. This study permits to highlight the importance of LUC and ILUC especially for energetic crops dedicated to replace fossil products. This effect can reverse expected results and induce long payback times. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat is the best use of sugar crops? Environmental assessment of two applications : biofuels vs. bioproducts
Belboom, Sandra ULg; Léonard, Angélique ULg

in [avniR] editions (Ed.) LCA Conference 2012 - Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on life cycle approaches (2012, November)

Agricultural crops became through years a possibility to increase European energy independence. Brazil has taken this opportunity since the seventies by using sugar cane bioethanol as vehicle fuel. The ... [more ▼]

Agricultural crops became through years a possibility to increase European energy independence. Brazil has taken this opportunity since the seventies by using sugar cane bioethanol as vehicle fuel. The development of biofuels production is more recent in Europe. Due to temperate climates, bioethanol production is mostly based on wheat and sugar beet, this latter being considered as the ‘equivalent’ sugar crop to sugar cane for Europe. Biofuel is the most common application of bioethanol but its transformation into bioethylene through a dehydration step can be an alternative as already found in Brazil. This paper will consider both potential uses and compare them using Life Cycle Assessment methodology. Common boundaries of the systems comprise the cultivation step for both crops, i.e. sugar cane and sugar beet, with all associated energetic and fertilizer consumptions, the transportation step from field to the industrial plant, the sugar crops transformation into hydrate bioethanol and the by-products valorisation. For the biofuel scenario, a dehydration step using molecular sieve is added to get anhydrous bioethanol. For the bioethylene scenario, an industrial dehydration step is added. Direct comparison between both scenarios is not possible due to different products uses. The comparison was then performed for both scenarios between the bio-based product and its fossil equivalent. ReCiPe 2008 method was used to get the environmental impacts. As expected, the impact of bio-based products in climate change and fossil fuel depletion categories decreases compared to the fossil counterparts. For other categories, difference is less significant and results are often better for fossil products. Land use change category was implemented to assess its importance. Depending on assumptions, the greenhouse gas emissions from crop implementation on a natural land can counteract the previous mentioned benefits. This study shows the importance of assumptions, especially in the agricultural field, on the obtained results. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat is the best use of sugar crops? Environmental assessment of two potential applications : biofuels vs. bioproducts
Belboom, Sandra ULg; Léonard, Angélique ULg

Conference (2012, November)

Agricultural crops became through years an attractive option to increase European energy independence. Brazil has taken this opportunity since the seventies by using sugar cane bioethanol as vehicle fuel ... [more ▼]

Agricultural crops became through years an attractive option to increase European energy independence. Brazil has taken this opportunity since the seventies by using sugar cane bioethanol as vehicle fuel. The development of biofuels production is more recent in Europe. Due to temperate climates, bioethanol production is mostly based on wheat and sugar beet, this latter being considered as the ‘equivalent’ sugar crop to sugar cane for Europe. Biofuel is the most common application of bioethanol but its transformation into bioethylene through a dehydration step and then its polymerization into bioplastic can be an alternative as already found in Brazil. This paper will consider both potential uses and compare them using Life Cycle Assessment methodology. Common boundaries of the systems comprise the cultivation step for both crops, i.e. sugar cane and sugar beet, with all associated energetic and fertilizer consumptions, the transportation step from field to the industrial plant, the sugar crops transformation into hydrate bioethanol, the by-products valorisation and the specific end-of-life. For the biofuel scenario, a dehydration step using molecular sieve is added to get anhydrous bioethanol. For the bioethylene scenario, industrial dehydration and polymerization steps are added. Direct comparison between both scenarios is not possible due to different products uses. The comparison was then performed for both scenarios between the bio-based product and its fossil equivalent. ReCiPe 2008 method was used at midpoint level to get the environmental impacts. As expected, the impact of bio-based products in climate change and fossil fuel depletion categories decreases compared to the fossil counterparts. For other categories, difference is less significant and results are often better for fossil products. Land use change impact was implemented to assess its importance. Depending on assumptions, the greenhouse gas emissions from crop implementation on a natural land can counteract the previous mentioned benefits. To get an idea of the performance of each considered bioethanol use, a single score relative to the amount of sugar cane and sugar beet cultivated on one hectare was calculated using the endpoint level of ReCiPe 2008 methodology. The environmental gain was then evaluated comparing the bio-based product use with the classical one. The highest performance was obtained for the bioplastic scenario based on sugar cane followed by the sugar beet bioplastic. The E5 biofuel based on sugar beet reaches a slightly lower gain. The E85 fuel obtains less gain due to the higher amount of biofuel needed to drive the same distance as using fossil fuel. When taking the land use change into account, the best gain is given by the sugar beet bioplastic. On the one hand, this study shows the importance of assumptions, especially in the agricultural field, on the obtained results. On the other hand, it points out that considering bioethanol as a chemical intermediate and not a fuel can be better from an environmental point of view. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat is the best use of sugar crops? Environmental assessment of two applications : biofuels vs. bioproducts
Belboom, Sandra ULg; Léonard, Angélique ULg

Poster (2012, November)

Agricultural crops became through years a possibility to increase European energy independence. Brazil has taken this opportunity since the seventies by using sugar cane bioethanol as vehicle fuel. The ... [more ▼]

Agricultural crops became through years a possibility to increase European energy independence. Brazil has taken this opportunity since the seventies by using sugar cane bioethanol as vehicle fuel. The development of biofuels production is more recent in Europe. Due to temperate climates, bioethanol production is mostly based on wheat and sugar beet, this latter being considered as the ‘equivalent’ sugar crop to sugar cane for Europe. Biofuel is the most common application of bioethanol but its transformation into bioethylene through a dehydration step can be an alternative as already found in Brazil. This paper will consider both potential uses and compare them using Life Cycle Assessment methodology. Common boundaries of the systems comprise the cultivation step for both crops, i.e. sugar cane and sugar beet, with all associated energetic and fertilizer consumptions, the transportation step from field to the industrial plant, the sugar crops transformation into hydrate bioethanol and the by-products valorisation. For the biofuel scenario, a dehydration step using molecular sieve is added to get anhydrous bioethanol. For the bioethylene scenario, an industrial dehydration step is added. Direct comparison between both scenarios is not possible due to different products uses. The comparison was then performed for both scenarios between the bio-based product and its fossil equivalent. ReCiPe 2008 method was used to get the environmental impacts. As expected, the impact of bio-based products in climate change and fossil fuel depletion categories decreases compared to the fossil counterparts. For other categories, difference is less significant and results are often better for fossil products. Land use change category was implemented to assess its importance. Depending on assumptions, the greenhouse gas emissions from crop implementation on a natural land can counteract the previous mentioned benefits. This study shows the importance of assumptions, especially in the agricultural field, on the obtained results. [less ▲]

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See detailWaste management evolution through years: evaluation of improvement using Life Cycle Assessment methodology
Belboom, Sandra ULg; Renzoni, Roberto ULg; Digneffe, Jean-Marc et al

Conference (2012, September)

Waste is considered as a major concern of our century. New technologies and attempts to improve appeared through years. The goal of this study was to evaluate the improvement of waste management through ... [more ▼]

Waste is considered as a major concern of our century. New technologies and attempts to improve appeared through years. The goal of this study was to evaluate the improvement of waste management through the last forty years. Four steps of time and of technologies of waste treatment were evaluated in an environmental point of view using the life cycle assessment methodology. The first scenario is situated before 1970 with waste landfilling in an open dump without recuperation and valorization of gas. The second one considers the situation between 1990 and 2008 with a plant comprising grinding and sorting of waste to obtain refused derived fuel fraction (RDF) which was burnt in an incinerator, remaining waste being sent to sanitary landfill with recuperation and valorization of gas in electricity. The third one is the current one, in operation since 2009, with incineration of the whole of the residual municipal waste. The last scenario is about future considering the current installation and adding a biomethanation plant using the collected biodegradable fraction of household waste. This environmental evaluation was performed in accordance with the ISO standards 14040 and 14044 and the environmental impacts were calculated with the ReCiPe methodology. We modeled a specific plant situated in Liege using its technical and environmental reports to be as realistic as possible. Main result of this study is the improvement through years starting from the important environmental impact for the landfilling of waste in an open dump to an environmental gain for some categories with the current installation coupled with biomethanation. Global warming impact from the eighties was reduced by 9 in the years 1990-2008 and by 14 for the current scenario alone or coupled with a biomethanation plant. Some sensitivity analyses were used to evaluate the strength of assumptions with for example using a consequential LCA instead of an attributional one and modifying the electricity origin mix. An uncertainty analysis using Monte-Carlo method showed the robustness of our results. This study confirms the environmental improvement of technologies and emissions of waste management through years. [less ▲]

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See detailLes fiches de déclaration environnementale de produits en pierre naturelle belge : un outil indispensable pour l’amélioration de l’impact environnemental de l’exploitation des carrières
Belboom, Sandra ULg; Misonne, Benoit; Tourneur, Francis ULg et al

Conference given outside the academic context (2012)

Afin d’évaluer le caractère environnemental d’un matériau, des outils d’évaluation existent. Le plus complet est l’Analyse du Cycle de Vie qui est une méthodologie normée internationalement (ISO 14040 ... [more ▼]

Afin d’évaluer le caractère environnemental d’un matériau, des outils d’évaluation existent. Le plus complet est l’Analyse du Cycle de Vie qui est une méthodologie normée internationalement (ISO 14040-14044) permettant d’obtenir l’impact environnemental d’un produit tout au long de son cycle de vie. Les résultats d’une telle étude peuvent être déclinés pour obtenir une fiche de déclaration environnementale des produits étudiés, permettant d’illustrer l’impact des différentes étapes sur l’environnement. Ces fiches ont également pour but la comparaison environnementale de produits ayant la même application. Notre étude est basée sur l’évaluation environnementale de produits en pierre naturelle, à savoir la pierre bleue et le grès à travers divers produits finis. Le but premier de cette étude est de mettre en évidence les étapes responsables du plus grand impact environnemental pour chaque produit et ainsi permettre à la carrière étudiée de revoir ses positions et de modifier certaines lignes de conduite afin d’améliorer les impacts environnementaux obtenus. Au vu de la compétition asiatique régnant sur le marché des pierres naturelles, un volet supplémentaire de l’étude a été consacré à l’évaluation de l’impact environnemental des concurrents directs des produits mentionnés ci-dessus. Pour conclure, l’Analyse du Cycle de Vie va devenir, au fil des années, une démarche incontournable à étendre à chaque carrière, et à la production de matériaux de construction au sens large, afin de leur donner les ressources nécessaires pour relever le défi du développement durable. [less ▲]

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See detailEnvironmental product declarations of mineral paving, a tool for sustainable product choices
Belboom, Sandra ULg; Renzoni, Roberto ULg; Tourneur, Francis ULg et al

Poster (2012, May 30)

This study performs the environmental product declarations for three Belgian mineral products, two granite and one sandstone paving. Both main goals of this work were to obtain Belgian environmental ... [more ▼]

This study performs the environmental product declarations for three Belgian mineral products, two granite and one sandstone paving. Both main goals of this work were to obtain Belgian environmental product declarations to strengthen existing databases and to get similar information for their Asian counterparts. Indeed, competition with China for bluestone products and with India for sandstone pavement is very important due to very competitive prices despite their foreign origin and possibly higher induced environmental impacts. Environmental product declarations of Belgian bluestone and sandstone products were conducted in accordance with the ISO standards and following the stand-ard NF P 01-010. CML 2001 method was used to obtain environmental impacts for ten categories as climate change, acidification, abiotic resources depletion, etc. Boundaries of the Belgian systems are the same and the life cycle assessment comprises all steps from the extraction of minerals to the implementation on site. Use and end of life steps were neglected due to the low required maintenance and the inert nature of the paving. For Asian products, the analysis is reduced to the transportation of the functional unit, mainly due to the lack of reliable data. This work highlights the negative effect of long distance transportation of heavy and non-energetic products. Indeed, the environmental impacts of the sole transport of Asian products are at least as important as those obtained for the whole life cycle of Belgian products, whatever the category taken into account (climate change, acidification, air pollution, etc.). CML 2001 methodology was successfully applied to these five studies about three Belgian products and two abroad transportation steps. Comparison of the 5 corresponding environmental product declarations permits to highlight the importance of the transport on environment and to promote, supposing equal performance, local prod-ucts in a more environmental-friendly point of view. [less ▲]

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