References of "Beaujean, Jean"
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See detailCoupling of hydrogeological models with hydrogeophysical data to characterize seawater intrusion and shallow geothermal systems
Beaujean, Jean ULg; Kemna, Andreas; Engesgaard, Peter et al

Conference (2013, December 12)

While coastal aquifers are being stressed due to climate changes and excessive groundwater withdrawals require characterizing efficiently seawater intrusion (SWI) dynamics, production of geothermal energy ... [more ▼]

While coastal aquifers are being stressed due to climate changes and excessive groundwater withdrawals require characterizing efficiently seawater intrusion (SWI) dynamics, production of geothermal energy is increasingly being used to hinder global warming. To study these issues, we need both robust measuring technologies and reliable predictions based on numerical models. SWI models are currently calibrated using borehole observations. Similarly, geothermal models depend mainly on the temperature field at few locations. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) can be used to improve these models given its high sensitivity to TDS and temperature and its relatively high lateral resolution. Inherent geophysical limitations, such as the resolution loss, can affect the overall quality of the ERT images and also prevent the correct recovery of the desired hydrochemical property. We present an uncoupled and coupled hydrogeophysical inversion to calibrate SWI and thermohydrogeologic models using ERT. In the SWI models, we demonstrate with two synthetic benchmarks (homogeneous and heterogeneous coastal aquifers) the ability of cumulative sensitivity-filtered ERT images using surface-only data to recover the hydraulic conductivity. Filtering of ERT-derived data at depth, where resolution is poorer, and the model errors make the dispersivity more difficult to estimate. In the coupled approach, we showed that parameter estimation is significantly improved because regularization bias is replaced by forward modeling only. Our efforts are currently focusing on applying the uncoupled/coupled approaches on a real life case study using field data from the site of Almeria, SE Spain. In the thermohydrogeologic models, the most sensitive hydrologic parameters responsible for heat transport are estimated from surface ERT-derived temperatures and ERT resistance data. A real life geothermal experiment that took place on the Campus De Sterre of Ghent University, Belgium and a synthetic case are tested. They consist in a thermal injection and storage of water in a shallow sandy aquifer. The use of a physically-based constraint accounting for the difference in conductivity between the formation and the tap injected water and based on the hydrogeological model calibrated first on temperatures is necessary to improve the parameter estimation. Results suggest that time-lapse ERT data may be limited but useful information for estimating groundwater flow and transport parameters for both the convection and conduction phases. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysically Based Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment Using Sensitivity Analysis Methods
Beaujean, Jean ULg; Lemieux, Jean-Michel; Dassargues, Alain ULg et al

in Ground Water (2013)

A general physically based method is presented to assess the vulnerability of groundwater to external pressures by numerical simulation of groundwater flow. The concept of groundwater vulnerability ... [more ▼]

A general physically based method is presented to assess the vulnerability of groundwater to external pressures by numerical simulation of groundwater flow. The concept of groundwater vulnerability assessment considered here is based on the calculation of sensitivity coefficients for a user-defined groundwater state for which we propose several physically based indicators. Two sensitivity analysis methods are presented: the sensitivity equation method and the adjoint operator method. We show how careful selection of a method can significantly minimize the computational effort. An illustration of the general methodology is presented for the Herten aquifer analog (Germany). This application to a simple, yet insightful, case demonstrates the potential use of this general and physically based vulnerability assessment method to complex aquifers. [less ▲]

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See detailA comparison study of image appraisal tools for electrical resistivity tomography
Caterina, David ULg; Beaujean, Jean ULg; Robert, Tanguy ULg et al

in Near Surface Geophysics (2013)

To date, few studies offer a quantitative comparison of the performance of image appraisal tools. Moreover, there is no commonly accepted methodology to handle them even though it is a crucial aspect for ... [more ▼]

To date, few studies offer a quantitative comparison of the performance of image appraisal tools. Moreover, there is no commonly accepted methodology to handle them even though it is a crucial aspect for reliable interpretation of geophysical images. In this study, we compare quantitatively different image appraisal indicators to detect artefacts, estimate depth of investigation, address parameters resolution and appraise ERT-derived geometry. Among existing image appraisal tools, we focus on the model resolution matrix (R), the cumulative sensitivity matrix (S) and the depth of investigation index (DOI) that are regularly used in the literature. They are first compared with numerical models representing different geological situations in terms of heterogeneity and scale and then used on field data sets. The numerical benchmark shows that indicators based on R and S are the most appropriate to appraise ERT images in terms of the exactitude of inverted parameters, DOI providing mainly qualitative information. In parallel, we test two different edge detection algorithms – Watershed’s and Canny’s algorithms – on the numerical models to identify the geom-etry of electrical structures in ERT images. From the results obtained, Canny’s algorithm seems to be the most reliable to help practitioners in the interpretation of buried structures. On this basis, we propose a methodology to appraise field ERT images. First, numerical bench¬mark models representing simplified cases of field ERT images are built using available a priori information. Then, ERT images are produced for these benchmark models (all simulated acquisition and inversion parameters being the same). The comparison between the numerical benchmark mod¬els and their corresponding ERT images gives the errors on inverted parameters. These discrepan¬cies are then evaluated against the appraisal indicators (R and S) allowing the definition of threshold values. The final step consists in applying the threshold values on the field ERT images and to validate the results with a posteriori knowledge. The developed approach is tested successfully on two field data sets providing important information on the reliability of the location of a contamina¬tion source and on the geometry of a fractured zone. However, quantitative use of these indicators remains a difficult task depending mainly on the confidence level desired by the user. Further research is thus needed to develop new appraisal indicators more suited for a quantitative use and to improve the quality of inversion itself. [less ▲]

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See detailContribution de la tomographie et du bruit sismique à la characterisation des dépôts alluviaux dans le bassin du Kou (Burkina Faso)
Sauret, Elie ULg; Beaujean, Jean ULg; Nguyen, Frédéric ULg et al

Conference (2012, November)

Abstract The alluvial plain of the Kou basin is located in the southwest of Burkina Faso. In this basin, the main surface water resource for agricultural needs is constituted by a small perennial river ... [more ▼]

Abstract The alluvial plain of the Kou basin is located in the southwest of Burkina Faso. In this basin, the main surface water resource for agricultural needs is constituted by a small perennial river, but in recent years this resource is insufficient to satisfy the uses in agriculture. The alluvial plain which extends from either side of this river banks is expected to have the potential for constituting an alternative water supply for agricultural needs. However, the characterisation of the alluvial plain is still superficial though the plain extension and the nature of the deposits are roughly known. The objective of this study is to improve the characterisation of the alluvial plain, in particular the heterogeneity and the thickness of the deposits, using geophysical methods, namely Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and Horizontal and Vertical Spectral Ratio (H/V SR). The ERT and H/V SR methods are non invasive geophysical techniques, simple, efficient, robust and easy-to-use geophysical tools in alluvial environment based respectively on the soil resistivity and the resonant frequency of superficial materials. In upstream of the alluvial plain, near the river, these methods were used to map the sandy to sandy-thin deposits (0-5m) and the unfractured bedrock. Downstream they highlight fractured and deconsolidated bedrock drawing a V-shaped geometry of deposits. This geometry is due to the faults and the magmatic intrusions. The bottom of the V-shaped would be filled mainly by fractured/deconsolidated bedrock materials and the edges by the clay and laterites deposits. The alluvial plain would be relatively thicker downstream of the study area (approximately 30 to 50m). A correlation is obtained between ERT images and resonance frequencies determined on the H/V profiles. From a hydrogeological point of view, downstream of the study area, the alluvial plain would constitute an important aquifer with a high porosity and thick deposits. This aquifer could be easily accessible with rudimentary structures (such as sumps) and could constitute a supplementary water source, for irrigation activities in this second region of Burkina Faso. [less ▲]

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See detailImaging artificial salt water infiltration using electrical resistivity tomography constrained by geostatistical data
Hermans, Thomas ULg; Vandenbohede, Alexander; Lebbe, Luc et al

in Journal of Hydrology (2012), 438-439

Electrical resistivity tomography is a well-known technique to monitor fresh-salt water transitions. In such environments, boreholes are often used to validate geophysical results but rarely used to ... [more ▼]

Electrical resistivity tomography is a well-known technique to monitor fresh-salt water transitions. In such environments, boreholes are often used to validate geophysical results but rarely used to constrain the geoelectrical inversion. To estimate the extent of salt water infiltration in the dune area of a Natural Reserve (Westhoek, Belgium), electrical resistivity tomography profiles were carried out together with borehole electromagnetic measurements. The latter were used to calculate a vertical variogram, representative of the study site. Then, a geostatistical constraint, in the form of an a priori model covariance matrix based on the variogram, was imposed as regularization to solve the electrical inverse problem. Inversion results enabled to determine the extension of the salt water plume laterally and at depth, but also to estimate the total dissolved solid content within the plume. These results are in agreement with the hydrogeological data of the site. A comparison with borehole data showed that the inversion results with geostatistical constraints are much more representative of the seawater body (in terms of total dissolved solids, extension and height) than results using standard smoothness-constrained inversion. The field results obtained for the Westhoek site emphasize the need to go beyond standard smoothness-constrained images and to use available borehole data as prior information to constrain the inversion. [less ▲]

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See detailJoint and sequential inversion of hydrogeophysical data to characterize seawater intrusion
Beaujean, Jean ULg

Scientific conference (2011, January 14)

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See detailImage appraisal tools for electrical resistivity tomography
Caterina, David ULg; Beaujean, Jean ULg; Robert, Tanguy ULg et al

in Proceedings of SAGEEP (2011), 24

Image appraisal is a problem frequently encountered in electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), and more generally in non-linear geophysical inversion. It may include several aspects such as the ... [more ▼]

Image appraisal is a problem frequently encountered in electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), and more generally in non-linear geophysical inversion. It may include several aspects such as the identification of the geometry of buried structures, the detection of numerical artefacts, the estimation of the depth of investigation or the exactitude of inverted parameters. Geophysicists can rely on several tools published in the literature to address these issues. However, few studies offer a quantitative comparison on the performance of these tools concerning the different mentioned aspects. Moreover, to our knowledge, there is no commonly accepted methodology to handle image appraisal. In this contribution, we compared quantitatively the ability of different image appraisal indicators to reach different objectives (geometry, artefacts, depth of investigation, parameter resolution). Among possible image appraisal tools, the model resolution matrix (MRM), the cumulative sensitivity matrix (CSM) and the depth of investigation index (DOI) are the most cited ones and were studied here. We compared them first on numerical models representing different geological situations. This numerical benchmark showed that indicators based on the MRM and CSM were the more appropriate to appraise ERT images in terms of the geometry of structures and the exactitude of inverted parameters, DOI providing mainly qualitative information. On this basis, we propose a methodology to appraise field ERT images focusing on the resolution and geometric aspects (others being implicitly studied). First, True Synthetic Models (TSM), representing simplified cases of field ERT images, are built using available information. Then, through forward modelling, synthetic ERT data are computed and inverted to provide the Inverted Synthetic Models (ISM). Afterwards, a comparison between TSM and ISM (or their gradients for geometry) is made in order to define the errors on inverted parameters. This discrepancy is then plotted with respect to resolution indicator values and points out in every tested cases a resolution range over which the errors abruptly increase allowing the definition of threshold values. The final step consists in applying the threshold values on the field ERT images and to validate the results with a posteriori knowledge. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of image appraisal tools and covariance matrix
Caterina, David ULg; Beaujean, Jean ULg; Nguyen, Frédéric ULg

Conference (2010, July)

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See detailJoint and sequential inversion of geophysical and hydrogeological data to characterize seawater intrusion models
Beaujean, Jean ULg; Nguyen, Frédéric ULg; Kemna, Andreas

in Teresa Condesso de Melo, Maria; Lebbe, Luc; Virgílio Cruz, José (Eds.) et al Proceedings SWIM21, 21st Salt Water Intrusion Meeting (2010, June)

The integrated water resource management problems require studying efficiently seawater intrusion at local and regional scale and identifying in real time the seawater/freshwater interface dynamic ... [more ▼]

The integrated water resource management problems require studying efficiently seawater intrusion at local and regional scale and identifying in real time the seawater/freshwater interface dynamic. Hydrogeological modeling is widely used to predict seawater intrusion if additional natural or man‐made factors are modified. These models are currently calibrated using measured heads and salt mass fractions in boreholes, which generally result in sparse data coverage. Within this scope, non to minimally invasive geophysical techniques like electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) or time‐domain electromagnetic method are becoming increasingly popular, given their relatively greater spatial horizontal resolution compared to borehole observations. We present a comparison between both a sequential and joint approach to calibrate seawater intrusion models using ERT. The former consists of constraining hydrogeological parameters using ERT derived parameters and relies on sequential inversions of the geophysical and hydrogeological data using a given petrophysical relationship. The second approach in based on simultaneous inversion of petrophysical and hydrogeological data using electrical resistance data as data. It is performed by coupling an inversion code with two hydrogeological and geophysical modeling codes through a petrophysical conversion. This investigation was performed on a densitydependent flow and transport numerical (three/two‐dimensional) simulation study from complex and realistic heterogeneous models. In the sequential approach, the simulations showed that only the shallow salt concentration of the seawater/freshwater transition zone could be recovered for different time‐lapse, due to poorly resolved regions in depth. The capability of image appraisal indicators (cumulative sensitivity and resolution) has been analyzed to emphasize the discrepancy between the targeted and imaged parameter values. On the other hand, the preliminary coupled inversion avoids the regularization bias introduced by ERT and addresses the non‐stationarity of the petrophysical relationship. [less ▲]

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See detailWorkshop of HydroGeoSphere users in Europe: Upcoming and ongoing tasks with HydroGeoSphere
Beaujean, Jean ULg

Scientific conference (2010, March 26)

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See detailMethodology and setup of the adopted groundwater vulnerability assessment method
Beaujean, Jean ULg; Lemieux, Jean-Michel; Brouyère, Serge ULg

Scientific conference (2010, February 04)

Detailed reference viewed: 45 (10 ULg)
See detailImage Appraisal Tools for Electrical Resistivity Tomography
Caterina, David ULg; Beaujean, Jean ULg; Robert, Tanguy ULg et al

Poster (2010, January 12)

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (16 ULg)
See detailProspection géophysique de la nappe alluviale dans la région de Nasso, Bodo – Dioulasso (Burkina Faso)
Beaujean, Jean ULg; Nguyen, Frédéric ULg; Sauret, Elie ULg et al

Report (2009)

Afin d’appuyer la gestion et la protection des ressources en eaux souterraines au Burkina Faso, dans la région de Bobo-Dioulasso, une mission géophysique relative à la caractérisation du site de la plaine ... [more ▼]

Afin d’appuyer la gestion et la protection des ressources en eaux souterraines au Burkina Faso, dans la région de Bobo-Dioulasso, une mission géophysique relative à la caractérisation du site de la plaine alluviale dans la localité de Nasso a été effectuée. Plusieurs méthodes géophysiques ont été employées afin de déterminer l’hétérogénéité des terrains superficiels, l’épaisseur de la nappe alluviale, ainsi que la profondeur du bedrock. Les trois méthodes déployées pour atteindre ces objectifs sont la tomographie électrique, le bruit de fond H/V, et le radar géologique. Ce dernier n’a pas donné de résultats satisfaisant tandis que les deux autres méthodes se sont montrées concluantes pour déterminer la profondeur du bedrock et détecter des hétérogénéités dans les terrains superficiels et profonds. [less ▲]

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See detailReframing groundwater vulnerability assessment for a better understanding between decision makers and hydrogeologists
Dassargues, Alain ULg; Popescu, Ileana Cristina; Beaujean, Jean ULg et al

in Liebscher, Hans-Jurgen; Clarke, Robin; Rodda, John (Eds.) et al The Role of Hydrology in Water Resources Management (2009, June)

Management of water resource systems includes adequate decisions about groundwater resource protection. Groundwater vulnerability maps can greatly help for these decisions. In the vulnerability assessment ... [more ▼]

Management of water resource systems includes adequate decisions about groundwater resource protection. Groundwater vulnerability maps can greatly help for these decisions. In the vulnerability assessment, physical attributes are often mixed with conventional priorities implicitly embedded in the applied methods. Results from one or another method can consequently be very dissimilar and decision makers are losing confidence in these tools. A methodology is proposed to reframe the groundwater vulnerability assessment in a Pressure-State-Impact causal chain that is familiar to decision makers. The physically-based analysis is clearly separated from the agreement aspects induced by local societal, environmental or political priorities. An example is given and perspectives of generalisation are evoked. [less ▲]

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See detailDL 45 : Application and validation of the general methodology and concept of groundwater vulnerability assessment at regional scale on the Israeli coastal aquifer
Beaujean, Jean ULg; Lemieux, Jean-Michel; Brouyère, Serge ULg

Report (2008)

This deliverable consists in applying the concepts and methodologies developed in Deliverable D43 and D44 to synthetic and real case studies. Our researches have focused on the generalized groundwater ... [more ▼]

This deliverable consists in applying the concepts and methodologies developed in Deliverable D43 and D44 to synthetic and real case studies. Our researches have focused on the generalized groundwater vulnerability assessment methodology, and more precisely on evaluating, under the framework of physically-based indicators, the groundwater sensitivity/vulnerability to stress factor considering artificial recharge as a potential response to the degradation of the groundwater resource. In the context, different approaches have been identified in the literature and implemented in appropriate modelling tools (i.e. HydroGeoSphere) for calculating the various sensitivity/vulnerability coefficients. These approaches are the influence coefficient method, the sensitivity equation method and the adjoint operator method. The two first methods show relevant results on both the considered synthetic case studies that relate groundwater vulnerability to (1) quantity issues and (2) to sea water intrusion. They illustrate the way of applying the methodology to “real case studies”.These first applications should be the object of more complex but strongly related case studies. [less ▲]

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See detailDL 44 : Methodology and setup of the adopted groundwater vulnerability assessment method
Beaujean, Jean ULg; Wojda, Piotr; Gardin, Nicolas et al

Report (2008)

The objectives of this deliverable DL44 are to finalize the description of the global groundwater vulnerability assessment methodology, in particular : (1) to propose an extension of the concept of ... [more ▼]

The objectives of this deliverable DL44 are to finalize the description of the global groundwater vulnerability assessment methodology, in particular : (1) to propose an extension of the concept of sensitivity coefficient to vulnerability coefficient by introducing a ratio (distance to damage ratio) that reflects the “distance” between the current state of degradation of the water resource system and the “damaged state”,(2) To describe the methodology proposed to combine, through aggregation of spatiallydistributed indicators and multi criteria analysis, the different vulnerability coefficientsinto a single indicator of groundwater vulnerability for decision making, (3) To go further into the analysis and discussion of several key theoretical “case studies” for illustrating the way to setup the full methodology, from the DPSIR analysis to the expression of sensitivity and vulnerability coefficients. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation and ranking of different artificial recharge scenarii for controlling salt water intrusion in the Israeli coastal aquifer
Beaujean, Jean ULg

Master's dissertation (2007)

Coastal aquifers are under a continuous threat of pollution due to the danger of sea water intrusion. In many cases, this threat has become a reality, as a result of excessive pumping beyond some safe ... [more ▼]

Coastal aquifers are under a continuous threat of pollution due to the danger of sea water intrusion. In many cases, this threat has become a reality, as a result of excessive pumping beyond some safe yield. Israeli coastal aquifer is a good example. In some places around the world, existing wells, especially close to the coast, have to be abandoned, and the available fresh water of the coastal aquifer decreases. Also, the area above the intruding sea water wedge is lost as a source of water by natural recharge or natural replenishment. Artificial recharge may constitute a response against seawater intrusion. Because of over exploitation of pumping wells, hydraulic depressions appeared along the coast and seawater intrusion advanced inland. The topic of the thesis merges two methodologies linked to these problems. The first one aims the evaluation of different artificial recharge scenarii for controlling sea water intrusion in the Israeli coastal aquifer. Thus, two sites have been selected to apply the first methodology, namely Tel Aviv/Yafo city and Ashqelon town. Secondly, it concerns a new method to assess the vulnerability of pumping/injection wells facing with sea water intrusion and finally for ranking the different mentioned artificial recharge scenarii. The first of both of them is applied with the use of VASP and FEAS software including the existing model of the Israeli coastal aquifer and the second includes the DPSIR concept. VASP is a piece of software for the generation and post-processing of models in addition to the analysis and visualization of environmental data. FEAS is a piece of software that is based on the finite elements techniques, developed for simulating sea water intrusion in two- and three-dimensional coastal aquifers, and upconing problems. The second approach has been developed in prospect to be applied later once the necessary tools would be available. [less ▲]

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