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See detailProceedings of the 3rd Scientific Meeting of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
Bayrou, Calixte ULg; Cabaraux, Jean-François ULg; Delguste, Catherine ULg et al

Book published by Presses de la Faculté de Médecine Vétérinaire (2013)

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See detailNo serologic evidence for emerging Schmallenberg virus infection in dogs (Canis domesticus)
Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Desmecht, Daniel ULg; Bayrou, Calixte ULg et al

in Vector Borne & Zoonotic Diseases (2013), 13(11), 1-4

Schmallenberg virus, a novel orthobunyavirus, is spreading among ruminants, especially sheep and cattle throughout Europe. To determine the risk for domestic dog infection, we conducted a survey among ... [more ▼]

Schmallenberg virus, a novel orthobunyavirus, is spreading among ruminants, especially sheep and cattle throughout Europe. To determine the risk for domestic dog infection, we conducted a survey among cases referred to the university Companion Animal Clinic to assess possible seroconversion. No evidence of transmission to dogs was detected. [less ▲]

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See detailHepatocholecystitis due to Salmonella Dublin in a crossbred calf
Ronzoni, Anna ULg; Bayrou, Calixte ULg; Evrard, Laurence ULg et al

Conference (2013, August 30)

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See detailHAEMATOLOGICAL PROFILES OF CALVES BELONGING TO HERDS WITH BOVINE NEONATAL PANCYTOPENIA HISTORY IN AND AROUND WALLONIA (BELGIUM).
Ronzoni, Anna ULg; Theron, Léonard ULg; Bayrou, Calixte ULg et al

in Buiatrissima, 8th ECBHM Symposium, 28-30 August 2013, Bern, Proceedings (2013, August)

The objective of the present study was to verify the hypothesis of subclinical BNP cases, by random sampling and haematological analysis in different herds with BNP history, in order to obtain a better ... [more ▼]

The objective of the present study was to verify the hypothesis of subclinical BNP cases, by random sampling and haematological analysis in different herds with BNP history, in order to obtain a better epidemiological picture of this disease. [less ▲]

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See detailTesting candidate effectors contributing to resistance to pneumoviruses
Bayrou, Calixte ULg

Doctoral thesis (2013)

Pneumoviruses are members of the Paramyxoviridae family, negative sense single stranded RNA viruses. The 3 major members of the pneumovirus genus are human respiratory syncytial virus (huRSV), bovine ... [more ▼]

Pneumoviruses are members of the Paramyxoviridae family, negative sense single stranded RNA viruses. The 3 major members of the pneumovirus genus are human respiratory syncytial virus (huRSV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (boRSV) and their murine counterpart, pneumonia virus of mice (PVM). In humans, huRSV mainly infects young children and can lead, in the worst cases, to infantile bronchiolitis, which is the first cause of children hospitalization and concerns 2.3% of children under the age of one. Many laboratories are studying this disease in order to better understand the role played by the immune system on its pathogenesis and to create an efficient and safe vaccine that does not exist for now. In bovine, boRSV generates stable epidemics in calves under 6 months of age and causes important economic losses in terms of veterinary costs and loss of productivity. These viruses infect the respiratory tract and generate a disease that importantly depends on the genetic background of the host. The quality of the immune response plays a considerable role in the expression as well as in the outcome of the disease, especially during its first instants. The study of pneumoviruses diseases has been widely developed using murine models of infection by heterologous huRSV. It is now assumed that this model, although providing interesting information, only weakly reproduces human disease on the contrary to infection of mice with their homologous pneumovirus: PVM. This model has been broadly developed in our laboratory, by highlighting the similarities between murine, human and bovine diseases, i.e. an important morbidity, intra-pulmonary granulocytic influx, viral amplification and evolution toward acute respiratory distress syndrome. The present work consisted in studying potential effectors of the resistance of mice against PVM infection: two proteic and two cellular effectors. A first working hypothesis was to evaluate the role of Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (Ceacam1) as a potential receptor for PVM. This membrane protein present at the surface of respiratory epithelial cells is known to be mutated in SJL/J mice, the most resistant strain to PVM infection. We have thus infected highly PVM-susceptible 129/Sv mice and compared their susceptibility to Ceacam1a knock-out 129/Sv mice. Our results have permitted to discard Ceacam1a as a receptor to PVM. The second tested protein is bovine Mx1 (boMx1) GTPase. We wished to assess if its expression could lead, as it is the case for numerous negative sense single stranded RNA viruses, to a resistance to PVM. Transgenic mice producing boMx1, engineerd in our laboratory in an FVB/J background, have been infected and their susceptibility has been compared to wild-type FVB/J mice. We could evidently demonstrated that boMx1 induces resistance to PVM. We have thus, for the first time, demonstrated that an Mx protein induces resistance to a pneumovirus. We have then compared 2 inbred mice strains presenting opposite phenotypes concerning their susceptibility to PVM: SJL/J (resistant) and 129/Sv (susceptible). Our goal was to evaluate if the difference in resistance is present during the first moments of infection. Therefore, we have focussed on both cell types that first interact with the virus: respiratory epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages. Virus tropism and respiratory epithelial permissivity to viral amplification were compared between both strains. In the same way, alveolar macrophages’ phenotypes (phagocytosis, susceptibility to viral infection, cytokine production) were compared between SJL/J and 129/Sv. Our results could not demonstrate any difference concerning respiratory epithelium. On the other hand, a pivotal role could be attributed to alveolar macrophages in the first instants of the infection. SJL/J alveolar macrophages presented greater phagocytic capacity, increased resistance to virus replication and earlier and higher cytokine production. Our results concerning the role of alveolar macrophages as a key effector of the immune response during the infection of mice by PVM raises new interrogations. Differences observed between SJL/J and 129/Sv alveolar macrophages regarding their resistance to viral infection, their greater phagocytic capacity and their cytokine secretion will have to be further investigated in order to understand the relative importance of these three characteristics in the resistance process of SJL/J to PVM infection. A particular attention will have to be given to the candidate cytokines in order to determine if one of them plays a particular role in the disease outcome. Moreover, the anti-PVM property of boMx1 raises the question of why boMx1 possesses an anti-PVM property but no anti-boRSV effect. Comparison of the interaction of boMx1 with PVM or boRSV could help understanding this anti-PVM effect. [less ▲]

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See detailBovine lymphotropic herpesvirus detected in Belgium
Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Bayrou, Calixte ULg; Cassart, Dominique ULg et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (2013), 172

The bovine lymphotropic herpesvirus was detected for the first time outside the US, Canada and UK in a cow with nonresponsive chronic metritis.

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See detailSchmallenberg virus circulation in Belgium in 2012
Bayrou, Calixte ULg; Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Cassart, Dominique ULg et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (2013), 172

Field and laboratory observations suggest that Schmallenberg virus was circulating in Belgium during the summer 2012 despite a very high herd immunity. Further studies will be conducted to determine ... [more ▼]

Field and laboratory observations suggest that Schmallenberg virus was circulating in Belgium during the summer 2012 despite a very high herd immunity. Further studies will be conducted to determine whether we are observing the last cases of this epizootic or if the above calves announce a transition to endemicity. [less ▲]

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See detailProceedings of the 2nd Scientific Meeting of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (University of Liège – Belgium)
Bayrou, Calixte ULg; Cabaraux, Jean-François ULg; Delguste, Catherine ULg et al

Book published by Presses de la Faculté de Médecine vétérinaire de l’Université de Liège (2012)

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See detailSchmallenberg virus in domestic cattle, Belgium, 2012
Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Bayrou, Calixte ULg; Kleijnen, Déborah ULg et al

in Emerging Infectious Diseases (2012), 18(9), 1512-1514

The Schmallenberg virus emerged in summer-fall 2011 in North-West Europe. Nine months later, 91% of adult cattle living about 250 km from the emergence location tested positive for IgGs targeting the new ... [more ▼]

The Schmallenberg virus emerged in summer-fall 2011 in North-West Europe. Nine months later, 91% of adult cattle living about 250 km from the emergence location tested positive for IgGs targeting the new virus nucleoprotein. Further, the risk of infection of the fetus in an immunologically naive herd is 28%. [less ▲]

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See detailSchmallenberg virus: a new Shamonda/Sathuperi-like virus on the rise in Europe
Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Bayrou, Calixte ULg; Kleijnen, Déborah ULg et al

in Antiviral Research (2012), 95

In the summer-fall of 2011, a nonspecific febrile syndrome characterized by hyperthermia, drop in milk production and watery diarrhea was reported in adult dairy cows from a series of farms located in ... [more ▼]

In the summer-fall of 2011, a nonspecific febrile syndrome characterized by hyperthermia, drop in milk production and watery diarrhea was reported in adult dairy cows from a series of farms located in North-West Europe. Further, in November 2011, an enzootic outbreak of abortion, stillbirth and birth at term of lambs, kids and calves with neurologic signs and/or head, spine or limb malformations emerged throughout several European countries. Both syndromes were associated with the presence in the blood (adults) or in the central nervous system (newborns) of the genome of a new Shamonda-like orthobunyavirus provisionally named Schmallenberg virus after the place where the first positive samples were collected. The clinical, pathological, virological and epidemiological facts that were made publicly available during the first 6 months after the emergence are presented here. Current knowledge of the epidemiology of the phylogenetically closest relatives of the newcomer (Shamonda, Aino and Akabane viruses) is not exhaustive enough to predict whether the current outbreak of Schmallenberg virus is the prelude to endemicity or to a 2 years long outbreak before the infection burns out when serologically naïve animals are no longer available. In the future, cyclic epizootic reemergences are a possibility too, either synchronized with a global decrease of herd immunity or due to antigenic variants escaping the immunity acquired against their predecessors. The latter hypothesis seems unlikely because of the wide array of biologic constraints acting on the genome of viruses whose life cycle requires transmission by a vector, which represses genetic drift. The remarkable stability of the Shamonda virus genome over the last forty years is reassuring in this regard. [less ▲]

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See detailSchmallenberg virus in calf born at term with porencephaly, Belgium
Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Hoffmann, Bernd; Dive, Marc et al

in Emerging Infectious Diseases (2012), 18(6), 1005-1006

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See detailMettalic foreign body in a horse: case report
Evrard, Laurence ULg; Bolen, Géraldine ULg; Gougnard, Alexandra ULg et al

Poster (2011, January 22)

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See detailUn nouveau syndrome hémorragique inexpliqué chez le bovin- la Pancytopénie néonatale bovine
Theron, Léonard ULg; Galland, Bruno ULg; Vogin, Nathalie et al

Conference (2010, November 21)

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See detailUN NOUVEAU SYNDROME HÉMORRAGIQUE INEXPLIQUÉ CHEZ LE BOVIN – LA PANCYTOPÉNIE NÉONATALE BOVINE
Theron, Léonard ULg; Vogin, Nathalie; Moreaux, Emeline et al

in Antibiothérapies : Santé animale et santé publique (2010, May)

For several decades, the bovine was subject to various hemorrhagic syndromes which causes have historically been found. Since the mid-2000s, a new hemorrhagic syndrome seems to emerge with a significant ... [more ▼]

For several decades, the bovine was subject to various hemorrhagic syndromes which causes have historically been found. Since the mid-2000s, a new hemorrhagic syndrome seems to emerge with a significant epidemiological consistency, suggesting a common etiology, although unknown at present. The affected animals were calves of less than 30 days, of all races born to mothers without specific parity. We noticed a very sporadic disease (1/10.000) but lethal to 99%. The characteristic lesions are multifocal hemorrhages, hyperthermia, melena, we noted medullar aplasia systematically. These calves are vironegative for BTV, enzootic bovine leukosis and BVDV. No viral or bacterial agent could be isolated. It seems that most of these calves were born from dams vaccinated against BVDV. The track of an immune dysfunction is the most serious for the moment. [less ▲]

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See detailPancytopénie néonatale : nouveau syndrome hémorragique chez le bovin
Theron, Léonard ULg; Vogin, Nathalie; Moreau, Emeline et al

in Point Vétérinaire (2010), 41(Numéro spécial), 79-86

For 30 years, many haemorrhagic syndromes were observed in cattle. The recent observation in Europe of a new entity hemorrhagic highlights a consistent set of clinical cases in calves of all breeds under ... [more ▼]

For 30 years, many haemorrhagic syndromes were observed in cattle. The recent observation in Europe of a new entity hemorrhagic highlights a consistent set of clinical cases in calves of all breeds under 30 days of age, with pancytopenic haemorrhagic purpura. Calves are vironegative for BVD and BTV, most are seropositive for both viruses antibodies. No specific etiology has been highlighted, but it seems that the syndrome is linked to the ingestion of colostrum immunized against cells of the calf. The syndrome is sporadic, with a prevalence ranging between 1:10,000 and 1:100,000 cattle under one year of age, causing a lethality of 99%. The origin of the pancytopenia is a medullar aplasia. [less ▲]

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See detailDescribing an emerging disease: A case of thrombocytopenic syndrome of the newborn calf
Theron, Léonard ULg; Vogin, Nathalie; Bayrou, Calixte ULg et al

in Maillard, R.; Navetat, H. (Eds.) European buiatrics forum 2009 (2009, December 03)

Since the last 5 years, a specific hemorrhagic syndrome of unknown etiology was described in young calves. This disease has a low incidence but a very high mortality rate. No etiology has been found yet ... [more ▼]

Since the last 5 years, a specific hemorrhagic syndrome of unknown etiology was described in young calves. This disease has a low incidence but a very high mortality rate. No etiology has been found yet, though many labs have already gathered lots of cases around Europe. For example, more than 200 cases in 170 farms in Germany, 60 cases in 40 farms were described in Gent’s veterinary faculty in Belgium. In France and in the United Kingdom, several cases have been recorded yet, in multiple different locations. As far as we know, the disease concern young calves aging between 10 and 30 days, from different breeds. Most calves present a purpura on multiple sites on skin, gums, eye sclera and ears. Hematology indicates severe anemia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia with or without leukopenia. Necropsy indicates multiple hemorrhages in serous membranes on every abdominal viscera. Alfort’s veterinary faculty has described acute necrotizing hepatitis on one case in France. Those calves are BVDV and BTV negative both on antigen tests. In Liege’s veterinary faculty one live case was examined, from a modern farm with 160 calvings, and less than 5% of calf mortality per year. The farm had 3 hemorrhagic fatal cases during July 2009, of very quick evolution. From those, 2 were autopsied and diagnosed BVDV negative. The 20 days old calf had hyperthermia in the morning, received oxytetracycline in the farm and began bleeding at noon. As many of the described cases, the calf presented mild depression with hyperthermia and tachypnoea. Skin and ear purpura, gum hematoma, melena, hematuria and hemoglobinuria were noticed. Hematology revealed a severe anemia with decreased hematocrite due to a profound thrombocytopenia (4.79*109/l). Leukocytes formula also shown neutropenia (0.10*109/l) and a monocytosis (1.32*109/l). It resulted in a mild leukopenia (3.59*109/l). We also noticed hypogammaglobulinemia (2.92 g/l and 6.8% of total protein). This calf received an immune-suppressive treatment with a high dose of dexamethasone (0.64mg/kg), and a cover antimicrobial therapy (Enrofloxacine). A good evolution of the symptoms on day 2 was observed. Leukocyte formula had a normal answer to dexamethasone concerning the lymphocytes and neutrophils population. On day 6, blood formula was already stabilized, with increasing hematocrite from 12% on day 3 to 15%. Thrombocytes count has also increased to 58.20*109/l; leukocytes count was also back to normal with normal formula. Flow cytometric measures on the lymphocytes subpopulations indicated a subnormal Gamma-Delta and Natural Killer population, and a high number of apoptotic cells 12 hours after sampling. This syndrome can be linked to idiopathic thrombocytopenia in human newborn both regarding symptomatology and treatment answer. Though this data helps in the understanding of this pathology, it concerns only one animal and needs to be confirmed through further experiment on live cases. [less ▲]

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