References of "Baute, Noëlle"
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See detailElectrodeposition of mixed adherent thin films of poly(ethyl acrylate) and polyacrylonitrile onto nickel
Baute, Noëlle; Geskin, Victor M; Lazzaroni, Roberto et al

in e-Polymers (2004), (63), 1-20

Adherent thin polymer films have been prepared by sequential electrodeposition of ethyl acrylate (EA) and acrylonitrile (AN) onto nickel. Their composition has been studied by IR spectroscopy and time of ... [more ▼]

Adherent thin polymer films have been prepared by sequential electrodeposition of ethyl acrylate (EA) and acrylonitrile (AN) onto nickel. Their composition has been studied by IR spectroscopy and time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry. Morphology and thickness have been analyzed by atomic force microscopy and ellipsometry, respectively, and compared to single component films of PEA and PAN. No microphase separation was detected in the mixed PEA/PAN films. These show a granular morphology comparable to that of PAN films. The grains contain the two constitutive polymers, as confirmed by the selective thermal degradation of PEA. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrochemical strategies for the strengthening of polymer – metal interfaces
Baute, Noëlle; Jérôme, Christine ULg; Martinot, Lucien et al

in European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry (2001), 2001(5), 1097-1107

Polymers have been widely used for the protection of metals against corrosion and for improving the performance of structural adhesive joints. In this contribution, the weakness and short-term durability ... [more ▼]

Polymers have been widely used for the protection of metals against corrosion and for improving the performance of structural adhesive joints. In this contribution, the weakness and short-term durability of these polymer-metal interactions and some common approaches for alleviating this problem are briefly reviewed. Among the existing techniques, electrochemical processes offer the advantage of controlled interfacial reactions. Promising results have been reported by Strat-mann et al. and Le´cayon et al., who have emphasized the interest and opportunity to create strong chemical bonds between the organic coating and the metallic substrate. Their work is discussed in this review, along with results recently obtained in our group [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigation of the cathodic electropolymerization of acrylonitrile, ethylacrylate and methylmethacrylate by coupled quartz crystal microbalance analysis and cyclic voltammetry
Baute, Noëlle; Martinot, Lucien; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry (1999), 472(1), 83-90

The cathodic electropolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN), ethylacrylate (EA) and methylmethacrylate (MMA), has been monitored for the first time by coupled electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (QCM ... [more ▼]

The cathodic electropolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN), ethylacrylate (EA) and methylmethacrylate (MMA), has been monitored for the first time by coupled electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and cyclic voltammetry analyses. These data have been compared to the previously published analyses for methacrylonitrile (MAN). At the potential Ep1 of the less cathodic of the two voltammetric peaks observed (peak I), the polymer formed is anchored firmly to the cathode even in a good solvent for it, and it remains adsorbed when the voltammetric scan is repeated up to Ep1. In parallel, a linear relationship is observed between the frequency change recorded in situ by the QCM up to Ep1 and the PAN film thickness measured ex-situ by ellipsometry. However, when potentials more negative than peak I are scanned, the polymer desorption (degrafting) occurs as assessed by solubilization in a good solvent. Polymerization is also resumed but in solution and no longer as grafted chains. The major difference between the acrylic monomers (AN and EA) and the methacrylic ones (MMA and MAN) is that part of the methacrylic chains are not grafted at Ep1. This coexistence of adsorbed and desorbed chains is not observed for the polyacrylic chains in that potential range. The mass of PAN deposited onto the cathode has been approximated from the film thickness and the Sauerbrey equation, so allowing the Mn of the grafted chains to be estimated. [less ▲]

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See detailControlling the electrografting of polymers onto transition metal surfaces through solvent vs monomer adsorption
Crispin, Xavier; Lazzaroni, Roberto; Geskin, Victor et al

in Journal of the American Chemical Society (1999), 121(1), 167-187

Electropolymerization of methacrylic monomers opens the possibility of chemically grafting a wide range of polymers onto transition metal surfaces. In this work, the electropolymerization of ... [more ▼]

Electropolymerization of methacrylic monomers opens the possibility of chemically grafting a wide range of polymers onto transition metal surfaces. In this work, the electropolymerization of polyacrylonitrile and polyethyl acrylate is studied in different solvents; we experimentally confirm that the choice of solvent is a critical parameter for obtaining electrografted polymers. A density-functional theory−based study modeling the interaction of solvent (acetonitrile, dimethylformamide, and pyridine) or monomer (acrylonitrile and ethyl acrylate) molecules with the Ni(100) metal surface provides the means to classify the organic molecules with respect to their ability to interact with the surface. The surface binding-energy difference between monomer and solvent is introduced in a Frumkin-type isotherm. This allows us to rationalize the experimental observations in terms of a competitive adsorption at the metal surface between the monomer and the solvent. The first step in the electrografting mechanism thus appears to be the chemisorption of the monomer at the electrode surface before cathodic polarization is applied; the chemisorbed monomer is therefore the first species reduced, giving rise to an adsorbed reactive intermediate, which is thus able to start the polymerization of a grafted chain. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrografting of acrylic and methacrylic monomers onto metals: influence of the relative polarity and donor-acceptor properties of the monomer and the solvent
Baute, Noëlle; Teyssié, Philippe; Martinot, Lucien et al

in European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry (1998), 1998(11), 1711-1720

The possibility of grafting a series of alkyl polyacrylates and polymethacrylates onto a nickel cathode by electropoly-merization of the parent monomers has been investigated and has emphasized the ... [more ▼]

The possibility of grafting a series of alkyl polyacrylates and polymethacrylates onto a nickel cathode by electropoly-merization of the parent monomers has been investigated and has emphasized the critical importance of the solvent used. Indeed, the intensity of the inhibition peak, which is the electrochemical mark of the cathode passivation as result of the polymer grafting, clearly depends on both the polarity and the donor-acceptor properties of the solvent. The Gutmann concept is used to account for these experimental results. An increase in the donicity of the solvent used for the electrochemical medium has allowed, for the very first time, several polyacrylates and polymethacrylates [such as poly(ethyl acrylate), poly(methyl methacrylate), and poly(2-trimethylsilyloxyethyl methacrylate)] to be electrografted onto Ni. This observation is consistent with a competition process between the monomer and the solvent for being adsorbed on the cathode and amassing in its very close vicinity. The outcome of this competition is controlled by the relative polarity (in case of low donicity) and the relative donor-acceptor properties (when the difference is high enough) of the monomer/solvent pair, and by the monomer concentration (in case of weak competition). A semiquantitative relationship has also been observed between the monomer ability to be electrografted and the electron-accepting character of the vinyl β-carbon atom as measured by 13C NMR. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamic mechanical thermal and infrared analyses of polyacrylonitrile "electrografted" onto a metal
Calberg, Cédric ULg; Mertens, Marc; Baute, Noëlle et al

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part B, Polymer Physics (1998), 36(4), 543-553

Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) films have been grafted onto copper electrodes by cathodic polarization and analyzed by infrared spectroscopy and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The dynamic mechanical ... [more ▼]

Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) films have been grafted onto copper electrodes by cathodic polarization and analyzed by infrared spectroscopy and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The dynamic mechanical response shows two or three transitions depending on the film thickness and the potential deposition. The viscoelastic properties of ungrafted PAN films, e.g., solvent cast films of commercially available PAN, are deeply different from those of electrografted films. The experimental data support that ungrafted chains are paracrystalline in contrast to the grafted ones which are essentially amorphous. Moreover, the irreversible transformation of the grafted PAN chains observed beyond 225°C is confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis and ascribed to an intramolecular cyclization of PAN into polyimine. This reaction occurs rapidly and at a comparatively low temperature with respect to ungrafted PAN, which suggests that the grafted chain configuration might be predominantly isotactic. The isotacticity and the amorphous structure appear to decrease as the thickness of the PAN film is increased. Literature data and the herein reported observations would suggest a dependence of the amorphous structure of PAN on the chain isotacticity. [less ▲]

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See detailSolvent effect on the electrografting of acrylonitrile on nickel
Mertens, Marc; Calberg, Cédric ULg; Baute, Noëlle et al

in Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry (1998), 441(1-2), 237-244

The effect of solvent on the reductive electrografting of acrylonitrile (AN) onto nickel cathodes has been studied in dimethylformamide (DMF), a solvent for polyacrylonitrile (PAN), and in non-solvents ... [more ▼]

The effect of solvent on the reductive electrografting of acrylonitrile (AN) onto nickel cathodes has been studied in dimethylformamide (DMF), a solvent for polyacrylonitrile (PAN), and in non-solvents that include acetonitrile (ACN), propylene carbonate (PC) and pyridine (PY). Electrografting responsible for the cathode inhibition has been observed for the first time in PC and PY. Not only the polymer-solvent interactions but also the intrinsic polarity of the solvent have an effect on the intensity of the inhibition peak which is the signature of the electrografting reaction. Concentration of the monomer in the electrode double layer appears to decrease as the solvent polarity is increased, consistently with a more efficient displacement of the monomer by a more polar compound. That such a competition occurs is also supported by the effect of the nature and concentration of the conducting salt. The best quality films are formed in DMF, which is a solvent for PAN. Quartz microbalance experiments have emphasized the crucial importance of the potential range used for the AN electroreduction, particularly in a solvent of the polymer. [less ▲]

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See detailBonding electropolymerization: a new electron-transfer strategy for the tailoring of performant polymer-based composites
Baute, Noëlle; Calberg, Cédric ULg; Dubois, Philippe ULg et al

in Macromolecular Symposia (1998), 134

Careful control of experimental conditions in the cathodic electropolymerization of acrylonitrile allows the grafting of thin polymer films, on conducting surfaces offering electrons easily mobilized at a ... [more ▼]

Careful control of experimental conditions in the cathodic electropolymerization of acrylonitrile allows the grafting of thin polymer films, on conducting surfaces offering electrons easily mobilized at a relatively low potential. Matching relative polarity and donicity of solvent and monomer expands the applicability of this methodology to the whole class of (meth)acrylic monomers, paving the way to many new and useful multiphase materials. [less ▲]

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