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See detailAssessing the foraging behavior of Agriotes sordidus wireworms in dual-choice olfactometers
Barsics, Fanny ULg; Fiers, Marie; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULg et al

in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (in press)

The different steps of the foraging process of wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) would be better understood if accurate and holistic information regarding the role of plant-produced chemicals ... [more ▼]

The different steps of the foraging process of wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) would be better understood if accurate and holistic information regarding the role of plant-produced chemicals constituting their environment were available. Volatile organic compounds (VOC) play important roles in the interactions between plants and insects in many ecosystems, whether they take place aboveground or belowground. The roles of VOC are still relatively unknown for wireworms, and deserve attention. Here, we performed three experimentations with barley roots as baits. In the two first, we assessed the effect of chopped roots and fungus infected roots on the orientation of wireworms. In the third experiment, the larvae were confronted to both healthy and fungus infected roots. We discuss the results in terms of suitability of the olfactometers we designed for the investigation of olfaction in wireworms, and we provide suggestions to improve their use. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of olfaction in wireworms: a review on foraging behavior and sensory apparatus
Barsics, Fanny ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg; Francis, Frédéric ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (in press)

Introduction Integrated management of wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) depends upon approaches applied both above- and belowground, and over several spatial scales. While foraging, these soil pests use ... [more ▼]

Introduction Integrated management of wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) depends upon approaches applied both above- and belowground, and over several spatial scales. While foraging, these soil pests use biotic and abiotic signals to orientate towards target plant organs. Development of efficient techniques for implementation in integrated strategies relies upon improved knowledge of this process. In particular, an important step consists of elucidating the role of volatile organic compounds (VOC), emitted by belowground plant organs, in wireworm chemical ecology. This would have a positive impact on push-pull strategies and varietal selection developed against these insects. Literature In this work, we summarized the available data regarding wireworm foraging behavior as well as variables that should be considered when studying the potential role of plant-produced volatile semiochemicals. This includes CO2 gradients and other host-related cues, temperature, relative humidity and soil moisture, and wireworm physiological stage. We also review what is known of the sensory apparatus of wireworms, since this is involved in every step of the foraging process. Conclusion Some baseline data for studying VOC related wireworm foraging behavior exists. Using it as a tool in applied entomology should result in discovery of the semiochemicals that underpin trophic interactions involving these pests. However, most of the key pest species are not fully described with regards to the parameters detailed here. Obtaining accurate information to fill the current knowledge gaps will be needed in order to devise new integrated management strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailBelowground Chemical Ecology: The Case of Wireworms
Barsics, Fanny ULg; Delory, Benjamin ULg; Delaplace, Pierre ULg et al

Poster (2014, June)

Wireworms, clock-beetles' larvae (Coleoptera, Elateridae), are below ground pests of many crops. They cause dramatic yield losses worldwide. Research on their ecology is crucial to undertake innovative ... [more ▼]

Wireworms, clock-beetles' larvae (Coleoptera, Elateridae), are below ground pests of many crops. They cause dramatic yield losses worldwide. Research on their ecology is crucial to undertake innovative management strategies. In the field of chemical ecology, multitrophic interactions occurring in the rhizosphere are gaining increasing attention from entomologists and agronomists. Our research aims at unveiling the role of volatile organic compounds (VOC) involved in wireworms' foraging behavior, putatively leading to host localization and/or host recognition. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of sex ratio and morphotypes of the Multicoloured Asian Ladybird, Harmonia axyridis Pallas in Belgian corn
Vandereycken, Axel ULg; Fassotte, Bérénice ULg; Barsics, Fanny ULg et al

Poster (2014, April 02)

Several insect species are known to have different morphotypes, an adaptation to heterogeneities in changing environments. This phenotypic plasticity could be a factor used by the Multicoloured Asian ... [more ▼]

Several insect species are known to have different morphotypes, an adaptation to heterogeneities in changing environments. This phenotypic plasticity could be a factor used by the Multicoloured Asian Ladybird, which is considered as an invasive species in Europe since its introduction in the 80’s. Harmonia axyridis has four major morphotypes: 2 melanic forms, conspicua and spectabilis; and 2 non-melanic, succinea and axyridis. In Belgium, only the three first are observed. Literature reports variations in morphotype frequencies, across native and introduced strains. These variations seem to be linked to climate (geographical and seasonal variation), with non-melanic forms being the most abundant in hot and arid climate. This study focused on the variation of morphotype abundance in H. axyridis according to season, field and gender. Adult ladybirds were caught from mid-July to mid-October 2012 into 5 corn fields. The proportions of observed morphotypes were compared according to the sampling season. The abundance of morphotypes was not significantly different through the fields; the observed ratios were 81.6%, 15% and 3.4% for succinea, spectabilis and conspicua respectively. Succinea was the most observed morphotype (χ2=755.8; P<0.001). The total number of collected males and females was the same with ratios of 48.2% and 51.8%: (χ2=0.93; P=0.33). The sex ratio was also not significantly different for each morphotype. There was no evolution of melanic and non-melanic form ratio according to the season, with 25.6% of melanic form in summer and 20.6% in autumn (χ2=1.22; P=0.27). Our results seem to show that morphotype adaptation according to the climate is not observed for Belgian ladybirds. We discuss these results according to all environmental data available. [less ▲]

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See detailLes Ressources Sauvages des Bois de Tapia (Uapaca bojeri) à Madagascar
Barsics, Fanny ULg; Malaisse, François ULg; Razafimanantsoa, Tsiresy et al

Poster (2013, October 19)

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See detailLe taupin : un ravageur souterrain préoccupant
Barsics, Fanny ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg; Verheggen, François ULg

Poster (2013, October 19)

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See detailWireworms’ Management: An Overview of the Existing Methods, with Particular Regards to Agriotes spp. (Coleoptera: Elateridae)
Barsics, Fanny ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg; Verheggen, François ULg

in Insects (2013), 4(1), 117-152

Wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) are important soil dwelling pests worldwide causing yield losses in many crops. The progressive restrictions in the matter of efficient synthetic chemicals for health ... [more ▼]

Wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) are important soil dwelling pests worldwide causing yield losses in many crops. The progressive restrictions in the matter of efficient synthetic chemicals for health and environmental care brought out the need for alternative management techniques. This paper summarizes the main potential tools that have been studied up to now and that could be applied together in integrated pest management systems and suggests guidelines for future research. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of volatile organic compounds emitted by Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) roots and their attractiveness to wireworms
Gfeller, Aurélie; Laloux, Morgan; Barsics, Fanny ULg et al

in Journal of Chemical Ecology (2013), 39(8), 1129-1139

Root volatile organic compounds (VOCs), their chemistry and ecological functions have garnered less attention than aboveground emitted plant VOCs. We report here for the first time on the identification ... [more ▼]

Root volatile organic compounds (VOCs), their chemistry and ecological functions have garnered less attention than aboveground emitted plant VOCs. We report here for the first time on the identification of VOCs emitted by barley roots (Hordeum vulgare L.). Twenty nine VOCs were identified from isolated 21-d-old roots. The detection of root volatiles was dependent on the medium used for root cultivation. From 7-d-old roots cultivated on sterile Hoagland gelified medium, 24 VOCs were identified, on sterile vermiculite 33 VOCs, and on non-sterile vermiculite 34 VOCs. The major VOCs identified were fatty acid derived compounds, including hexanal, methyl hexanoate, (E)-hex-2-enal, 2-pentylfuran, pentan-1-ol, (Z)-2-(pentenyl)-furan, (Z)-pent-2-en-1-ol, hexan-1-ol, (Z)-hex-3-en-1-ol, (E)-hex-2-en-1-ol, oct-1-en-3-ol, 2-ethylhexan-1-ol (likely a contaminant), (E)-non-2-enal, octan-1-ol, (2E,6Z)-nona-2,6-dienal), methyl (E)-non-2-enoate, nonan-1-ol, (Z)-non-3-en-1-ol, (E)-non-2-en-1-ol, nona-3,6-dien-1-ol and nona-2,6-dien-1-ol. In an olfactometer assay, wireworms (larvae of Agriotes sordidus Illiger, Coleoptera: Elateridae) were attracted to chemical cues emanating from barley seedlings. We discuss the role of individual root volatiles or a blend of the root volatiles detected here and their interaction with CO2for wireworm attraction. [less ▲]

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See detailNocturnal moth inventory in Malagasy tapia woods, with focus on silk-producing species
Barsics, Fanny ULg; Razafimanantsoa, Tsiresy Maminiaina; Minet, Joël et al

in Verheggen, François; Bogaert, Jan; Haubruge, Eric (Eds.) Les vers à soie malgaches. Enjeux écologiques et socio-économiques (2013)

In Madagascar, the tapia woods (Uapaca bojeri) shelter a wide diversity of moth species, among which the landibe, a silk moth of the genus Borocera. Threatened by diverse pressures – anthropogenic and ... [more ▼]

In Madagascar, the tapia woods (Uapaca bojeri) shelter a wide diversity of moth species, among which the landibe, a silk moth of the genus Borocera. Threatened by diverse pressures – anthropogenic and environmental – its populations have drastically decreased during the last twenty years. We report on night inventories by means of light traps, performed in the tapia woods. We observed at least 68 species, notably another silk producing moth, Europtera punctillata, whose caterpillars are called landifotsy by villagers. We unveiled specific behavioural traits of species sampled during four successive night periods, between 8:00 pm and 4:00 am. sixty-eight moth species were observed, some of them are silk producing species, including landifotsy (E. punctillata). [less ▲]

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See detailLes ressources sauvages comestibles des bois de tapias : inventaire des produits connus et consommés par les villageois
Barsics, Fanny ULg; Malaisse, François ULg; Razafimanantsoa, Tsiresy maminiaina et al

in Verheggen, François; Bogaert, Jan; Haubruge, Eric (Eds.) Les vers à soie malgaches. Enjeux écologiques et socio-économiques. (2013)

Les populations des Hautes Terres centrales de Madagascar vivent notamment de ressources abritées par les bois de tapia (Uapaca bojeri Baill.). Parmi celles-ci, des ressources séricigènes servent autant ... [more ▼]

Les populations des Hautes Terres centrales de Madagascar vivent notamment de ressources abritées par les bois de tapia (Uapaca bojeri Baill.). Parmi celles-ci, des ressources séricigènes servent autant dans les traditions qu’au commerce à la fois local et touristique. Le landibe (Borocera cajani Vinson, Lasiocampidae) est l’espèce principale qui permet cette exploitation. Ses chrysalides sont également comestibles. Cette ressource en déclin de par les pressions qu’elle subit, et celles subies par la forêt, est loin d’être la seule abritée par les tapia. Dans ce chapitre, nous dressons une liste de produits sauvages comestibles au moyen d’enquêtes réalisées auprès des villageois, avec pour objectif de souligner l’importance d’actions rapides à entreprendre pour sauvegarder cette biodiversité cruciale dont dépendent les habitants de la régions. [less ▲]

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See detailApport de la surface terrière dans la dénomination des formations végétales dominées par le tapia (Uapaca bojeri) à Madagascar
Malaisse, François ULg; Rakotondrasoa, Olivia; Rakotoniaina, R.T. et al

in Verheggen, François; Bogaert, Jan; Haubruge, Eric (Eds.) Les vers à soie malgaches. Enjeux écologiques et socio-économiques. (2013)

Après avoir rappelé l’intérêt transcendant d’Uapaca bojeri, essence endémique malgache, pour les populations locales et avoir défini l’importance des apports écosystémiques des formations végétales où ... [more ▼]

Après avoir rappelé l’intérêt transcendant d’Uapaca bojeri, essence endémique malgache, pour les populations locales et avoir défini l’importance des apports écosystémiques des formations végétales où cette essence domine, la diversité des dénominations concernant ces dernières est mise en évidence et les causes sous-jacentes en sont analysées. Une situation analogue a été observée antérieurement pour les forêts claires de type miombo en Afrique continentale ; le concept de surface terrière a constitué pour ces dernières un apport pertinent et a autorisé une typologie valorisante des dénominations. Dès lors, l’application du concept de surface terrière aux formations végétales à dominance de tapia est examinée et son apport éventuel discuté. Un système original est proposé. [less ▲]

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See detailLes ressources sauvages comestibles des bois de tapias : caractérisation alimentaire des produits consommés
Barsics, Fanny ULg; Malaisse, François ULg; Lognay, Georges ULg et al

in Verheggen, François; Bogaert, Jan; Haubruge, Eric (Eds.) Les vers à soie malgaches. Enjeux écologiques et socio-économiques. (2013)

Les bois de tapia (Uapaca bojeri) des Hautes Terres centrales de Madagascar regorgent de ressources sauvages comestibles utilisées par les populations locales dans leur alimentation régulière. Afin de ... [more ▼]

Les bois de tapia (Uapaca bojeri) des Hautes Terres centrales de Madagascar regorgent de ressources sauvages comestibles utilisées par les populations locales dans leur alimentation régulière. Afin de décrire ces apports en termes biochimiques, nous avons réalisé des analyses de contenu sur 7 ressources, soit 2 chenilles, 1 araignée et 4 champignons comestibles. Leurs taux de protéines, de lipides, ainsi que leur composition en acides aminés et acides gras ont été obtenus. Les résultats ont été exprimés dans l’absolu mais aussi en relation avec les indices alimentaires couramment utilisés pour définir les qualités protéiques et lipidiques des denrées. Ces analyses nous permettent de constater l’excellent apport protéique que représentent les Arthropodes, et mettent également en évidence leur qualité lipidique. Les résultats de ces analyses sont discutés en faisant le lien avec les recommandations de la FAO/OMS. [less ▲]

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See detailVolatile organic compounds released by barley roots attract wireworms
Barsics, Fanny ULg; Fiers, Marie ULg; Francis, Frédéric ULg et al

Poster (2012, August)

Wireworms, the soil dwelling larvae of click beetles, are pests of many crops worldwide. Alternatives to insecticide treatments are needed for integrated management strategies. Our work consists in ... [more ▼]

Wireworms, the soil dwelling larvae of click beetles, are pests of many crops worldwide. Alternatives to insecticide treatments are needed for integrated management strategies. Our work consists in elucidating the role of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) root-emitted volatile organic compounds (VOC) on the orientation behaviour of Agriotes sordidus Illiger wireworms (Fig. 1). Using dual choice olfactometers, we have evaluated the attractiveness of baits ranging from barley roots themselves to one isolated root-emitted volatile organic compound. [less ▲]

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See detailDo root-emitted volatile organic compounds interact with wireworms?
Barsics, Fanny ULg; Gfeller, Aurélie ULg; Laloux, Morgan ULg et al

Scientific conference (2012, May 22)

Wireworms are the soil dwelling larvae of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae). Their importance as crop pests increases since the efficient chemical means to control them cannot be considered anymore ... [more ▼]

Wireworms are the soil dwelling larvae of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae). Their importance as crop pests increases since the efficient chemical means to control them cannot be considered anymore. Therefore, many integrated pest management strategies have been investigated in the past few years. Most of them rely on the understanding of the ecology of the click beetles during their whole life cycle. We focus our work on the chemical ecology of wireworms, more precisely on the root-emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that might intervene in the food-searching process of the larvae by helping them to find a suitable host-plant or by acting as key factors in the belowground defence mechanism of the plant. Here, we present our first results of dual-choice orientation tests in olfactometric pipes. Wireworms (Agriotes sordidus Illiger) were submitted individually to a variety of olfactory baits ranging from entire barley roots (Hordeum vulgare L. var. Quench) to isolated VOCs identified as part of the emitting profile. The latter was described thanks to HS-SPME samplings and GC-MS analysis, for roots grown in the exact same conditions as for the olfactometric experimentations with entire roots. Most of the experimentations gave significant results. When confronted to volatiles emitted by entire roots, wireworms significantly orientated towards the bait (χ²-goodness-of-fit test, χ²=8, P-value=0.005). This result allowed us to follow up with the same device and to progressively vary the nature of the baits. Our protocol should be used for other plant-wireworm species combinations. Our results should be taken into account in varietal selection, in crop rotation, or in trapping systems aiming at the reduction of the populations of wireworms. [less ▲]

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See detailVolatile organic compounds released by barley roots attract wireworms
Barsics, Fanny ULg; Fiers, Marie ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg et al

Poster (2012, February 10)

Wireworms are the soil dwelling larvae of click beetles and are pests of many crops worldwide. Alternatives to insecticide treatments are needed in order to develop integrated management strategies. Our ... [more ▼]

Wireworms are the soil dwelling larvae of click beetles and are pests of many crops worldwide. Alternatives to insecticide treatments are needed in order to develop integrated management strategies. Our work consists in elucidating the role of barley root-emitted volatile organic compounds on the orientation behaviour of Agriotes sordidus wireworms. Using a dual choice olfactometer we have evaluated the attractiveness of a variety of baits ranging from barley roots themselves to isolated root-emitted volatile organic compounds. Wireworms were significantly attracted towards most of the tested baits. Our results should be taken into account in varietal selection, in crop rotation, or in trapping systems aiming at the reduction of the populations of this pest. [less ▲]

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See detailDo root-emitted volatile organic compounds attract wireworms?
Barsics, Fanny ULg; Latine, Rémi ULg; Gfeller, Aurélie ULg et al

in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (2012), 77(3), 561-567

Wireworms are the soil dwelling larvae of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae). Their importance as crop pests increases since the efficient chemical means to control them cannot be considered anymore ... [more ▼]

Wireworms are the soil dwelling larvae of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae). Their importance as crop pests increases since the efficient chemical means to control them cannot be considered anymore. Therefore, many integrated pest management strategies have been investigated in the past few years. Most of them rely on the understanding of the ecology of the click beetles during their whole life cycle. We focus our work on the chemical ecology of wireworms, more precisely on the root-emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that might intervene in the food-searching process of the larvae by helping them to find a suitable host-plant or by acting as key factors in the belowground defence mechanism of the plant. Here, we present our first results of dual-choice orientation tests in olfactometric pipes. Wireworms (Agriotes sordidus Illiger) were submitted individually to a variety of olfactory baits ranging from entire barley roots (Hordeum vulgare L. var. Quench) to isolated VOCs identified as part of the emitting profile. The latter was described thanks to HS-SPME samplings and GC-MS analysis, for roots grown in the exact same conditions as for the olfactometric experimentations with entire roots. Most of the experimentations gave significant results. When confronted to volatiles emitted by entire roots, wireworms significantly orientated towards the bait (χ²-goodness-of-fit test, χ²=8, P-value=0.005). This result allowed us to follow up with the same device and to progressively vary the nature of the baits. Our protocol should be used for other plant-wireworm species combinations. Our results should be taken into account in varietal selection, in crop rotation, or in trapping systems aiming at the reduction of the populations of wireworms. [less ▲]

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See detailLes volatils racinaires de l’orge : un langage souterrain ?
Barsics, Fanny ULg; Gfeller, Aurélie ULg; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULg et al

Scientific conference (2011, October 13)

Cette présentation résume les avancées du projet Rhizovol après une année de travaux de recherche.

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See detailLes larves de taupins sont attirées par différentes sources de volatils racinaires
Barsics, Fanny ULg; Latine, Rémi ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg et al

Poster (2011, October 13)

Grâce à des tests olfactométriques, nous voulons mettre en évidence la capacité de certains COVs d’origine racinaire à attirer ou repousser les larves de taupins. Nous montrons ici les premiers résultats ... [more ▼]

Grâce à des tests olfactométriques, nous voulons mettre en évidence la capacité de certains COVs d’origine racinaire à attirer ou repousser les larves de taupins. Nous montrons ici les premiers résultats obtenus grâce à des olfactomètres tubulaires, soit l’attraction par des COVs issus de racines hachées et l’attraction par le 2-pentylfuran, volatil contenu dans les racines d’orge. [less ▲]

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See detailLe taupin : un ravageur souterrain préoccupant
Barsics, Fanny ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg; Verheggen, François ULg

Poster (2011, October 13)

Les larves de taupin représentent une menace pour un grand nombre de cultures céréalières et légumières. Elles s’attaquent aux racines, aux radicelles, aux tubercules, aux graines en germination et ... [more ▼]

Les larves de taupin représentent une menace pour un grand nombre de cultures céréalières et légumières. Elles s’attaquent aux racines, aux radicelles, aux tubercules, aux graines en germination et peuvent percer de part en part le collet, entraînant ainsi de graves lésions voire la mort des plants attaqués. Nous présentons ici ces insectes, les techniques de lutte actuellement envisageables, ainsi que notre approche de l’étude de ces insectes dans le but de mieux envisager la lutte intégrée à leur encontre. [less ▲]

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