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See detailContribution à l'étude des amylases du sorgho et leurs utilisations dans la transformation des produits amylacés
Ba, Khady ULg

Doctoral thesis (2013)

Les amylases sont des enzymes largement utilisées dans le secteur industriel. Elles occupent d'ailleurs une place primordiale dans le marché mondial des enzymes. Les travaux présentés dans ce manuscrit se ... [more ▼]

Les amylases sont des enzymes largement utilisées dans le secteur industriel. Elles occupent d'ailleurs une place primordiale dans le marché mondial des enzymes. Les travaux présentés dans ce manuscrit se sont intéressés à la production d’amylases à partir d’une source végétale peu coûteuse et disponible, le sorgho et aux possibilités de les utiliser dans la transformation des produits amylacés. Dans la première partie de l’étude, après avoir caractérisé et malté sept variétés de sorgho blanc sélectionné à l’ISRA de Bambey (Sénégal), la meilleure variété, la F-2-20 (sans tanins, faible teneur en composés phénoliques et bonnes activités amylasiques) a été retenue pour la suite de l’étude. Dans la deuxième partie des travaux, les paramètres physico-chimiques tels que le pH optimum, la température optimale et la thermostabilité des amylases (α et β) du malt ont été caractérisés. Les deux amylases ont le même pH optimal 5,5 et la température optimale est de 65 °C pour l’α-amylase et 55 °C pour la β amylase. Par ailleurs, le gène de la β-amylase a été aussi étudié. Les résultats de la troisième partie des travaux ont montré la capacité des amylases du malt de sorgho à être utilisées dans des processus d’hydrolyse d’amidon (maïs et blé) et farines (blé et manioc). L’ajout d’ions calcium n’améliore pas significativement les rendements d’hydrolyse. Enfin, suite aux résultats obtenus, l’hydrolyse a été réalisée à plus grande échelle afin de produire des dextrines de différents DE. Les dextrines ont été analysées chimiquement et physicochimiquement pour déterminer leur composition en oligosaccharides et leurs propriétés physiques en vue de leur application dans les secteurs agroalimentaires. [less ▲]

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See detailHydrolysis of starches and flours by sorghum malt amylases for dextrins production
Ba, Khady ULg; Aguedo, Mario ULg; Tine, Emmanuel et al

in European Food Research & Technology (2013)

Corn and wheat starches as well as wheat and cassava flours were hydrolyzed using sorghum malt at 65 °C for 6 hours. During these reactions, dextrose equivalent (DE) values were followed under 3 ... [more ▼]

Corn and wheat starches as well as wheat and cassava flours were hydrolyzed using sorghum malt at 65 °C for 6 hours. During these reactions, dextrose equivalent (DE) values were followed under 3 concentrations of sorghum malt and of calcium chloride. Wheat flour presented the highest DE values and cassava flour had the highest hydrolysis yield. Thus, different dextrins were produced in a pilot plant and were analyzed by HPSEC and HPAEC-PAD for their molecular weight distribution and oligosaccharides composition respectively. The results indicated that oligosaccharides with broad molecular weight distributions were present in the dextrins produced and that the proportion of maltose was very high. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude comparative des composés phénoliques, du pouvoir antioxydant de différentes variétés de sorgho sénégalais et des enzymes amylolytiques de leur malt
Ba, Khady ULg; Tine, Emmanuel; Destain, Jacqueline ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2010), 14(1), 131-139

The study involved seven cultivars of white sorghum selected to ISRA Bambey and consumed in many regions of Senegal. Several characters and biochemical compounds of the grains (presence of pigmented testa ... [more ▼]

The study involved seven cultivars of white sorghum selected to ISRA Bambey and consumed in many regions of Senegal. Several characters and biochemical compounds of the grains (presence of pigmented testa, total phenols, condensed tannins and antioxidant activity) were determined in all cultivars. A three days malting was also carried out and amylolytic enzymes such as α-amylase, β-amylase and limit-dextrinase which are essential for a malt of good quality were proportioned. These enzymes are measured specifically with kits of Megazyme: Amylazyme (α-amylase), Betamyl (β-amylase) and Limit-Dextrizyme (limit-dextrinase). Two cultivars, CE 180-33 and CE 145-66 proved to be tannin sorghums, have the highest levels in total phenols and the most important antioxidant activities (ABTS and DPPH). The results of enzymatic analysis and the index of Kolbach indicated the F-2-20 like cultivar presenting the best potentialities for malt production [less ▲]

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See detailHydrolysis of starch by sorghum malt for maltodextrin production
Ba, Khady ULg; Destain, Jacqueline ULg; Thonart, Philippe ULg

Poster (2009, December 16)

Maltodextrin is a mixture of saccharides with a molecular weight between polysaccharides and oligosaccharides with DE lower than 20. Maltodextrin is more soluble in water than native starches, also is ... [more ▼]

Maltodextrin is a mixture of saccharides with a molecular weight between polysaccharides and oligosaccharides with DE lower than 20. Maltodextrin is more soluble in water than native starches, also is cheaper in comparison with other major edible hydrocolloids. Maltodextrin is obtained by moderate enzymatic or acidic hydrolysis of starch. The hydrolysis of starch, catalyzed by amylases, is the most important commercial enzyme process. The hydrolyzed products are widely applied in food, paper and textile industries. Because of the increasing demand for these enzymes in various industries, there is enormous interest in developing enzymes with better properties, such as raw starch-degrading amylases suitable for industrial applications and their cost-effective production techniques. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a widely grown crop in Africa. Obtaining enzymes from sorghum requires a transformation. The objective of this study was application of sorghum amylase for maltodextrin. Sorghum seeds were supplied by the ISRA (Bambey, Senegal). Seeds were germinated in the laboratory at 30°C for 72 h and the sorghum malt was dried at 40°C for 48 h. Corn starch (from Roquette, France) hydrolysis was assayed in a bioreactor of 2 l at a temperature of 65°C gently stirred. Raw starch was slurried in water (30% w/v) and sorghum malt was introduced, chloride calcium was added, pH was adjusted to 6. Maltodextrin was characterized in term of the dextrose equivalent (DE) during the hydrolysis. The yield of hydrolysis was evaluated by soluble solids (° BRIX) at different hydrolysis time. The glucose concentration released was measured by DNS method (Miller method). [less ▲]

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