References of "Andral, Bruno"
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See detailTrace metal speciation? An essential aspect of biomonitoring to avoid wrong conclusions
Richir, Jonathan ULg; Lepoint, Gilles ULg; Donnay, Annick et al

Poster (2015, September 29)

The Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is widely used as a bioindicator species in active monitoring surveys. As a filter feeder artificially maintained in the water column, it bioaccumulates ... [more ▼]

The Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is widely used as a bioindicator species in active monitoring surveys. As a filter feeder artificially maintained in the water column, it bioaccumulates trace metals from the surrounding water in their dissolved and particulate forms. However, most monitoring surveys don’t take into account that speciation aspect when studying trace metal accumulation kinetics in mussels. In the framework of the STARECAPMED project, we monitored trace metal concentrations in the flesh of mussels together with their “most bioavailable” dissolved and particulate fractions in the water column for almost 5 months (February-June 2011). Mussels were purchased from 2 little contaminated French shellfish farms (SARL Etang de Diane and ferme marine des Aresquiers), placed in several pouches to allow regular sampling, and immerged near the Oceanographic Research Station STARESO in the Calvi bay, northwestern Corsica. Mussels and water samples for suspended matter filtration were collected every week to two weeks, as were deployed DGTs. Seawater samples were filtered through 47 mm hydrophilic PTFE membrane filters with a 0.45 µm pore size until clogging. In the laboratory, mussel flesh and filters were digested in Teflon vessels with acids (HNO3/H202) in a closed microwave digestion lab station. DGT resins were eluted for 24h in 1.0 M HNO3. Trace metal concentrations (Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd, Pb) were measured by DRC-ICP-MS. Analytical accuracy was checked by analyzing CRMs. All the studied metals except Pb and Zn were present in the water column to over 80% in their dissolved form. The contribution of the dissolved pathway was thus likely to be predominant in the oligotrophic Calvi bay. Dissolved trace metals showed little temporal variability of their levels, likely resulting from the integration over time of their levels in the DGT probes and the lack of seasonality of this fraction. In contrast, Zn showed great variability of its particulate fraction during the survey. Such temporal variability was also observed for Cr, more abundant in its particulate form at the end of the survey, and for Mn and Pb that conversely tended to decrease. The dynamic of trace metals in the mussel flesh is regulated by the environmental bioavailability of dissolved and particulate metals, the ecophysiological status of mussels and the trophic conditions of the water body. In the oligotrophic Calvi bay, showing background contamination levels by metals, the trophic conditions played a major role once out of the spring plankton bloom. It led to the increase of metal concentrations measured in the flesh of mussels undergoing starvation. However, some metals such as Cu and Co displayed only little temporal variations of their concentrations, these essential micronutrients being well regulated. The combined study of trace metal bioavailability and mussel ecophysiology in defined environmental conditions allows discriminating against biotic and abiotic factors regulating contaminant uptake in mussels, thus avoiding wrong conclusions about the observed dynamics of the studied contaminants. Mussels are a good proxy of coastal water quality, but their proper use notably requires adjustment of raw contaminant concentrations with trophic status of monitored sites. [less ▲]

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See detailSeagrasses or caged mussels to bioassess the contamination rate of Mediterranean coastal waters? That is the question
Richir, Jonathan ULg; Galgani, François; Benedicto, José et al

in PeerJ (2015, May)

Biological indicators have the capacity to integrate the temporal changes of contaminants, concentrations or fluxes over various time-scales, and are thus considered as interesting tools for water quality ... [more ▼]

Biological indicators have the capacity to integrate the temporal changes of contaminants, concentrations or fluxes over various time-scales, and are thus considered as interesting tools for water quality biomonitoring. Since the mid-70ies, French programs have developed water monitoring approaches based on the use of bivalve molluscs; and recently the natural background and the extent of water contamination were bioassessed at the scale of the whole western Mediterranean. But even if bivalve molluscs are viewed as reliable bioindicators, their use is not always made easy as a result of their absence in numerous coastal regions that force their transplantation (cages) during several months before their sampling and analysis. This weakness led several scientists to evaluate the bioindicator abilities of other marine organisms. Seagrasses, whose ability to bioaccumulate contaminants proportionally to environmental contamination levels has been clearly demonstrated, have thus been proposed as an appropriate alternative tool for coastal water quality assessment. Very little studies have however so far considered the combined utilization of these two groups of bioindicator organisms, i.e. caged bivalve molluscs and seagrasses. In the framework of the STARECAPMED project, we therefore compared and discussed the bioaccumulation of trace elements in the Neptune grass Posidonia oceanica and in caged Mediterranean mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis. The sampling was performed at the scale of the western Mediterranean. The two species told two contamination stories which, although sometimes different, showed to be complementary. P. oceanica and M. galloprovincialis bioaccumulated dissolved trace elements from the water column and thus provided information regarding trace element contamination severity integrated over several days to a few months. Seagrasses, strongly rooted in the sediments, reflected the long-term exposure to trace elements since sediments offer a degree of time integration over several years to decades. Caged mussels, as filter feeder artificially maintained in the water column, bioaccumulated trace elements from their particulate phase, and therefore gave valuable information regarding continental-terrigenous inputs to coastal waters. In conclusion, seagrasses and mussels should neither supplant, nor substitute, but rather complement each other in order to provide the full time- and space-integrated coastal contamination story of the Mediterranean. [less ▲]

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See detailValidation de l’indice composition IC Medit dans des masses d’eau côtières méditerranéennes caractérisées par un gradient croissant d’eutrophisation
Goffart, Anne ULg; Andral, Bruno

Report (2014)

The aim of this study is to show the current status of the development and use of the new IC Medit phytoplankton composition index as a sub-metric within the phytoplankton quality element in assessing ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study is to show the current status of the development and use of the new IC Medit phytoplankton composition index as a sub-metric within the phytoplankton quality element in assessing phytoplankton quality in Mediterranean coastal waters. IC Medit uses pigment concentrations determined by HPLC for assessing phytoplankton composition. Focusing on coastal waters of Corsica, we (i) described the seasonal succession of the main phytoplankton groups in reference conditions, (ii) studied responses of phytoplankton groups to well identified drivers, (iii) assessed the shift of the seasonal succession of phytoplankton groups from the reference conditions in impacted areas, (iv) revealed pressure / impact relationships between nutrients and pigments, and (v) established guidelines for sampling and IC MEDIT implementation. IC Medit is an indicator that improves the information provided by chl a in relation to anthropogenic pressures. It provides useful information on water quality, and could be used for management purposes. Nevertheless, due to the lack of information about the relationship between phytoplankton composition and pressures in highly impacted areas, boundary conditions are still to be defined. This should be done in collaboration with statisticians. [less ▲]

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See detailRéseaux de surveillance DCE – Campagne 2012 – District « Corse »
Derolez, Valérie; Sargian, Peggy; Balbi, Yves et al

Report (2013)

Les programmes de surveillance liés à la mise en ╒uvre de la DCE sont coordonnés par le Ministère de l!Ecologie, du Développement Durable, des Transports et du Logement (MEDDTL). Dans chaque bassin ... [more ▼]

Les programmes de surveillance liés à la mise en ╒uvre de la DCE sont coordonnés par le Ministère de l!Ecologie, du Développement Durable, des Transports et du Logement (MEDDTL). Dans chaque bassin hydrographique ce sont les Agences de l!eau qui, avec l!Etat, prennent en charge l!application, la mise en ╒uvre de ces réseaux. Sur la façade méditerranéenne, Ifremer a assuré pour le compte du Schéma Directeur des Données sur l!Eau la maîtrise d!ouvrage de la troisième campagne du contrôle de surveillance, en coordonnant l!ensemble de l!acquisition des données et de leur synthèse en collaboration avec de nombreux partenaires : les Universités, des bureaux d!études, des structures locales de gestion et les services de l!Etat. Les résultats de cette troisième campagne de contrôles de surveillance DCE permettent d!avoir une bonne vision d!ensemble de la qualité des eaux littorales à l!échelle du district. Outre le suivi de la contamination chimique dans la matière vivante, cette campagne s!est enrichie d!un suivi dans la colonne d!eau avec l!utilisation d!échantillonneurs passifs. En eaux côtières, une seule masse d'eau est déclassée en raison de l'état chimique. Tous les éléments biologiques sont caractérisés par un très bon/bon état. Pour les eaux de transition, leur qualité biologique est déclassée par les macrophytes et/ou le phytoplancton. La classification officielle de l!état des masses d!eau du district se fera par le Système d!Evaluation de l!Etat des Eaux (SEEE), sous la responsabilité technique de l!Onema. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthèse des réseaux de surveillance soutenus par l’Agence de l’Eau Rhône Méditerranée Corse - eaux côtières de Méditerranée - juin 2013
Boissery, Pierre; Tomasino, Corinne; Giraud, Anaïs et al

Report (2013)

L’Agence de l’Eau Rhône Méditerranée Corse présente son premier atlas de la qualité des eaux marines issu des réseaux de surveillance des eaux côtières. Les résultats des mesures chimiques et biologiques ... [more ▼]

L’Agence de l’Eau Rhône Méditerranée Corse présente son premier atlas de la qualité des eaux marines issu des réseaux de surveillance des eaux côtières. Les résultats des mesures chimiques et biologiques, ainsi que l'analyse des pressions, montrent que les zones littorales et marines dégradées concernent 21% du linéaire méditerranéen et 19% de la mer, de la côte à 1 mille au large. Cette première édition regroupe les informations acquises sur la biologie (état de la faune, de la flore et de la biocénose), la chimie (contamination chimique, écotoxicologie et contamination de la chaîne trophique) et les pressions (activités de plaisance, usages en mer, rejets polluants et apports des cours d’eau côtiers) qui affectent le littoral. L'atlas couvre principalement la zone côtière mais il va s'étendre rapidement sur les eaux marines du large. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of the ecological status of P. oceanica meadow with a no destructive shoot method
Gobert, Sylvie ULg; Lejeune, Pierre ULg; Chéry, Aurélia et al

in Proceedings of the Mediterranean Seagrass Workshop 2012 (2012, June)

Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile is a protected species, included in the Red list of marine threatened species of the Mediterranean. Because of its sensitivity to disturbance, P. oceanica is used as a ... [more ▼]

Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile is a protected species, included in the Red list of marine threatened species of the Mediterranean. Because of its sensitivity to disturbance, P. oceanica is used as a bioindicator to define the health status of coastal waters. Monitoring methods generally require to sample plants, followed by measurements on picked shoots. This implies the total destruction of several tens of shoots. This study presents a method, “The Non Destructive Shoot Methodology”: NDSM, that permits the measurement of (1) the most used seagrass metrics, (2) the determination of C, N, P contents and (3) the measurement of the trace metal levels in P. oceanica leaves. Our technic has been firstly tested by comparison with the results obtained with classic method of biometry. Secondly, differences between levels of C, N, P and trace metals obtained with classic picking and our methodology were tested. Thirdly, the physiological consequences on the shoots were investigated (% of survival, growth, essential element contents (C, N, P, Fe, Cu...). The NDSM gives similar results to classic investigations to assess the ecological status of P. oceanica meadow (i.e. PREI, BiPO...) and avoid the uprooting of the “K-strategist” protected species. This methodology is usable in cases of monitoring and impact studies. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of the ecological status of Mediterranean French coastal waters as required by the Water Framework Directive using the Posidonia oceanica Rapid Easy Index: PREI
Gobert, Sylvie ULg; Sartoretto, Stéphane; Rico-Raimondino, Valérie et al

in Marine Pollution Bulletin (2009), 58

This paper describes the PREI (Posidonia oceanica Rapid Easy Index), a method used to assess the ecological status of seawater along Mediterranean French coasts. The PREI was drawn up according to the ... [more ▼]

This paper describes the PREI (Posidonia oceanica Rapid Easy Index), a method used to assess the ecological status of seawater along Mediterranean French coasts. The PREI was drawn up according to the requirements of the Water Framework Directive (WFD 2000/60/EC) and was tested on 24 and 18 stations in PACA (Provence-Alpes-Côtes d’Azur) and Corsica respectively. The PREI is based on five metrics: shoot density, shoot leaf surface area, E/L ratio (Epiphytic biomass/leaf biomass), depth of lower limit, and type of this lower limit. The 42 studied stations were classified in the first four levels of status: high, good, moderate and poor. The PREI values ranged between 0.280 and 0.847; this classification is in accordance with our field knowledge and with our knowledge of the literature. The PREI was validated regarding human pressure levels (r²= 0.74). (http://eurex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2000:327:0001:0072:EN:PDF) [less ▲]

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See detailDirective Cadre Eau: Mise en oeuvre du contrôle de surveillance - résultats de la campagne 2006 - district Corse
Boissery, Pierre; Andral, Bruno; Belin, Catherine et al

Report (2007)

Les programmes de surveillance liés à la mise en oeuvre de la DCE sont coordonnés par le Ministère de l’Ecologie et de l’Aménagement durable (MEDAD) et dans chaque bassin hydrographique ce sont les ... [more ▼]

Les programmes de surveillance liés à la mise en oeuvre de la DCE sont coordonnés par le Ministère de l’Ecologie et de l’Aménagement durable (MEDAD) et dans chaque bassin hydrographique ce sont les Agences de l’eau qui, avec l’Etat, prennent en charge l’application, la mise en oeuvre de ces réseaux. Sur la façade méditerranéenne, Ifremer a assuré pour le compte du Schéma Directeur des Données sur l’Eau la maîtrise d’ouvrage de la première campagne du contrôle de surveillance, en coordonnant l’ensemble de l’acquisition des données et de leur synthèse en collaboration avec de nombreux partenaires : Universités, bureaux d’études, structures locales de gestion et services de l’Etat. La mobilisation des différents acteurs autour d’un objectif commun a permis de faire face à la pluridisciplinarité et à la complexité des aspects logistiques de ce programme. Les résultats de cette première campagne du contrôle de surveillance (2006) permettent d’ores et déjà d’avoir une bonne vision d’ensemble de la qualité des eaux littorales à l’échelle du district. Ils confortent les évaluations faites « à dire d’expert » lors de l’état des lieux du district avec des informations nouvelles concernant plus particulièrement la biologie, notamment le benthos de substrat meuble. En eaux côtières, les eaux sont de bonne qualité. En eau de transition, essentiellement lagunaires, il existe une plus grande hétérogénéité des résultats avec des paramètres déclassant relevant plutôt de la biologie, mais sur un nombre important d’indicateurs. [less ▲]

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