References of "André, Cédric"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
See detailAudiovisual spatial congruence, and applications to 3D sound and stereoscopic video
André, Cédric ULg

Doctoral thesis (2014)

While 3D cinema is becoming increasingly established, little effort has focused on the general problem of producing a 3D sound scene spatially coherent with the visual content of a stereoscopic-3D (s-3D ... [more ▼]

While 3D cinema is becoming increasingly established, little effort has focused on the general problem of producing a 3D sound scene spatially coherent with the visual content of a stereoscopic-3D (s-3D) movie. The perceptual relevance of such spatial audiovisual coherence is of significant interest. In this thesis, we investigate the possibility of adding spatially accurate sound rendering to regular s-3D cinema. Our goal is to provide a perceptually matched sound source at the position of every object producing sound in the visual scene. We examine and contribute to the understanding of the usefulness and the feasibility of this combination. By usefulness, we mean that the technology should positively contribute to the experience, and in particular to the storytelling. In order to carry out experiments proving the usefulness, it is necessary to have an appropriate s-3D movie and its corresponding 3D audio soundtrack. We first present the procedure followed to obtain this joint 3D video and audio content from an existing animated s-3D movie, problems encountered, and some of the solutions employed. Second, as s-3D cinema aims at providing the spectator with a strong impression of being part of the movie (sense of presence), we investigate the impact of the spatial rendering quality of the soundtrack on the reported sense of presence. The short 3D audiovisual content is presented with three different soundtracks. These soundtracks differ by their spatial rendering quality, from stereo (low spatial coherence) to Wave Field Synthesis (WFS, high spatial coherence). The original stereo version serves as a reference. Results show that the sound condition does not impact on the sense of presence of all participants. However, participants can be classified according to three different levels of presence sensitivity with the sound condition impacting only on the highest level (12 out of 33 participants). Within this group, the spatially coherent soundtrack provides a lower reported sense of presence than the other custom soundtrack. The analysis of the participants' heart rate variability (HRV) shows that the frequency-domain parameters correlate to the reported presence scores. By feasibility, we mean that a large portion of the spectators in the audience should benefit from this new technology. In this thesis, we explain why the combination of accurate sound positioning and stereoscopic-3D images can lead to an incongruence between the sound and the image for multiple spectators. Then, we adapt to s-3D viewing a method originally proposed for 2D images in the literature to reduce this error. Finally, a subjective experiment is carried out to prove the efficiency of the method. In this experiment, an angular error between an s-3D video and a spatially accurate sound reproduced through WFS is simulated. The psychometric curve is measured with the method of constant stimuli, and the threshold for bimodal integration is estimated. The impact of the presence of background noise is also investigated. A comparison is made between the case without any background noise and the case with an SNR of 4 dBA. Estimates of the thresholds and the slopes, as well as their confidence intervals, are obtained for each level of background noise. When background noise is present, the point of subjective equality (PSE) is higher (19.4° instead of 18.3°) and the slope is steeper (-0.077 instead of -0.062 per degree). Because of the overlap between the confidence intervals, however, it is not possible to statistically differentiate between the two levels of noise. The implications for the sound reproduction in a cinema theater are discussed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 92 (25 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSubjective Evaluation of the Audiovisual Spatial Congruence in the Case of Stereoscopic-3D Video and Wave Field Synthesis
André, Cédric ULg; Corteel, Etienne; Embrechts, Jean-Jacques ULg et al

in International Journal of Human-Computer Studies (2014), 72(1), 23-32

While 3D cinema is becoming increasingly established, little effort has focused on the general problem of producing a 3D sound scene spatially coherent with the visual content of a stereoscopic-3D (s-3D ... [more ▼]

While 3D cinema is becoming increasingly established, little effort has focused on the general problem of producing a 3D sound scene spatially coherent with the visual content of a stereoscopic-3D (s-3D) movie. The perceptual relevance of such spatial audiovisual coherence is of significant interest. In this paper, a subjective experiment is carried out where an angular error between an s-3D video and a spatially accurate sound reproduced through Wave Field Synthesis (WFS) is simulated. The psychometric curve is measured with the method of constant stimuli, and the threshold for bimodal integration is estimated. The impact of the presence of background noise is also investigated. A comparison is made between the case without any background noise and the case with an SNR of 4 dB(A). Estimates of the thresholds and the slopes, as well as their confidence intervals, are obtained for each level of background noise. When background noise was present, the point of subjective equality (PSE) was higher (19.4° instead of 18.3°) and the slope was steeper (-0.077 instead of -0.062 per degree). Because of the overlap between the confidence intervals, however, it was not possible to statistically differentiate between the two levels of noise. The implications for the sound reproduction in a cinema theater are discussed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 110 (19 ULg)
Full Text
See detailLes avatars de la 3D : Quand le son passe à la dimension supérieure
André, Cédric ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2013)

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (7 ULg)
Full Text
See detailSpatialisation sonore précise pour le cinéma 3D
André, Cédric ULg

Speech (2013)

Detailed reference viewed: 54 (9 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSound for 3D Cinema and the Sense of Presence
André, Cédric ULg; Embrechts, Jean-Jacques ULg; Verly, Jacques ULg et al

in Nees, Michael A.; Walker, Bruce N.; Freeman, Jason (Eds.) Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Auditory Display (2012, June 18)

While 3D cinema is becoming more and more established, little effort has focused on the general problem of producing a 3D sound scene spatially coherent with the visual content of a stereoscopic-3D (s-3D ... [more ▼]

While 3D cinema is becoming more and more established, little effort has focused on the general problem of producing a 3D sound scene spatially coherent with the visual content of a stereoscopic-3D (s-3D) movie. As 3D cinema aims at providing the spectator with a strong im- pression of being part of the movie (sense of presence), the perceptual relevance of such spatial audiovisual coherence is of significant interest. Previous research has shown that the addition of stereoscopic informa- tion to a movie increases the sense of presence reported by the spectator. In this paper, a coherent spatial sound rendering is added to an s-3D movie and its impact on the reported sense of presence is investigated. A short clip of an existing movie is presented with three different sound- tracks. These soundtracks differ by their spatial rendering quality, from stereo (low spatial coherence) to Wave Field Synthesis (WFS, high spatial coherence). The original stereo version serves as a reference. Results show that the sound condition does not impact on the sense of presence of all participants. However, participants can be classified according to three different levels of presence sensitivity with the sound condition impacting only on the highest level (12 out of 33 participants). Within this group, the spatially coherent soundtrack provides a lower reported sense of presence than the other custom soundtrack. The analysis of the participants’ heart rate variability (HRV) shows that the frequency-domain parameters correlate to the reported presence scores. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 66 (26 ULg)
See detailObject-Based Sound Re-Mix for Spatially Coherent Audio Rendering of an Existing Stereoscopic-3D Animation Movie
Evrard, Marc ULg; André, Cédric ULg; Verly, Jacques ULg et al

Conference (2011, October 20)

While 3D cinema is becoming more established, little effort has focused on the general problem of producing a 3D sound scene spatially coherent with the visual content of a stereoscopic-3D (s-3D) movie ... [more ▼]

While 3D cinema is becoming more established, little effort has focused on the general problem of producing a 3D sound scene spatially coherent with the visual content of a stereoscopic-3D (s-3D) movie. The perceptual relevance of such spatial audiovisual coherence is of significant interest. In order to carry out such experiments, it is necessary to have an appropriate s-3D movie and its corresponding 3D audio track. This paper presents the procedure followed to obtain this joint 3D video and audio content from an existing animated s-3D film, problems encountered, and some of the solutions employed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 66 (15 ULg)
Full Text
See detail3D Audio Acquisition and Reproduction Systems
Evrard, Marc ULg; André, Cédric ULg; Embrechts, Jean-Jacques ULg et al

Scientific conference (2011, February 23)

This presentation introduces two different research projects dealing with 3D audio for 3D-stereoscopic movies. The first project “3D audio acquisition for real time applications” studies the best method ... [more ▼]

This presentation introduces two different research projects dealing with 3D audio for 3D-stereoscopic movies. The first project “3D audio acquisition for real time applications” studies the best method for acquiring a full 3D audio soundscape on location and for processing it in real-time for further reproduction. The second project “Adding 3D sound to 3D cinema” is aimed towards the study of reproducing a 3D soundscape consistent with the visual content of a 3D-stereoscopic movie. These projects are linked together since they present both ends of the 3D audio chain. They are conducted as part of the “MEDIATIC – 3D MEDIA” project, which concerns the production, the processing, and the exploitation of rich audiovisual content, with a specific focus on 3D video imagery. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 136 (12 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAdding 3D Sound to 3D Cinema: Identification and Evaluation of Different Reproduction Techniques
André, Cédric ULg; Embrechts, Jean-Jacques ULg; Verly, Jacques ULg

in Audio Language and Image Processing (ICALIP), 2010 International Conference on (2010, November 24)

Very little research has been conducted so far into the general problem of producing a 3D soundscape consistent with the visual content of a 3D-stereoscopic movie. First, the following 3D sound ... [more ▼]

Very little research has been conducted so far into the general problem of producing a 3D soundscape consistent with the visual content of a 3D-stereoscopic movie. First, the following 3D sound reproduction techniques are reviewed: Vector Base Amplitude Panning (VBAP), binaural and transaural techniques, Wave Field Synthesis (WFS) and Ambisonics. Second, the new challenges of 3D cinema are introduced. Third, we reconsider each 3D audio technique in the light of these challenges. We find that, at least in theory, a completely personalized soundscape is needed and that, due to various technical reasons, only binaural reproduction through headphones is able to accurately produce a 3D soundscape consistent with a 3D-stereo movie in a theater environment. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 175 (42 ULg)
Full Text
See detailZotero | The next-generation research tool
André, Cédric ULg

Diverse speeche and writing (2010)

Zotero [zoh-TAIR-oh] is a free, easy-to-use Firefox extension to help you collect, manage, cite, and share your research sources. It lives right where you do your work—in the web browser itself.

Detailed reference viewed: 116 (22 ULg)
See detailAdding sound to movies: Historical trends and new challenges of 3D cinema
André, Cédric ULg; Embrechts, Jean-Jacques ULg; Verly, Jacques ULg

Conference (2009, December 03)

Very little research has been done so far in producing 3D sound and audio that are consistent with the 3D stereo video being viewed by the spectator. After a review of the currently used techniques for ... [more ▼]

Very little research has been done so far in producing 3D sound and audio that are consistent with the 3D stereo video being viewed by the spectator. After a review of the currently used techniques for theater sound reproduction, this talk presents new challenges of 3D cinema in terms of sound reproduction and analyse which known 3D audio techniques are able to tackle those challenges. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 153 (29 ULg)