References of "Ajello, Joseph M"
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See detailCassini UVIS observations of Titan nightglow spectra
Ajello, Joseph M.; West, Robert A.; Gustin, Jacques ULg et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics (2012), 117

In this paper we present the first nightside EUV and FUV airglow limb spectra of Titan showing molecular emissions. The Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) observed photon emissions of Titan's ... [more ▼]

In this paper we present the first nightside EUV and FUV airglow limb spectra of Titan showing molecular emissions. The Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) observed photon emissions of Titan's day and night limb-airglow and disk-airglow on multiple occasions, including during an eclipse observation. The 71 airglow observations analyzed in this paper show EUV (600-1150 Å) and FUV (1150-1900 Å) atomic multiplet lines and band emissions arising from either photoelectron induced fluorescence and solar photo-fragmentation of molecular nitrogen (N[SUB]2[/SUB]) or excitation by magnetosphere plasma. The altitude of the peak UV emissions on the limb during daylight occurred inside the thermosphere at the altitude of the topside ionosphere (near 1000 km altitude). However, at night on the limb, a subset of emission features, much weaker in intensity, arise in the atmosphere with two different geometries. First, there is a twilight photoelectron-excited glow that persists with solar depression angle up to 25-30 degrees past the terminator, until the solar XUV shadow height passes the altitude of the topside ionosphere (1000-1200 km). The UV twilight glow spectrum is similar to the dayglow but weaker in intensity. Second, beyond 120° solar zenith angle, when the upper atmosphere of Titan is in total XUV darkness, there is indication of weak and sporadic nightside UV airglow emissions excited by magnetosphere plasma collisions with ambient thermosphere gas, with similar N[SUB]2[/SUB] excited features as above in the daylight or twilight glow over an extended altitude range. [less ▲]

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See detailThe production of Titan's ultraviolet nitrogen airglow
Stevens, Michael H; Gustin, Jacques ULg; Ajello, Joseph M et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics (2011), 116

The Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) observed Titan's dayside limb in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and far ultraviolet (FUV) on 22 June 2009 from a mean distance of 23 Titan radii. These ... [more ▼]

The Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) observed Titan's dayside limb in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and far ultraviolet (FUV) on 22 June 2009 from a mean distance of 23 Titan radii. These high-quality observations reveal the same EUV and FUV emissions arising from photoelectron excitation and photofragmentation of molecular nitrogen (N[SUB]2[/SUB]) as found on Earth. We investigate both of these solar driven processes with a terrestrial airglow model adapted to Titan and find that total predicted radiances for the two brightest N[SUB]2[/SUB] band systems agree with the observed peak radiances to within 5%. Using N[SUB]2[/SUB] densities constrained from in situ observations by the Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer on Cassini, the altitude of the observed limb peak of the EUV and FUV emission bands is between 840 and 1060 km and generally consistent with model predictions. We find no evidence for carbon emissions in Titan's FUV airglow in contrast to previous Titan airglow studies using UVIS data. In their place, we identify several vibrational bands from the N[SUB]2[/SUB] Vegard-Kaplan system arising from photoelectron impact with predicted peak radiances in agreement with observations. These Titan UV airglow observations are therefore comprised of emissions arising only from solar processes on N[SUB]2[/SUB] with no detectable magnetospheric contribution. Weaker EUV Carroll-Yoshino N[SUB]2[/SUB] bands within the v′ = 3, 4, and 6 progressions between 870 and 1020 Å are underpredicted by about a factor of five while the (0,1) band near 980 Å is overpredicted by about a factor of three. [less ▲]

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See detailThe auroral footprint of Enceladus on Saturn
Pryor, Wayne R; Rymer, Abigail M; Mitchell, Donald G et al

in Nature (2011), 472

Although there are substantial differences between the magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn, it has been suggested that cryovolcanic activity at Enceladus could lead to electrodynamic coupling between ... [more ▼]

Although there are substantial differences between the magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn, it has been suggested that cryovolcanic activity at Enceladus could lead to electrodynamic coupling between Enceladus and Saturn like that which links Jupiter with Io, Europa and Ganymede. Powerful field-aligned electron beams associated with the Io-Jupiter coupling, for example, create an auroral footprint in Jupiter's ionosphere. Auroral ultraviolet emission associated with Enceladus-Saturn coupling is anticipated to be just a few tenths of a kilorayleigh (ref. 12), about an order of magnitude dimmer than Io's footprint and below the observable threshold, consistent with its non-detection. Here we report the detection of magnetic-field-aligned ion and electron beams (offset several moon radii downstream from Enceladus) with sufficient power to stimulate detectable aurora, and the subsequent discovery of Enceladus-associated aurora in a few per cent of the scans of the moon's footprint. The footprint varies in emission magnitude more than can plausibly be explained by changes in magnetospheric parameters--and as such is probably indicative of variable plume activity. [less ▲]

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See detailTitan airglow spectra from the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph: FUV disk analysis
Ajello, Joseph M.; Gustin, Jacques ULg; Stewart, Ian et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2008)

We present a spectral analysis of the far ultraviolet (FUV: 1150–1900 A ° ) disk airglow observations of Titan’s atmosphere by the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS). The FUV spectrum ... [more ▼]

We present a spectral analysis of the far ultraviolet (FUV: 1150–1900 A ° ) disk airglow observations of Titan’s atmosphere by the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS). The FUV spectrum consists of emissions from the Lyman-Birge-Hopfield (LBH) band system of N2 excited by photoelectrons (a 1Pg ! X 1Sg+), N I multiplets from solar photodissociative excitation of N2, resonantly scattered solar H Ly-a and sunlight reflected by N2 in the mesosphere-stratosphere and modified by aerosols (e.g.,tholins) and hydrocarbon absorption. Below 1450 A, the strongest emissions arise from H Ly-a with an intensity of 208 Rayleighs (R), LBH bands with an intensity of 43 R, and the N I multiplets with a combined intensity of 16 R. Above 1450 A , most of the UVIS signal is due to reflected sunlight. Mixing ratios of tholins, C2H2, C2H4 and C4H2 have been derived from the reflected sunlight using a Rayleigh scattering model. The derived mixing ratios are in good agreement with Voyager infrared observations and with FUV photochemical models, assuming solar energy deposition above 1450 A occurs near 250 km (Wilson and Atreya, 2004). We also present the first geometric albedo measurement of Titan from 1500–1900 A [less ▲]

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See detailTitan airglow spectra from Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS): EUV analysis
Ajello, Joseph M.; Stevens, Michael H.; Stewart, Ian et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2007), 34

We present the first UV airglow observations of Titan's atmosphere by the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) on Cassini. Using one spectral channel in the EUV from 561-1182 Å and one in the FUV from ... [more ▼]

We present the first UV airglow observations of Titan's atmosphere by the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) on Cassini. Using one spectral channel in the EUV from 561-1182 Å and one in the FUV from 1115-1913 Å, UVIS observed the disk on 13 December, 2004 at low solar activity. The EUV spectrum consists of three band systems of N[SUB]2[/SUB] (b [SUP]1[/SUP]∏[SUB]u[/SUB], b' [SUP]1[/SUP]∑[SUB]u[/SUB] [SUP]+[/SUP], c[SUB]4[/SUB]' [SUP]1[/SUP]∑[SUB]u[/SUB] [SUP]+[/SUP] -> X [SUP]1[/SUP]∑[SUB]g[/SUB] [SUP]+[/SUP]), while the FUV spectrum consists of one (a [SUP]1[/SUP]∏[SUB]g[/SUB] -> X [SUP]1[/SUP]∑[SUB]g[/SUB] [SUP]+[/SUP]). Both the EUV and FUV spectra contain many N I and N II multiplets that are produced primarily by photodissociative ionization. Spectral intensities of the N[SUB]2[/SUB] c[SUB]4[/SUB]' [SUP]1[/SUP]∑[SUB]u[/SUB] [SUP]+[/SUP](v' = 0) -> X [SUP]1[/SUP]∑[SUB]g[/SUB] [SUP]+[/SUP](v'' = 0-2) progression from 950-1010 Å are resolved for the first time. The UVIS observations reveal that the c[SUB]4[/SUB]' [SUP]1[/SUP]∑[SUB]u[/SUB] [SUP]+[/SUP](0) -> X [SUP]1[/SUP]∑[SUB]g[/SUB] [SUP]+[/SUP] (0) vibrational band near 958 Å is weak and undetectable, and that N I multiplets near 953.2 and 964.5 Å are present instead. Magnetospheric particle excitation may be weak or sporadic, since the nightside EUV spectrum on this orbit shows no observable nitrogen emission features and only H Ly-β. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Cassini Campaign observations of the Jupiter aurora by the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph and the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph
Ajello, Joseph M.; Pryor, Wayne; Esposito, Larry et al

in Icarus (2005), 178(2), 327-345

We have analyzed the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging, Spectrometer (UVIS) observations of the Jupiter aurora with an auroral atmosphere two-stream electron transport code. The observations Of Jupiter by UVIS ... [more ▼]

We have analyzed the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging, Spectrometer (UVIS) observations of the Jupiter aurora with an auroral atmosphere two-stream electron transport code. The observations Of Jupiter by UVIS took place during the Cassini Campaign. The Cassini Campaign included Support spectral and imaging observations by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). A major result for the UVIS observations was the identification of a large color variation between the far ultraviolet (FUV: 1100-1700 angstrom) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV: 800-1100 angstrom) spectral regions. This change probably occurs because of a large variation in the ratio of the soft electron flux (10-3000 eV) responsible for the EUV aurora to the hard electron flux (similar to 15-22 keV) responsible for the FUV aurora. On the basis of this result a new color ratio for integrated intensities for EUV and FUV was defined (4 pi I1550-1620 angstrom/4 pi I (1030-1150 angstrom)) which varied by approximately a factor of 6. The FUV color ratio (4 pi I (1550-1620) angstrom/4 pi (1230-1300) (angstrom)) was note stable with a variation of less than 50% for the observations studied. The medium resolution (0.9 angstrom FWHM, G140M grating) FUV observations (1295-1345 angstrom and 1495-1540 angstrom) by STIS on 13 January 2001, on the other hand, were analyzed by a spectral modeling technique using a recently developed high-spectral resolution model for the electron-excited H-2 rotational lines. The STIS FUV data were analyzed with a model that considered the Lyman band spectrum (B (1) Sigma(u)(+) -> X-1 Sigma(g)(+)) as composed of an allowed direct excitation component (X-1 Sigma(g)(+) B-1 (+)(Sigma u)) and an optically forbidden component (X-1 Sigma(g)(+) -> EF, GK, H (H) over bar,.... (1)Sigma(u)(+) followed by the cascade transition (1)Sigma -> B-1 Sigma(u)(+)). The medium-resolution spectral regions for the Jupiter aurora were carefully chosen to emphasize the cascade component. The ratio of the two components is a direct measurement of the mean secondary electron energy of the aurora. The mean secondary electron energy of the aurora varies between 50 and 200 eV for the polar cap, limb and auroral oval observations. We examine a long time base of Galileo Ultraviolet Spectrometer color ratios from the standard mission (1996-1998) and compare them to Cassini UVIS, HST, and International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observations. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailCassini UVIS observations of Jupiter's auroral variability
Pryor, Wayne R.; Stewart, A. Ian F.; Esposito, Larry W. et al

in Icarus: International Journal of Solar System Studies (2005), 178(2), 312-326

The Cassini spacecraft Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) obtained observations of Jupiter's auroral emissions in H-2 band systems and H Lyman-alpha from day 275 of 2000 (October 1), to day 81 of ... [more ▼]

The Cassini spacecraft Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) obtained observations of Jupiter's auroral emissions in H-2 band systems and H Lyman-alpha from day 275 of 2000 (October 1), to day 81 of 2001 (March 22). Much of the globally integrated auroral variability measured with UVIS can be explained simply in terms of the rotation of Jupiter's main auroral arcs with the planet. These arcs were also imaged by the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on Hubble Space Telescope (HST). However, several brightening events were seen by UVIS in which the global auroral output increased by a factor of 2-4. These events persisted over a number of hours and in one case can clearly be tied to a large solar coronal mass ejection event. The auroral UV emissions from these bursts also correspond to hectometric radio emission (0.5-16 MHz) increases reported by the Galileo Plasma Wave Spectrometer (PWS) and Cassim Radio and Plasma Wave Spectrometer (RPWS) experiments. In general, the hectometric radio data vary differently with longitude than the UV data because of radio wave beaming effects. The 2 largest events in the UVIS data were on 2000 day 280 (October 6) and on 2000 days 325-326 (November 20-21). The global brightening events on November 20-21 are compared with corresponding data on the interplanetary magnetic field, solar wind conditions, and energetic particle environment. ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer) solar wind data was numerically propagated from the Earth to Jupiter with an MHD code and compared to the observed event. A second class of brief auroral brightening events seen in HST (and probably UVIS) data that last for similar to 2 min is associated with aurora] flares inside the main auroral ovals. On January 8, 2001, from 18:45-19:35 UT UVIS H-2 band emissions from the north polar region varied quasiperiodically. The varying emissions, probably due to amoral flares inside the main auroral oval, are correlated with low-frequency quasiperiodic radio bursts in the 0.6-5 kHz Galileo PWS data. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailJovian auroral spectroscopy with FUSE: analysis of self-absorption and implications for electron precipitation
Gustin, Jacques ULg; Feldman, Paul D.; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg et al

in Icarus: International Journal of Solar System Studies (2004), 171(2), 336-355

High-resolution (similar to 0.22 Angstrom) spectra of the north jovian aurora were obtained in the 905-1180 Angstrom window with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) on October 28, 2000. The ... [more ▼]

High-resolution (similar to 0.22 Angstrom) spectra of the north jovian aurora were obtained in the 905-1180 Angstrom window with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) on October 28, 2000. The FUSE instrument resolves the rotational structure of the H-2 spectra and the spectral range allows the study of self-absorption. Below 1100 Angstrom, transitions connecting to the upsilon" less than or equal to 2 levels of the H-2 ground state are partially or totally absorbed by the overlying H2 molecules. The FUSE spectra provide information on the overlying H2 column and on the vibrational distribution of H-2. Transitions from high-energy H-2 Rydberg states and treatment of self-absorption are considered in our synthetic spectral generator. We show comparisons between synthetic and observed spectra in the 920-970, 1030-1080, and 1090-1180 Angstrom spectral windows. In a first approach (single-layer model), the synthetic spectra are venerated in a thin emitting layer and the emerging photons are absorbed by a layer located above the source. It is found that the parameters of the single-layer model best fitting the three spectral windows are 850, 800, and 800 K respectively for the H-2 gas temperature and 1.3 x 10(18), 1.5 x 10(20), and 1.3 x 10(20) cm(-2) for the H-2 self-absorbing vertical column respectively. Comparison between the H-2 column and a 1-D atmospheric model indicates that the short-wavelength FUV auroral emission originates from just above the homopause. This is confirmed by the high H-2 rovibrational temperatures, close to those deduced from spectral analyses of H-3(+) auroral emission. In a second approach, the synthetic spectral generator is coupled with a vertically distributed 3 energy degradation model, where the only input is the energy distribution of incoming electrons (multi-layer model). The model that best fits globally the three FUSE spectra is a sum of Maxwellian functions, with characteristic energies ranging from 1 to 100 keV, giving rise to an emission peak located at 5 mubar, that is similar to 100 km below the methane homopause. This multi-layer model is also applied to a re-analysis of the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT) auroral spectrum and accounts for the H2 self-absorption as well as the methane absorption. It is found that no additional discrete soft electron precipitation is necessary to fit either the FUSE or the HUT observations. (C) 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailUltraviolet emissions from the magnetic footprints of Io, Ganymede and Europa on Jupiter
Clarke, J. T.; Ajello, Joseph M.; Ballester, G. et al

in Nature (2002), 415(6875), 997-1000

Io leaves a magnetic footprint on Jupiter's upper atmosphere that appears as a spot of ultraviolet emission that remains fixed underneath Io as Jupiter rotates(1-3). The specific physical mechanisms ... [more ▼]

Io leaves a magnetic footprint on Jupiter's upper atmosphere that appears as a spot of ultraviolet emission that remains fixed underneath Io as Jupiter rotates(1-3). The specific physical mechanisms responsible for generating those emissions are not well understood, but in general the spot seems to arise because of an electromagnetic interaction between Jupiter's magnetic field and the plasma surrounding Io, driving currents of around 1 million amperes down through Jupiter's ionosphere(4-6). The other galilean satellites may also leave footprints, and the presence or absence of such footprints should illuminate the underlying physical mechanism by revealing the strengths of the currents linking the satellites to Jupiter. Here we report persistent, faint, far-ultraviolet emission from the jovian footprints of Ganymede and Europa. We also show that Io's magnetic footprint extends well beyond the immediate vicinity of Io's flux-tube interaction with Jupiter, and much farther than predicted theoretically(4-6); the emission persists for several hours downstream. We infer from these data that Ganymede and Europa have persistent interactions with Jupiter's magnetic field despite their thin atmospheres. [less ▲]

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See detailSpectroscopic evidence for high-altitude Aurora at Jupiter from Galileo Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope observations
Ajello, Joseph M.; Shemansky, D. E.; Pryor, Wayne R. et al

in Icarus: International Journal of Solar System Studies (2001), 152(1), 151-171

The Galileo Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer (EUVS) and the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT) acquired UV spectra of Jupiter Aurora in the period from 1995 through 1997, The EUVS spectra spanned the ... [more ▼]

The Galileo Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer (EUVS) and the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT) acquired UV spectra of Jupiter Aurora in the period from 1995 through 1997, The EUVS spectra spanned the wavelength range 540-1280 Angstrom and the HUT spectra measured the extreme ultraviolet and far ultraviolet (EUV + FUV) wavelength range 830-1850 Angstrom. Both sets of spectra present evidence of high-altitude, optically thin H-2 band emissions from the exobase region, The analysis of the UV spectra with a two-stream electron transport model and a jovian model auroral atmosphere indicates that the primary electron flux is composed of both soft and hard electrons with characteristic energies in the soft electron energy range of 20-200 eV and the hard electron range of 5-100 keV, The soft electron flux causes enhanced EUV emission intensities below 1100 Angstrom. The soft electron flux may explain the high temperature of the upper atmosphere above the homopause as measured from Il: rovibrational temperatures in the IR. For the deep aurora, a high primary characteristic energy above 5 keV is known to be present. The Galileo Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) has measured the electron distribution functions for energies above 15 keV in the middle magnetosphere. The high-energy distribution functions can be modeled by a combination of Maxwellian and kappa distributions. However, the EUV (800-1200 Angstrom) portion of the HUT spectrum cannot be modeled with a single distribution of hard electrons as was possible in the past for the FUV (1200-1650 Angstrom) spectrum measured by itself, The combination of EUV and FUV spectral observations by HUT serves to identify the amount of soft electron flux relative to the hard primary flux required to produce the high-altitude aurora in the neighborhood of the exobase, (C) tool academic Press. [less ▲]

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