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See detailThe XMM-LSS survey: optical assessment and properties of different X-ray selected cluster classes
Adami, C.; Mazure, A.; Pierre, M. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2011), 526(A18), 36

XMM and Chandra opened a new area for the study of clusters of galaxies. Not only for cluster physics but also, for the detection of faint and distant clusters that were inaccessible with previous ... [more ▼]

XMM and Chandra opened a new area for the study of clusters of galaxies. Not only for cluster physics but also, for the detection of faint and distant clusters that were inaccessible with previous missions. This article presents 66 spectroscopically confirmed clusters (0.05<z<1.5) within an area of 6 deg2 enclosed in the XMM-LSS survey. Almost two thirds have been confirmed with dedicated spectroscopy only and 10% have been confirmed with dedicated spectroscopy supplemented by literature redshifts. Sub-samples, or classes, of extended-sources are defined in a two-dimensional X-ray parameter space allowing for various degrees of completeness and contamination. We describe the procedure developed to assess the reality of these cluster candidates using the CFHTLS photometric data and spectroscopic information from our own follow-up campaigns. Most of these objects are low mass clusters, hence constituting a still poorly studied population. In a second step, we quantify correlations between the optical properties such as richness or velocity dispersion and the cluster X-ray luminosities. We examine the relation of the clusters to the cosmic web. Finally, we review peculiar structures in the surveyed area like very distant clusters and fossil groups. [less ▲]

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See detailThe XMM-LSS survey: the Class 1 cluster sample over the initial 5 deg(2) and its cosmological modelling
Pacaud, F.; Pierre, M.; Adami, C. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2007), 382(3), 1289-1308

We present a sample of 29 galaxy clusters from the XMM-LSS survey over an area of some 5 deg(2) out to a redshift of z = 1.05. The sample clusters, which represent about half of the X-ray clusters ... [more ▼]

We present a sample of 29 galaxy clusters from the XMM-LSS survey over an area of some 5 deg(2) out to a redshift of z = 1.05. The sample clusters, which represent about half of the X-ray clusters identified in the region, follow well-defined X-ray selection criteria and are all spectroscopically confirmed. For all clusters, we provide X-ray luminosities and temperatures as well as masses, obtained from dedicated spatial and spectral fitting. The cluster distribution peaks around z = 0.3 and T = 1.5 keV, half of the objects being groups with a temperature below 2 keV. Our L-X-T(z) relation points towards self-similar evolution, but does not exclude other physically plausible models. Assuming that cluster scaling laws follow self-similar evolution, our number density estimates up to z = 1 are compatible with the predictions of the concordance cosmology and with the findings of previous ROSAT surveys. Our well-monitored selection function allowed us to demonstrate that the inclusion of selection effects is essential for the correct determination of the evolution of the L-X-T relation, which may explain the contradictory results from previous studies. Extensive simulations show that extending the survey area to 10 deg(2) has the potential to exclude the non-evolution hypothesis, but those constraints on more refined intracluster medium models will probably be limited by the large intrinsic dispersion of the L-X-T relation, whatever be the sample size. We further demonstrate that increasing the dispersion in the scaling laws increases the number of detectable clusters, hence generating further degeneracy [in addition to sigma(8), Omega(m), L-X-T(z)] in the cosmological interpretation of the cluster number counts. We provide useful empirical formulae for the cluster mass-flux and mass-count rate relations as well as a comparison between the XMM-LSS mass sensitivity and that of forthcoming Sunyaev-Zel'dovich surveys. [less ▲]

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See detailThe XMM-Large scale structure catalogue: X-ray sources and associated optical data. Version I
Pierre, M.; Chiappetti, L.; Pacaud, F. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2007), 382(1), 279-290

Following the presentation of the XMM-Large Scale Structure (XMM-LSS) survey X-ray source detection package by Pacaud et al., we provide the source lists for the first surveyed 5.5 deg(2). The catalogues ... [more ▼]

Following the presentation of the XMM-Large Scale Structure (XMM-LSS) survey X-ray source detection package by Pacaud et al., we provide the source lists for the first surveyed 5.5 deg(2). The catalogues pertain to the [0.5-2] and [2-10] keV bands and contain in total 3385 pointlike or extended sources above a detection likelihood of 15 in either band. The agreement with deep log N-log S is excellent. The main parameters considered are position, count rate, source extent with associated likelihood values. A set of additional quantities such as astrometric corrections and fluxes are further calculated while errors on the position and count rate are deduced from simulations. We describe the construction of the band-merged catalogue allowing rapid subsample selection and easy cross-correlation with external multiwavelength catalogues. A small optical Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey multiband subset of objects are associated with each source along with an X-ray/optical overlay. We make the full X-ray images available in FITS format. The data are available at the Centre de Donnees de Strasbourg and, in a more extended form, at the Milan XMM-LSS survey data base. [less ▲]

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See detailXMM-LSS catalogue. Version I. (Pierre+, 2007)
Pierre, M.; Chiappetti, L.; Pacaud, F. et al

Textual, factual or bibliographical database (2007)

We provide the source list for the first 5.5 surveyed square degrees of the XMM-LSS, with a total of 3385 point-like or extended sources above a detection likelihood of 15 in either 0.5-2 or 2-10keV bands ... [more ▼]

We provide the source list for the first 5.5 surveyed square degrees of the XMM-LSS, with a total of 3385 point-like or extended sources above a detection likelihood of 15 in either 0.5-2 or 2-10keV bands. The table at CDS contains the main parameters, while further parameters and data products (X-ray images and optical thumbnails) are available in the Milan XMM-LSS database site. (1 data file). [less ▲]

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See detailStructure detection in the D1 CFHTLS deep field using accurate photometric redshifts: a benchmark
Mazure, A.; Adami, C.; Pierre, M. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2007), 467(1), 49-62

Aims. We investigate structures in the D1 CFHTLS deep field to test the method that will be applied to generate homogeneous samples of clusters and groups of galaxies in order to constrain the cosmology ... [more ▼]

Aims. We investigate structures in the D1 CFHTLS deep field to test the method that will be applied to generate homogeneous samples of clusters and groups of galaxies in order to constrain the cosmology and detailed physics of groups and clusters. Methods. An adaptive kernel technique was applied to galaxy catalogues. This technique needs none of the usual a-priori assumptions ( luminosity function, density profile, colour of galaxies) made with other methods. Its main drawback ( decrease in efficiency with increasing background) is overcome by the use of narrow slices in photometric redshift space. There are two main concerns in structure detection. One is false detection and the second, the evaluation of the selection function in particular if one wants complete samples. We deal with the first concern using random distributions. For the second, comparison with detailed simulations is foreseen but we used a pragmatic approach by comparing our results to GalICS simulations to check that our detection number is not totally at odds with cosmological simulations. We used the XMM-LSS survey and secured VVDS redshifts up to z similar to 1 to check individual detections. Results. We show that our detection method is basically able to recover 100% of the C1 XMM-LSS X-ray detections ( in the regions in common) in the correct redshift range plus several other candidates. Moreover, when spectroscopic data are available, we confirm our detections, even those without X-ray data. [less ▲]

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See detailThe XMM Large-Scale Structure survey: a well-controlled X-ray cluster sample over the D1 CFHTLS area
Pierre, M.; Pacaud, F.; Duc, P. A. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2006), 372(2), 591-608

We present the XMM Large-Scale Structure Survey (XMM-LSS) cluster catalogue corresponding to the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey D1 area. The list contains 13 spectroscopically confirmed, X ... [more ▼]

We present the XMM Large-Scale Structure Survey (XMM-LSS) cluster catalogue corresponding to the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey D1 area. The list contains 13 spectroscopically confirmed, X-ray selected galaxy clusters over 0.8 deg(2) to a redshift of unity and so constitutes the highest density sample of clusters to date. Cluster X-ray bolometric luminosities range from 0.03 to 5 x 10(44) erg s(-1). In this study, we describe our catalogue construction procedure: from the detection of X-ray cluster candidates to the compilation of a spectroscopically confirmed cluster sample with an explicit selection function. The procedure further provides basic X-ray products such as cluster temperature, flux and luminosity. We detected slightly more clusters with (0.5-2.0 keV) X-ray fluxes of > 2 x 10(-14) erg s(-1) cm(-2) than we expected based on expectations from deep ROSAT surveys. We also present the luminosity-temperature relation for our nine brightest objects possessing a reliable temperature determination. The slope is in good agreement with the local relation, yet compatible with a luminosity enhancement for the 0.15 < z < 0.35 objects having 1 < T < 2 keV, a population that the XMM-LSS is identifying systematically for the first time. The present study permits the compilation of cluster samples from XMM images whose selection biases are understood. This allows, in addition to studies of large-scale structure, the systematic investigation of cluster scaling law evolution, especially for low mass X-ray groups which constitute the bulk of our observed cluster population. All cluster ancillary data (images, profiles, spectra) are made available in electronic form via the XMM-LSS cluster data base. [less ▲]

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See detailThe XMM-LSS survey - First high redshift galaxy clusters: Relaxed and collapsing systems
Valtchanov, I.; Pierre, M.; Willis, J. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2004), 423(1), 75-85

We present five newly found galaxy clusters at z > 0.6 from the XMM Large-Scale Structure Survey (XMM-LSS). All five objects are extended X-ray sources in the XMM images. For three of them we have ... [more ▼]

We present five newly found galaxy clusters at z > 0.6 from the XMM Large-Scale Structure Survey (XMM-LSS). All five objects are extended X-ray sources in the XMM images. For three of them we have sufficient spectroscopically confirmed member galaxies that an estimate of the velocity dispersion is possible: XLSSC 001 at z = 0.613 and sigma(nu) = 867(-60)(+80) km s(-1), XLSSC 002 at z = 0.772 and sigma(nu) = 524(-116)(+267) km s(-1) and XLSSC 003 at z = 0.839 and sigma(V) = 780(-75)(+137) km s(-1). These three clusters have X-ray bolometric luminosities L-X similar to 1-3 x 10(44) erg s(-1) and temperatures 2-4 keV, and consequently are less massive than previously known clusters at similar redshifts, but nevertheless they follow the low redshift scaling relations between L-X, T and sigma(upsilon), within the limits of the measurement errors. One of the clusters, XLSSC 004, is detected independently as an over-density of galaxies of a colour R - z' = 1.4 that matches the redshift of the central galaxy z = 0.87, although it cannot unambiguously be confirmed by the spectroscopic observations alone. The highest redshift candidate cluster pertaining to this paper, XLSSC 005, is most likely a double cluster complex at a redshift around unity, associated with an extended X-ray source with probable substructure. [less ▲]

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