References of "Zander, Rodolphe"
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See detailOn the assessment and uncertainty of atmospheric trace gas burden measurements with high resolution infrared solar occultation spectra from space by the ATMOS Experiment
Abrams, M. C.; Chang, A. Y.; Gunson, M. R. et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (1996), 23(17), 2337--2340

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See detailObservations of the infrared solar spectrum from space by the ATMOS experiment
Abrams, M. C.; Goldman, A.; Gunson, M. R. et al

in Applied Optics (1996), 35(16), 2747--2751

The final flight of the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy experiment as part of the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS-3) Space Shuttle mission in 1994 provided a new ... [more ▼]

The final flight of the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy experiment as part of the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS-3) Space Shuttle mission in 1994 provided a new opportunity to measure broadband (625--4800 cm-1, 2.1--16 microns) infrared solar spectra at an unapodized resolution of 0.01 cm-1 from space. The majority of the observations were obtained as exoatmospheric, near Sun center, absorption spectra, which were later ratioed to grazing atmospheric measurements to compute the atmospheric transmission of the Earth's atmosphere and analyzed for vertical profiles of minor and trace gases. Relative to the SPACELAB-3 mission that produced 4800 high Sun spectra (which were averaged into four grand average spectra), the ATLAS-3 mission produced some 40,000 high Sun spectra (which have been similarly averaged) with an improvement in signal-to-noise ratio of a factor of 3--4 in the spectral region between 1000 and 4800 cm-1. A brief description of the spectral calibration and spectral quality is given as well as the location of electronic archives of these spectra. [less ▲]

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See detailRemote sensing of the Earth's atmosphere from space with high-resolution Fourier-transform spectroscopy: development and methodology of data processing for the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy experiment
Abrams, M. C.; Gunson, M. R.; Chang, A. Y. et al

in Applied Optics (1996), 35(16), 2774--2786

The methodology of spectroscopic remote sensing with high-resolution Fourier-transform spectra obtained from low Earth orbit by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment is discussed ... [more ▼]

The methodology of spectroscopic remote sensing with high-resolution Fourier-transform spectra obtained from low Earth orbit by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment is discussed. During the course of the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS) shuttle missions(1992--1994) a flexible, yet reproducible, retrieval strategy was developed that culminated in the near-real-time processing of telemetry data into vertical profiles of atmospheric composition during the ATLAS-3 mission. The development,evolution, robustness, and validation of the measurements are presented and assessed with a summary comparison of trace-gas observations within the Antarctic polar vortex in November 1994. [less ▲]

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See detailPressure sounding of the middle atmosphere from ATMOS solar occultationmeasurements of atmospheric CO2 absorption lines
Abrams, M. C.; Gunson, M. R.; Lowes, L. L. et al

in Applied Optics (1996), 35(16), 2810--2820

A method for retrieving the atmospheric pressure corresponding to the tangent pointof an infrared spectrum recorded in the solar occultation mode is described andapplied to measurements made by the ... [more ▼]

A method for retrieving the atmospheric pressure corresponding to the tangent pointof an infrared spectrum recorded in the solar occultation mode is described andapplied to measurements made by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS)Fourier-transform spectrometer. Tangent pressure values are inferred frommeasurements of isolated CO2 lines with temperature-insensitive strengthsby measuring the slant-column CO2 amount and by adjusting the viewinggeometry until the calculated column matches the observed column. Tangent pressuresare determined with a spectroscopic precision of 1\%--3\%,corresponding to a tangent-point height precision of 70--210 m. The totaluncertainty is limited primarily by the quality of the spectra and ranges between4 and 6 (280--420 m) for spectra with signal-to-noise ratiosof 300:1 and between 4 and 10 for spectra with signal-to-noiseratios of 100:1. The retrieval of atmospheric pressure increases the accuracy of theretrieved-gas concentrations by minimizing the effect of systematic errors introducedby climatological pressure data, ephemeris parameters, and the uncertainties ininstrumental pointing. [less ▲]

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See detailTrace gas transport in the Arctic Vortex inferred from ATMOS ATLAS-2 observations during April 1993
Abrams, M. C.; Manney, G. L.; Gunson, M. R. et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (1996), 23(17), 2345--2348

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See detailATMOS/ATLAS-3 observations of long-lived tracers and descent in the Antarctic Vortex in November 1994
Abrams, M. C.; Manney, G. L.; Gunson, M. R. et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (1996), 23(17), 2341--2344

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See detailA comparison of measurements from ATMOS and instruments aboard the ER-2 aircraft: Tracers of atmospheric transport
Chang, A. Y.; Salawitch, R. J.; Michelsen, H. A. et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (1996), 23(17), 2389--2392

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See detailA comparison of measurements from ATMOS and instruments aboard the ER-2 aircraft: Halogenated gases
Chang, A. Y.; Salawitch, R. J.; Michelsen, H. A. et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (1996), 23(17), 2393--2396

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See detailStratospheric observations of CH3D and HDO from ATMOS infrared solar spectra: Enrichments of deuterium in methane and implications for HD
Irion, F. W.; Moyer, E. J.; Gunson, M. R. et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (1996), 23(17), 2381--2384

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See detailStratospheric chlorine partitioning: Constraints from shuttle-borne measurements of [HCl], [ClNO3], and [ClO]
Michelsen, H. A.; Salawitch, R. J.; Gunson, M. R. et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (1996), 23(17), 2361--2364

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See detailStratospheric NO and NO2 abundances from ATMOS Solar-Occultation Measurements
Newchurch, M. J.; Allen, M.; Gunson, M. R. et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (1996), 23(17), 2373--2376

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See detailATMOS measurements of H2O+2CH4 and total reactive nitrogen in the November 1994 Antarctic stratosphere: Dehydration and denitrification in the vortex
Rinsland, C. P.; Gunson, M. R.; Salawitch, R. J. et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (1996), 23(17), 2397--2400

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See detailValidation of hydrogen fluoride measurements made by the Halogen Occultation Experiment from the UARS platform
Russell, James M.; Deaver, Lance E.; Luo, Mingzhao et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres (1996), 101(D6), 10163--10174

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See detailValidation of hydrogen chloride measurements made by the Halogen Occultation Experiment from the UARS platform
Russell, James M.; Deaver, Lance E.; Luo, Mingzhao et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres (1996), 101(D6), 10151--10162

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See detailVertical Column Abundances of COF2 measured above the Jungfraujoch Station from ground-based infrared solar observations.
Mélen, F.; Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg; Zander, Rodolphe ULg et al

in Proceedings of Atmospheric Spectroscopy Applications (1996)

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See detailTrends of OCS, HCN, SF6, CHClF2, (HCFC-22) in the lower stratosphere from 1985 and 1994 atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy experiment measurements near 30 degrees N latitude
Rinsland, C. P.; Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg; Zander, Rodolphe ULg et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (1996), 23(17), 2349-2352

Volume mixing ratio (VMR) profiles of OCS, HCN, SF6, and CHClF2 (HCFC-22) have been measured near 30 degrees N latitude by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy Fourier transform spectrometer during ... [more ▼]

Volume mixing ratio (VMR) profiles of OCS, HCN, SF6, and CHClF2 (HCFC-22) have been measured near 30 degrees N latitude by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy Fourier transform spectrometer during shuttle flights on 29 April-6 May 1985 and 3-2 November 1994. The change in the concentration of each molecule in the lower stratosphere has been derived for this 9 1/2-year period by comparing measurements between potential temperatures of 395 to 800 K (similar to 17 to 30 km altitude) relative to simultaneously measured values of the long-lived tracer N2O. Exponential rates of increase inferred for 1985-to-1994 from these comparisons are (0.1 +/- 0.4)% yr(-1) for OCS, (1.0 +/- 1.0)% yr(-1) for HCN, (8.0+/-0.7)% yr(-1) for SF6, and (8.0 +/- 1.0)% yr(-1) for CHClF2 (HCFC-22), 1 sigma. The lack of an appreciable trend for OCS suggests the background (i.e., nonvolcanic) source of stratospheric aerosol was the same during the two periods. These results are compared with trends reported in the literature. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: Deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions
Gunson, Michael R.; Abbas, M. M.; Abrams, M. C. et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (1996), 23(17), 2333-2336

The ATMOS Fourier transform spectrometer was flown for a fourth time on the Space Shuttle as part of the ATLAS-3 instrument payload in November 1994. More than 190 sunrise and sunset occultation events ... [more ▼]

The ATMOS Fourier transform spectrometer was flown for a fourth time on the Space Shuttle as part of the ATLAS-3 instrument payload in November 1994. More than 190 sunrise and sunset occultation events provided measurements of more than 30 atmospheric trace gases at latitudes 3-49 degrees N and 65-72 degrees S, including observations both inside and outside the Antarctic polar vortex. The instrument configuration, data retrieval methodology, and mission background are described to place in context analyses of ATMOS data presented in this issue. [less ▲]

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See detailAPRIL 1993 ARCTIC PROFILES OF STRATOSPHERIC HCL, CLONO2, AND CCL2F2 FROM ATMOSPHERIC TRACE MOLECULE SPECTROSCOPY ATLAS 2 INFRARED SOLAR OCCULTATION SPECTRA
Rinsland, C. P.; Gunson, M. R.; Abrams, M. C. et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research (1995), 100(D7), 14019-14027

Partitioning among the major components of the stratospheric odd chlorine family inside and outside of the remanent Arctic vortex has been studied on the basis of infrared solar occultation measurements ... [more ▼]

Partitioning among the major components of the stratospheric odd chlorine family inside and outside of the remanent Arctic vortex has been studied on the basis of infrared solar occultation measurements obtained by the atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy (ATMOS) Fourier transform spectrometer during the ATLAS 2 shuttle mission (April 8-17, 1993). Profiles of hydrogen chloride (HCl) and simultaneous profiles of chlorine nitrate (ClONO2) and CFC-12 (CCl2F2) are reported for examples of in-vortex and out-of-vortex conditions. Increased ClONO2 volume-mixing ratios (VMRs) are measured in the vortex below 20 mbar (similar to 25 km altitude) with a peak ClONO2 VMR of 2.05 +/- 0.45 ppbv (10(-9) per volume) at 56 mbar (similar to 19 km altitude). The reported error correspond to la uncertainties. Simultaneous CCl2F2 and N2O measurements, combined with published empirical relations, indicate that only 0.34 +/- 0.15 ppbv, about 10% of total chlorine, was bound in organic species at the ClONO2 VMR peak in the vortex. A colocated vortex profile of HCl, referenced to simultaneous N2O VMR measurements, has been used to derive a HCl mixing ratio of 1.21 +/- 0.12 ppbv corresponding to the ClONO2 VMR peak. The internal consistency of the ATMOS measurements is demonstrated by the agreement between the total chlorine mixing ratio of 3.60 +/- 0.72 ppbv derived at the ClONO2 VMR peak in the vortex and HCl measurements of 3.37 +/- 0.37 and 3.76 +/- 0.41 ppbv at 0.56 mbar, where HCl is the only significant chlorine-bearing molecule. Outside the vortex the mixing ratio of HCl exceeds the mixing ratio of ClONO2 throughout the stratosphere. [less ▲]

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See detailVERTICAL COLUMN ABUNDANCES OF HCN DEDUCED FROM GROUND-BASED INFRARED SOLAR SPECTRA - LONG-TERM TREND AND VARIABILITY
Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg; RINSLAND, C. P.; Zander, Rodolphe ULg et al

in Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry (1995), 20(3), 299-310

A set of high-resolution IR solar spectra recorded at the International Scientific Station of the Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, from 84/06 to 93/06, and at the National Solar Observatory McMath-Pierce solar ... [more ▼]

A set of high-resolution IR solar spectra recorded at the International Scientific Station of the Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, from 84/06 to 93/06, and at the National Solar Observatory McMath-Pierce solar telescope facility on Kitt Peak, Arizona, U.S.A. from 78/05 to 92/07 have been analyzed to determine the vertical column abundances of hydrogen cyanide, HCN, above the two stations. The analysis was based on least-squares curve fitting of calculated spectra to the observations encompassing the P4 and the P8 lines of HCN respectively located at 3299.5273 and 3287.2483 cm(-1). The results obtained for the two stations indicate that no significant long-term trend affects either of the two databases; however, this analysis reveals variable increases during springtime of up to a factor of 2 in the HCN total column above the Jungfraujoch and even up to 3 above Kitt Peak. The calculated mean vertical column abundances, excluding the spring observations, are equal to (2.55 +/- 0.30) x 10(15) molec./cm(2) (S.D.) and (2.75 +/- 0.30) x 10(15) molec./cm(2) respectively above the Jungfraujoch and the Kitt Peak observatories. Based on a realistic volume mixing ratio profile, these columns translate into mean volume mixing ratios equal to 190 x 10(-12) ppv at the respective altitudes of the stations. [less ▲]

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See detailStratospheric and mesospheric pressure-temperature profiles from rotational analysis of CO2 lines in atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy/ATLAS 1 infrared solar occultation spectra
Stiller, G. P.; Gunson, M. R.; Lowes, L. L. et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres (1995), 100(D2), 3107--3117

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