References of "Vu Dinh, Ton"
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See detailSemen quality and some factors affecting the semen quality of Dong Tao chicken
Nguyen Van Duy, ULg; Do Thi, Hue; Vu Dinh, Ton

in Journal of Sciences Agricultural Viet Nam (2017), 15(5), 589-604

The study was conducted on 11 Dong Tao cocks (8-10 months) at the chicken farm in Faculty of Animal Science, Vietnam National University of Agriculture to assess the semen quality and some factors ... [more ▼]

The study was conducted on 11 Dong Tao cocks (8-10 months) at the chicken farm in Faculty of Animal Science, Vietnam National University of Agriculture to assess the semen quality and some factors affecting semen quality of Dong Tao cocks (individual, time of semen exploitation and storage condition) from January to December, 2016. The results showed that Dong Tao cocks had good quality of semen with average ejaculate volume, motility and sperm concentration were 0.48 ml, 80.1%, 2.57 billion sperms/ml semen, respectively; pH: 7.45; semen color: 2.6 (between white to milk colors); activity of sperms: 3.99 (well moving with waves at moderate level). The individual factor affected all criterias of semen quality (P<0.05). Sperm motility and concentration that collected in the morning were higher than that collected in the afternoon (P<0.05). Sperm motility of diluted semen and keeping in the cold storage temperature (2-10oC) was higher (P <0.05) than semen keeping in normal temperature. [less ▲]

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See detailThe growth and meat quality of H'mong chicken raised by industrial farming
Nguyen Van Duy, ULg; Vu Dinh, Ton; Nguyen Thi, Phuong

in Journal of Sciences of Agriculture Vietnams (2017), 15(4), 438-445

This study was carried out at the experimental farm of Vietnam National University of Agriculture from January to December, 2016 on H’mong chickens that were raised by industrial farming. H’mong chickens ... [more ▼]

This study was carried out at the experimental farm of Vietnam National University of Agriculture from January to December, 2016 on H’mong chickens that were raised by industrial farming. H’mong chickens were raised in three lots in order to observe the survival rate, growth capacity, FCR and quality of meat. The results show that Hmong chicken adapted well with industrial farming method, which supposedly contributed to the improvement in survival rate of chickens (94,1%) compared to traditional free-range farming method.. H'mong chickens have low weight and considerable growth speed. Average daily gain of H’mong chickens was increasing gradually from one to ten weeks of age and then decreasing. From one to 12 weeks, H'mong chickens consumes averagely 24.81 grams of feed per day and Feed Conversation Rate was 3.1 kg of feed/kg live body weight. Twelve week-old roosters and hens achieved body weight at 1206,7g and 1026,7g in respectively. H'mong chicken is a dual-purpose breed, producing an amount of thigh meat 1.3 times greater than breast meat. The proportion of iron in Hmong chicken meat is higher than that in other domestic chicken breeds and there are eight unsubstituted amino acids in the meat. Key works: H’mong chickens, industrial farming. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of discrete choice experiment to assess farmers’ willingness to report swine diseases in the Red River Delta region, Vietnam
Pham Thi Thanh, Hoa; Peyre, Marisa; Quang Trinh, Tuyen et al

in Preventive Veterinary Medicine (2017), 138

A discrete choice experiment (DCE) is carried out to value socio-economic factors influencing the farmer’s decision to report swine diseases and to assess the willingness of farmers to report swine ... [more ▼]

A discrete choice experiment (DCE) is carried out to value socio-economic factors influencing the farmer’s decision to report swine diseases and to assess the willingness of farmers to report swine diseases. Data were collected between March and July 2015 in two provinces in the Red River Delta, Northern Vietnam, from 196 pig producers by face-to face interview. A conditional logit model is used to measure the relative importance of the socio-economic factors and calculate the expected probability of disease reporting under changes of levels of these factors. Results of the study indicated that the likelihood of compensation and the type of culling implemented (all or only unrecovered pigs) are the two most important factors influencing farmer reporting. Compensation level, movement restriction and delay in compensation payment also have significant impacts on farmer’s decision to report animal disease but they are not as important as the above factors. Three different scenarios including changes in six different factors (attributes) are tested to predict probability of animal disease reporting. Under the current situation (uncertainty of being compensated), only 4% of the farmers would report swine disease outbreak to the official surveillance system if the culling policy involves all pigs in affected farms. This number is increased to 26% if culling in affected farms is restricted to unrecovered pigs only. Ensuring certainty of compensation increases reporting probability by up to 50% and 90% if all or only unrecovered pigs are destroyed, respectively. The results of this study are important for improving the performance and sustainability of swine disease surveillance system in Vietnam. [less ▲]

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See detailDong Tao chicken: characteristics of an indigenous breed with big legs in Hung Yen province (VietNam)
Nguyen Van Duy, ULg; Vu Dinh, Ton; Farnir, Frédéric ULg

Scientific conference (2016, December 07)

This study aimed to determine morphological characteristics, reproductive performance and egg quality of Dong Tao chicken, an indigenous chicken breed in Vietnam. This study was conducted on 10 households ... [more ▼]

This study aimed to determine morphological characteristics, reproductive performance and egg quality of Dong Tao chicken, an indigenous chicken breed in Vietnam. This study was conducted on 10 households raising purebred Dong Tao chicken. A sample of 240 adult individuals was morphologycally characterized. Reproductive performances were assessed on 10 backyard chicken (1 cock and 5 hens), and egg quality was assessed on 60 eggs. The results showed that Dong Tao chickens have a variety of phenotypes, as indicated in their feather colors, tarsus colors and comb types. The size of Dong Tao chickens was large, the body weight and all body measurements of the cocks were greater than those of hens (P < 0.001). Their reproductive performances were low but egg weight, yolk weight and the maximum breakage strength were higher compared to other chickens breeds. The Dong Tao breed, in the present state of things, is endangered. It should improve its reproductive performance before considering the in- situ conservation. [less ▲]

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See detailInbreeding and genomic runs of homozygosity in Vietnamese local chickens
Moyse, Evelyne ULg; Nguyen Van, Duy; Vu Dinh, Ton et al

Poster (2016, October 21)

Most researches on genetic variety evaluation in Vietnamese local chicken breeds have been based up to now on microsatellite markers (Cuc et al., 2011; Pham et al., 2013). Thanks to the genotyping of ~580 ... [more ▼]

Most researches on genetic variety evaluation in Vietnamese local chicken breeds have been based up to now on microsatellite markers (Cuc et al., 2011; Pham et al., 2013). Thanks to the genotyping of ~580,000 SNPs on 95 chickens, this study aimed to assess the genetic diversity in four Vietnamese local breeds (Mia, Mong, Ho and Dong Tao). Inbreeding was examined through the detection of runs of homozygosity (ROH; Curik et al., 2014). The ROHs are long stretches of homozygous genome that are likely to reflect autozygosity. Given that Ho chickens have a small effective population size, more inbreeding and consequently longer ROHs are expected. Conversely, Mia chickens, with a larger effective population size should show less consanguinity and shorter ROHs. As expected, Mia chickens led to less observed homozygosity and less ROHs than the three other breeds. Moreover, when ROHs were subdivided in different lengths, the proportion of individuals having at least one R OH longer than 5Mb was significantly higher in Ho (63%) than in Mia chickens (33%). Given that very long ROHs are particularly associated with recent inbreeding, it seems that many Ho chickens have consanguineous parents. However, no significant difference was observed between the four breed concerning the total length of long ROHs (> 5Mb). In conclusion, the analysis of ROHs reported less consanguinity in Mia than in Ho chickens. In each breed, some individuals are found more consanguineous than expected. This study also confirms that ROHs are a useful tool in inbreeding research. [less ▲]

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See detailĐánh giá tiềm năng bã rượu làm thức ăn chăn nuôi lợn nông hộ tại ba tỉnh phía Bắc
Nguyen Cong, Oanh ULg; Pham Kim, Dang; Vu Dinh, Ton et al

in Journal of Science and Development (2016), 14(1), 79-86

In order to evaluate the potential of the rice distiller’s by-product for use as feed, the chemical composition and nutritive value, and its utilisation in pig production, 120 rice alcohol producers were ... [more ▼]

In order to evaluate the potential of the rice distiller’s by-product for use as feed, the chemical composition and nutritive value, and its utilisation in pig production, 120 rice alcohol producers were surveyed and 18 samples of rice distiller’s by-product were collected from 3 traditional alcohol villages belonging to 3 different provinces in the North of Viet Nam (Hai Duong, Hung Yen and Bac Giang). The study results showed that rice distillers’ by product was produced in large quantity and available the whole year round in households surveyed (8.266 kg DM/household/year). The majority of this by-product was used for pig production. The rice distiller’s by-product use in feed ration varied between 11- 40% DM and 11-50% DM for sows and fattening pigs, respectively. For the sows, this by-product used in diet gradually reduced from pregnancy to milking sows. For the fattening pigs, its by-product is used continuously from piglet to finishing stage. Rice distiller’s by-product was high in protein, NDF (% DM) and energy (28.18%, 29.93% and 4.866,67 kcal/kg, respectively) but low in dry matter (DM) (11.04%). The low pH value (3.19) and high lactic acid ratio (2.31 g/100 g sample) might help improve digestive health and prevent intestinal diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailContract Farming as a Determinant of Promoting Tea Marketing Channels for Small Producers in Phu Tho Province
Le Thi Kim, Oanh ULg; Vu Dinh, Ton; Tran Huu, Cuong et al

in International Review of Research in Emerging Markets and the Global Economy (2016), 2(4), 955-972

Contract farming between farmers and firms plays an important role in promoting access to the markets for small producers, especially in the less developed and developing countries. It is shown that ... [more ▼]

Contract farming between farmers and firms plays an important role in promoting access to the markets for small producers, especially in the less developed and developing countries. It is shown that contract farming provides farmers with the stable sale of their crops and agrobusiness firms with a steady supply of agricultural products required by the market. This paper focuses on analyzing benefits of tea producers that sign contracts with companies in term of tea marketing channels. By analyzing the data collected through 110 surveyed farmers in Thanh Son and Doan Hung districts in Phu Tho province, the study found that contract farmers received lower price than non contract farmers did in exchange for higher stability of price and better market access. As a result, it is highly recommended that small tea farmers should participate in contract farming in Phu Tho Province, Vietnam. [less ▲]

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See detailContract Farming as a Determinant of Promoting Tea Marketing Channel for Small Producers in Phu Tho Province
Le Thi Kim, Oanh ULg; Vu Dinh, Ton; Tran Huu, Cuong et al

in Global Business Research Journals (GBRJ) (Ed.) Proceedings of the Doctoral Research Conference in Business Studies & Management Sciences (2016)

Making contracts between farmers and firms (contract farming, for short) plays an important role in establishing access to the agricultural markets for the small producers, especially in the developing ... [more ▼]

Making contracts between farmers and firms (contract farming, for short) plays an important role in establishing access to the agricultural markets for the small producers, especially in the developing and less developed countries. It is argued that contract farming provides farmers with the assured sale of their crops and agro-business firms with a steady supply of agricultural products required by the market. This paper focuses on analyzing benefits of tea producers through signing contract with firms. By using relevant research methods of verifying studying areas, making Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), and surveying farmers, the paper finds that although contract farmers receive lower fresh tea price in compared with the price received by non-contract farmers, they would have higher price stability and are provided with market guarantee mechanism. These benefits are really important in context of globalization and market liberalization with the demand for high quality and high value products. It is highly recommended that small farmers therefore should participate in the coordination model between farmers and firms in the process of tea production and marketing in Phu Tho Province, Vietnam. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of contract farming on black tea value chain: a case study in Phu Tho province, Vietnam
Le Thi Kim, Oanh ULg; Vu Dinh, Ton; Tran Huu, Cuong et al

in Vietnam National University of Agriculture (VNUA); Académie de Recherche et d'Enseignement Supérieur (ARES) (Eds.) Proceedings International Conference "Agriculture Development in the Context of International Integration: Opportunities and Challenges". December 7-8, Hanoi, Vietnam (2016)

Black tea product contributes 80% of exported tea in Phu Tho province. Black tea has been being one of the high valued commodities and brought high income for tea producers. However, the black tea ... [more ▼]

Black tea product contributes 80% of exported tea in Phu Tho province. Black tea has been being one of the high valued commodities and brought high income for tea producers. However, the black tea industry has been facing on many difficulties such as low price, perishable cash crop, weak cooperation between stakeholders and low competitiveness. In value chain, contract farming has been viewed as an instrument for improving value chain performance by building the tight integration among actors. Therefore, the study focused on comparing value chains of contract farmers to those of worker farmers and non-contract farmers in order to analyze the influence of contract farming on black tea value chain. The data collection based on semi-structure interviews and 1 1 0 standard questionnaires in Thanh Son and Doan Hung districts. By adopting financial analysis, the paper explored the cost and the benefits of actors and the linkages among the actors of the black tea value chain. The results showed that the value added (VA) was 10.88 million VND/ton of black tea for groups of worker, 10.62 million VND/ton of black tea for contract farmers and 11.40 million VND/ton of black tea for non contract farmers. However, the VA of whole chain of worker farmers and contract farmers (29%) is higher than the non-contract farmers(18%). Therefore, worker farmers and contract farmers chains are more comparative and sustainable than non contract farmers chain. Based on the results, it could indicated that contract farming could promote the black tea value chain in Phu Tho province. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamics of Agrarian Systems and Land Use Change in North Vietnam
Han Quang, Hanh; Azadi, Hossein; Dogot, Thomas ULg et al

in Land Degradation & Development (2016)

During the period of socio-economic transformation initiated in the late 1980s by the political reform (Doi Moi) in Vietnam, the agrarian systems evolved considerably. In the region around the capital ... [more ▼]

During the period of socio-economic transformation initiated in the late 1980s by the political reform (Doi Moi) in Vietnam, the agrarian systems evolved considerably. In the region around the capital, where the process of industrialization, urbanization, and international integration has been accelerating, a number of questions about the sustainability of those agrarian systems have been raised. By diagnosing and analysing the dynamics of the agricultural systems in Vietnam from 1980 to 2010, this study aims to provide decision-makers with some sectorial and territorial policy options that are able to authorize the sustainable development of agriculture and rural society in the new socio-economic context. By applying a systematic approach, including the historical and adaptive approaches, this study shows how well farmers in the Hai Duong province have adapted to socio-economic and institutional changes, notably by transforming part of their paddy farms into other agricultural land use purposes, such as fish ponds, animal buildings, vegetable fields, and fruit orchards. These rapid changes, however, do not move in a direction that improves the sustainability of agrarian systems. The results revealed that farm holders are now facing many technical and economic contradictions, whereas issues that arise from the land no longer are only related to agricultural purposes. Competition for different functions of land use are now emerging, along with the fragmentation of plots, an imperfect land market, and rising property values ​​are all emerging. The prospect of the sustainability of agricultural systems was also analysed under different scenarios, highlighting the complexity of policy options. [less ▲]

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See detailFinancial Impacts of Priority Swine Diseases to Pig Farmers in Red River and Mekong River Delta, Vietnam.
Pham, T. T. Hoa; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas ULg; Grosbois, V. et al

in Transboundary and Emerging Diseases (2016)

A study was conducted between May 2013 and August 2014 in three provinces of Vietnam to investigate financial impacts of swine diseases in pig holdings in 2010-2013. The aim of the study was to quantify ... [more ▼]

A study was conducted between May 2013 and August 2014 in three provinces of Vietnam to investigate financial impacts of swine diseases in pig holdings in 2010-2013. The aim of the study was to quantify the costs of swine diseases at producer level in order to understand swine disease priority for monitoring at local level. Financial impacts of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), foot and mouth disease (FMD), and epidemic diarrhoea were assessed for 162 pig holders in two Red River Delta provinces and in one Mekong River Delta province, using data on pig production and swine disease outbreaks at farms. Losses incurred by swine diseases were estimated, including direct losses due to mortality (100% market value of pig before disease onset) and morbidity (abortion, delay of finishing stage), and indirect losses due to control costs (treatment, improving biosecurity and emergency vaccination) and revenue foregone (lower price in case of emergency selling). Financial impacts of swine diseases were expressed as percentage of gross margin of pig holding. The gross margin varied between pig farming groups (P < 0.0001) in the following order: large farm (USD 18 846), fattening farm (USD 7014) and smallholder (USD 2350). The losses per pig holding due to PRRS were the highest: 41% of gross margin for large farm, 38% for fattening farm and 63% for smallholder. Cost incurred by FMD was lower with 19%, 25% and 32% of gross margin of pig holding in large farm, fattening farm and smallholder, respectively. The cost of epidemic diarrhoea was the lowest compared to losses due to PRRS and FMD and accounted for around 10% of gross margin of pig holding in the three pig farming groups. These estimates provided critical elements on swine disease priorities to better inform surveillance and control at both national and local level. [less ▲]

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See detailHo Chicken in Bac Ninh Province (Vietnam): From an Indigenous Chicken to Local Poultry Breed
Nguyen Van Duy, ULg; Moula, Nassim ULg; Do Duc, Luc et al

in International Journal of Poultry Sciences (2015), 14(9), 521-528

The objectives of this study were to determine the morpho-biometric characteristics of Vietnamese indigenous Ho chicken breed and to evaluate its production, reproduction performance and egg quality. The ... [more ▼]

The objectives of this study were to determine the morpho-biometric characteristics of Vietnamese indigenous Ho chicken breed and to evaluate its production, reproduction performance and egg quality. The study was carried out on 20 households raising purebred Ho chicken from September 2013 to April 2015 in Northern Vietnam. Morpho-biometric characterization was based on measurement of 128 adult individuals. The egg production was observed on 66 hens within 20 households. A total of 29 eggs were freshly collected from 8 hens at the 20th laying week for quality analysis. Ho chicken breed is a breed with a large dimension, a large diversity in the colors (black with gold hackle, black copper, wheat, tan and tricolor), a heavy weight 3.78 and 2.64 for adult males and females, respectively), a low egg production (12.73 eggs/clutch) and a relatively low rate of embryo eggs (72.81%). A research to improve the egg production and reproduction should be undertaken to obtain a better performance, economic efficiency while maintaining this genetic heritage and sustaining the biodiversity of the avian breeds in Vietnam. [less ▲]

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See detailHo chicken breed : morpho-biometric characteristics and economic efficiency of production
Nguyen Van, Duy; Dao Thi, Hiep; Bui Huu, Doan et al

in Journal of Animal Husbandry Science and Technics (2015), (8), 73-79

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See detailProduction, consumption status and economic efficiency of Dong Tao chicken production
Nguyen Van Duy, ULg; Dao Thi, Hiep; Vu Dinh, Ton

in Journal of Animal Husbandry Sciences and Technics (2015), 8(197), 91-97

This study was conducted to provide informations of the growth performance of Dong Tao chicken raising under household conditions in Dong Tao commune, Khoai Chau district, Hung Yen province. A total of ... [more ▼]

This study was conducted to provide informations of the growth performance of Dong Tao chicken raising under household conditions in Dong Tao commune, Khoai Chau district, Hung Yen province. A total of 250 Dong Tao chickens were observed from 1 day old to 24 weeks old among 5 families with following traits: body weight, relative growth rate, average daily gain, survival rate, feed intake and feed conversion rate. Dong Tao is one of the native chicken breeds with a heavy weight. The body weights of the cock and hen were 2.6 kg and 2.2 kg respectively at 24 weeks old. The average daily gain increased gradually from the first weeks old, peaking and stability in the period to 10 weeks old (21.24g and 20.26g for cock and hen respectively) then it began to decline from the weeks old thereafter. Whereas the relative growth rate decreased gradually by weeks old. Feed conversion rate was 4,38kg based on the whole growth period. These results could be used to dertermine the characteristics of this purebred breed which would contribute to conserve and develop in a sustainable way. [less ▲]

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See detailHo chicken breed: Morpho-biometric characteristics and Economic efficiency of production
Nguyen Van Duy, ULg; Dao Thi, Hiep; Bui Huu, Doan et al

in Journal of Animal Husbandry Sciences and Technics (2015), 8(196), 73-79

In order to evaluate the economic efficiency and production status of Ho chicken, this survey was carried out on 34 households raising Ho chickens in Thuan Thanh district, Bac Ninh province, from December ... [more ▼]

In order to evaluate the economic efficiency and production status of Ho chicken, this survey was carried out on 34 households raising Ho chickens in Thuan Thanh district, Bac Ninh province, from December 2012 to April 2013. Morpho-biometric characteristics were measured on 181 individuals (46 cocks and 135 hens) according to FAO standards. The results show that Ho chicken herd size is very limited, with 30.78 chickens per household. Average age at the first laying is rather late (7.42 months) with 11.97 eggs in a laying cycle and 76.32% of hatchability rate. These numbers are low because Ho chickens are heavy and clumsy, and therefore could easily step on and break their eggs. The body weight of a cock is 3.79 kg at 9 months while the hen weight is 2.63kg at 12 months. The body length, neck length, back length, thigh length of cock are significantly higher than those of hens (P<0.05). Production of these chickens does not require much initial investment costs. In these costs, buy breed and chicken housing are the most important in the fixed costs. The average annual expense to operate Ho chicken production reaches 12.16 million VND (565.58 USD) while the average annual revenue is 30.85 million VND (1443 USD). [less ▲]

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See detailValue chain analysis of rice noodle in Dinh Ke and Thu Duong traditional handicraft villages in Bac Giang province
Le Thi Long, Vy; Vu Dinh, Ton; Burny, Philippe ULg

in Journal of Economics And Development (2015), 222(II)(12/2015), 51-59

The study was conducted in two famous traditional rice noodle production handicraft villages in Bac Giang province: Dinh Ke commune (Ke rice noodle production) and Thu Duong com- mune (Chu rice noodle ... [more ▼]

The study was conducted in two famous traditional rice noodle production handicraft villages in Bac Giang province: Dinh Ke commune (Ke rice noodle production) and Thu Duong com- mune (Chu rice noodle production). The survey was carried out with 196 households, of which 118 involved directly in the value chain including rice traders, 30 noodle consumer households, and 46 are income control households. ln addition, the study gathered information and data through group discussions and consultation with local authorities who were involved in rice noodle production in the villages. The results indicated that the value chain of noodle created a high added value (approximately 19 million VND per ton of products) and among value chain actors, rice noodle processors gained more profit that encouraged these actors to increase investment into production and selling of noodle products. The recommendations include improving product quality, reducing environmental pollution, dealing with issues such as gen- der inequality in terms of income, and strengthening information sharing among actors of the value chain. [less ▲]

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See detailDéveloppement rural et petite paysannerie en Asie du Sud-Est : Leçons d'expériences au Vietnam et au Cambodge
Lebailly, Philippe ULg; Peemans, Jean-Philippe; Vu Dinh, Ton et al

Book published by L'Harmattan (2015)

Le fil conducteur de cet ouvrage repose sur un constat : l’agriculture continue de représenter le moteur essentiel du développement économique et social pour les pays d’Asie de l’Est et du Sud-Est. Elle y ... [more ▼]

Le fil conducteur de cet ouvrage repose sur un constat : l’agriculture continue de représenter le moteur essentiel du développement économique et social pour les pays d’Asie de l’Est et du Sud-Est. Elle y occupe la majorité de la main-d’œuvre et doit à la fois assurer la subsistance de la population rurale, faire face à l’augmentation et à la diversification de la consommation urbaine et contribuer à produire des ressources pour l’exportation. L’approche pluridisciplinaire du développement rural prônée dans le cadre des contributions à cet ouvrage collectif a voulu placer au cœur de ses préoccupations les petites exploitations villageoises se situant tant au niveau de la production que de la transformation et la commercialisation de ces produits, dans le contexte actuel de la libération des marchés. L’un des grands défis est d’y intégrer la dimension de durabilité, sur le plan social et sur le plan environnemental. Les différentes parties de l’ouvrage illustrent cette perspective et partagent ces questionnements. [less ▲]

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See detailEconomic efficiency of milk production farms in Hanoi Suburbs, Vietnam
Le Dinh, Khan; Phan Dang, Thang ULg; Lebailly, Philippe ULg et al

Poster (2014, November 14)

Dairy production has presented in Vietnam since 50 years, but these dairy farms really developed from 2001. In the period 2001 – 2010, the average growth rate of dairy herds was up to 30% per year ... [more ▼]

Dairy production has presented in Vietnam since 50 years, but these dairy farms really developed from 2001. In the period 2001 – 2010, the average growth rate of dairy herds was up to 30% per year. However, fresh milk production satisfies about 20-25% of milk consumption. The rural areas of Hanoi Province are large for dairy production. This province builds the 7 agro-ecological sub-regions for the development of dairy farming, in which Ba Vi District is a most of sub-regions for dairy production development. But the average size is about 2.5 cows per farm. This research aims to better understand how the factors in milk sector adapt to current economic conditions in Hanoi suburbs through analyzing farming systems. These studies were conducted from January to August 2012 on 43 dairy farms with different production scales at Ba Vi District to characteristic of dairy farming systems. The data were collected by interviewing and keeping records at the farms that have milk production. The results showed that three dairy production systems in these zones: (1) Dairy small farming system has from 1 to 3 cows per farm; (2) The medium farming system has from 4 to 5 cows per farm; and (3) The dairy intensive farming system has more 5 cows per farm. The economic activities were really diversified with landless per household farm such as rice production, gardens, grass production and sylviculture. Land resources per farm of intensive farming system were largest including 9,239 m² for garden around the household; 2,574 m² for rice land; 563 m² of grass area and 3,325 m² for sylviculture. While the small farming system has the lowest potential land, each household has only 2,815 m² of garden; 1,795 m² of rice land; 2,095 m² of grazing land. The medium farming system has about 3,150 m² of garden; 2,220 m² of rice land and 3,891 m² of grazing land. Milk production cycle was quite long with intensive farming system, up to 324 days comparing with 299 days per cycle with medium farming system and to 306 days per cycle with small-scale farmers. This difference was not statistically signification (P> 0.05). Average milk production yield per cow was high with medium farming system (16 kg per cow per day) in comparison with 15 kg per day at intensive and small farming systems (P> 0.05). Milk production yield has been improved in the past years with crossbreed cows such as Holstein-Friesian 50% and 75%. But this productivity was still considered to be lower than the milk production yield with dairy cows raised in Moc Chau District under Son La Province with 20.5 kg per cow per day and 6,250 kg of milk per cow per cycle). In addition, in the period from 2006 to 2012, fresh milk prices at farm gate have continued to rise for the farmers, while feed prices increased in the period from 2006 to 2010 and these feed prices were stable between 2011 and 2012. In the period of 2006 to 2012, fresh milk prices at farm gate increased from 0.17 USD per kg in 2006 to 0.60 USD per kg in 2012 and feed prices were from 0.15 USD per kg in 2006 increasing to 0.39 USD per kg in 2012. The net incomes were calculated per a cow per year reached 1,274 USD with the small-scale farming households to 1,476 USD with medium farming system. The net income per kg of fresh milk at farm gate obtained from 0.28 USD with small farming system to 0.31 USD with medium farming system. The net household income was high from dairy production, from 2,437 USD per farm per year with small farming system to 5,487 USD per farm per year with intensive farming system. The net labor family income gained from 997 USD per active per year with small farming system to 2,757 USD per active per year with intensive farming system. Thus, dairy production farms in recent years in Hanoi Suburbs provide very high economic efficiency for farmers in comparison with other agricultural activities at the farms. This explains why the rate of dairy family farming has grown very fast in the studied zones in the period from 2009 to 2012. This trend will continue to grow in the future. This research was also showed that the price of fresh milk plays a crucial role for profitable at farm level. But medium farming system with the size from 4 to 5 dairy cows per farm is more profitable with current economic conditions at farms. [less ▲]

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See detailRisk of Introduction in Northern Vietnam of HPAI Viruses from China: Description, Patterns and Drivers of Illegal Poultry Trade
Desvaux, Stéphanie; Nguyen Cong, Oanh ULg; Vu Dinh, Ton et al

in Transboundary and Emerging Diseases (2014)

Poultry movement is known to contribute to the dissemination of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses. In Northern Vietnam, the illegal trade of poultry from China is a source of concern and is ... [more ▼]

Poultry movement is known to contribute to the dissemination of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses. In Northern Vietnam, the illegal trade of poultry from China is a source of concern and is considered as responsible for the regular introduction of new H5N1 viruses. The general objective of this study was to get a better understanding of this illegal trade (organization, volume, actors involved and drivers) to propose adequate preventive and control options. The information was also used to qualitatively evaluate the risk of exposure of susceptible poultry to HPAI H5N1 virus introduced from China by illegally traded poultry. We found that the main products imported from China are spent hens, day-old chicks (DOCs) and ducklings; spent hens being introduced in very large number. The drivers of this trade are multiple: economic (especially for spent hens) but also technical (demand for improved genetic potential for DOC and ducklings). Furthermore, these introductions also meet a high consumer demand at certain periods of the year. We also found that spatial dispersion of a batch of poultry illegally introduced from China is extensive and rapid, making any prediction of possible new outbreaks very hazardous. Finally, a risk mitigation plan should include measures to tackle the drivers of this trade or to legally organize it, to limit the threat to the local poultry sector. It is also essential for traders to be progressively better organized and biosecure and for hygienic practices to be enforced, as our study confirmed that at-risk behaviours are still very common among this profession. [less ▲]

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