Phloem import and storage metabolism are highly coordinated by the low oxygen concentrations within developing wheat seeds.
; ; et al
in Plant Physiology (2004), 135(3), 1809-21
We studied the influence of the internal oxygen concentration in seeds of wheat (Triticum aestivum) on storage metabolism and its relation to phloem import of nutrients. Wheat seeds that were developing ... [more ▼]
We studied the influence of the internal oxygen concentration in seeds of wheat (Triticum aestivum) on storage metabolism and its relation to phloem import of nutrients. Wheat seeds that were developing at ambient oxygen (21%) were found to be hypoxic (2.1%). Altering the oxygen supply by decreasing or increasing the external oxygen concentration induced parallel changes in the internal oxygen tension. However, the decrease in internal concentration was proportionally less than the reduction in external oxygen. This indicates that decreasing the oxygen supply induces short-term adaptive responses to reduce oxygen consumption of the seeds. When external oxygen was decreased to 8%, internal oxygen decreased to approximately 0.5% leading to a decrease in energy production via respiration. Conversely, increasing the external oxygen concentration above ambient levels increased the oxygen content as well as the energy status of the seeds, indicating that under normal conditions the oxygen supply is strongly limiting for energy metabolism in developing wheat seeds. The intermediate metabolites of seed storage metabolism were not substantially affected when oxygen was either increased or decreased. However, at subambient external oxygen concentrations (8%) the metabolic flux of carbon into starch and protein, measured by injecting (14)C-Suc into the seeds, was reduced by 17% and 32%, respectively, whereas no significant effect was observed at superambient (40%) oxygen. The observed decrease in biosynthetic fluxes to storage compounds is suggested to be part of an adaptive response to reduce energy consumption preventing excessive oxygen consumption when oxygen supply is limited. Phloem transport toward ears exposed to low (8%) oxygen was significantly reduced within 1 h, whereas exposing ears to elevated oxygen (40%) had no significant effect. This contrasts with the situation where the distribution of assimilates has been modified by removing the lower source leaves from the plant, resulting in less assimilates transported to the ear in favor of transport to the lower parts of the plant. Under these conditions, with two strongly competing sinks, elevated oxygen (40%) did lead to a strong increase in phloem transport to the ear. The results show that sink metabolism is affected by the prevailing low oxygen concentrations in developing wheat seeds, determining the import rate of assimilates via the phloem. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 17 (0 ULg)
Embryo-specific reduction of ADP-Glc pyrophosphorylase leads to an inhibition of starch synthesis and a delay in oil accumulation in developing seeds of oilseed rape.
Vigeolas, Hélène ; ; et al
in Plant Physiology (2004), 136(1), 2676-86
In oil-storing Brassica napus (rape) seeds, starch deposition occurs only transiently in the early stages of development, and starch is absent from mature seeds. This work investigates the influence of a ... [more ▼]
In oil-storing Brassica napus (rape) seeds, starch deposition occurs only transiently in the early stages of development, and starch is absent from mature seeds. This work investigates the influence of a reduction of ADP-Glc pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) on storage metabolism in these seeds. To manipulate the activity of AGPase in a seed-specific manner, a cDNA encoding the small subunit of AGPase was expressed in the sense or antisense orientation under the control of an embryo-specific thioesterase promoter. Lines were selected showing an embryo-specific decrease in AGPase due to antisense and cosuppression at different stages of development. At early developmental stages (25 days after flowering), a 50% decrease in AGPase activity was accompanied by similar decreases in starch content and the rate of starch synthesis measured by injecting (14)C-Suc into seeds in planta. In parallel to inhibition of starch synthesis, the level of ADP-Glc decreased, whereas Glc 1-phosphate levels increased, providing biochemical evidence that inhibition of starch synthesis was due to repression of AGPase. At 25 days after flowering, repression of starch synthesis also led to a decrease in the rate of (14)C-Suc degradation and its further metabolism via other metabolic pathways. This was not accompanied by an increase in the levels of soluble sugars, indicating that Suc import was inhibited in parallel. Flux through glycolysis, the activities of hexokinase, and inorganic pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinase, and the adenylate energy state (ATP to ADP ratio) of the transgenic seeds decreased, indicating inhibition of glycolysis and respiration compared to wild type. This was accompanied by a marked decrease in the rate of storage lipid (triacylglycerol) synthesis and in the fatty acid content of seeds. In mature seeds, glycolytic enzyme activities, metabolite levels, and ATP levels remained unchanged, and the fatty acid content was only marginally lower compared to wild type, indicating that the influence of AGPase on carbon metabolism and oil accumulation was largely compensated for in the later stages of seed development. Results indicate that AGPase exerts high control over starch synthesis at early stages of seed development where it is involved in establishing the sink activity of the embryo and the onset of oil accumulation. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 10 (0 ULg)
Increased levels of glycerol-3-phosphate lead to a stimulation of flux into triacylglycerol synthesis after supplying glycerol to developing seeds of Brassica napus L. in planta.
Vigeolas, Hélène ;
in Planta (2004), 219(5), 827-35
Glycerol-3-phosphate (glycerol-3P) is a primary substrate for triacylglycerol synthesis. In the present study, changes in the levels of glycerol-3P during rape (Brassica napus L.) seed development and the ... [more ▼]
Glycerol-3-phosphate (glycerol-3P) is a primary substrate for triacylglycerol synthesis. In the present study, changes in the levels of glycerol-3P during rape (Brassica napus L.) seed development and the influence of manipulating glycerol-3P levels on triacylglycerol synthesis were investigated. (i) Glycerol-3P levels were high in young seeds and decreased during seed development at 30 and 40 days after flowering (DAF), when lipid accumulation was maximal. (ii) To manipulate glycerol-3P levels in planta, various concentrations of glycerol were injected directly into 30-DAF seeds, which remained otherwise intact within their siliques and attached to the plant. Injection of 0-10 nmol glycerol led to a progressive increase in seed glycerol-3P levels within 28 h. (iii). Increased levels of glycerol-3P were accompanied by an increase in the flux of injected [14C]sucrose into total lipids and triacylglycerol, whereas fluxes to organic acids, amino acids, starch, protein and cell walls were not affected. (iv) When [14C]acetate was injected into seeds, label incorporation into total lipids and triacylglycerol increased progressively with increasing glycerol-3P levels. (v) There was a strong correlation between the level of glycerol-3P and the incorporation of injected [14C]acetate and [14C]sucrose into triacylglycerol. (v) The results provide evidence that the prevailing levels of glycerol-3P co-limit triacylglycerol synthesis in developing rape seeds. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 7 (0 ULg)
Regulation of triacylglycerol biosynthesis in developing seeds of Brassica napus L. and Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heyn.
Doctoral thesis (2004)Detailed reference viewed: 7 (0 ULg)
VERFAHREN ZUM ERHÖHEN DES ÖLGEHALTES IN PFLANZEN
Vigeolas, Hélène ; ; et al
The invention relates to methods for increasing the oil content in plants, preferably in the seeds of plants, by expression of glycerol-3-phosphatdehydrogenases (G3PDH) from yeast, preferably from ... [more ▼]
The invention relates to methods for increasing the oil content in plants, preferably in the seeds of plants, by expression of glycerol-3-phosphatdehydrogenases (G3PDH) from yeast, preferably from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The invention also relates to expression constructs for the expression of G3PDH yeast in plants, preferably in the seeds of plants, transgenic plants expressing G3PDH, and to the use of said transgenic plants in the production of foodstuffs, feed, seeds, pharmaceuticals or fine chemicals, especially in the production of oils. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 16 (3 ULg)
Lipid storage metabolism is limited by the prevailing low oxygen concentrations within developing seeds of oilseed rape.
Vigeolas, Hélène ; ; et al
in Plant Physiology (2003), 133(4), 2048-60
The aim of this study was to investigate whether endogenous restrictions in oxygen supply are limiting for storage metabolism in developing oilseed rape (Brassica napus) seeds. Siliques were studied 30 d ... [more ▼]
The aim of this study was to investigate whether endogenous restrictions in oxygen supply are limiting for storage metabolism in developing oilseed rape (Brassica napus) seeds. Siliques were studied 30 d after flowering, when rapid lipid accumulation is occurring in the seeds. (a). By using microsensors, oxygen concentrations were measured within seeds and in the silique space between seeds. At ambient external oxygen (21% [v/v]) in the light, oxygen fell to 17% (v/v) between and 0.8% (v/v) within seeds. A step-wise reduction of the external oxygen concentration led within 2 h to a further decrease of internal oxygen concentrations, and a step-wise increase of the external oxygen concentration up to 60% (v/v) resulted in an increase in internal oxygen that rose to 30% (v/v) between and 8% (v/v) within seeds. (b). The increase in oxygen levels in the seeds was accompanied by a progressive increase in the levels of ATP, UTP, and the ATP to ADP and UTP to UDP ratios over the entire range from 0% to 60% (v/v) external oxygen. (c). To investigate metabolic fluxes in planta, 14C-sucrose was injected into seeds, which remained otherwise intact within their siliques. The increase in oxygen in the seeds was accompanied by a progressive increase in the rate of lipid (including triacylglycerol), protein and cell wall synthesis, and an increase in glycolytic flux over a range from sub- to superambient oxygen concentrations. In contrast to lipid synthesis, starch synthesis was not significantly increased at superambient oxygen levels. The levels of fermentation products such as lactate and glycerol-3P increased only at very low (0%-4% [v/v]) external oxygen concentrations. (d). When 14C-acetate or 14C-acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) was injected into seeds, label incorporation into triacylglycerol progressively increased over the whole range of external oxygen concentrations from 0% to 60% (v/v). (e). Stimulation of lipid synthesis was accompanied by an increase in sugar levels and a decrease in the levels of hexose-phosphates and acetyl-CoA, indicating sucrose unloading and the use of acetyl-CoA as possible regulatory sites. (f). Increased lipid synthesis was also accompanied by an increase in the maximal activities of invertase and diacylglycerol acyltransferase. (g). The developmental shift from starch to lipid storage between 15 and 45 d after flowering was accompanied by an increase in the seed energy state. (h). The results show that at ambient oxygen levels, the oxygen supply is strongly limiting for energy metabolism and biosynthetic fluxes in growing rape seeds, affecting lipid synthesis more strongly than starch synthesis. The underlying mechanisms and implications for strategies to increase yield and storage product composition in oilseed crops are discussed. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 17 (0 ULg)
Sensitive and high throughput metabolite assays for inorganic pyrophosphate, ADPGlc, nucleotide phosphates, and glycolytic intermediates based on a novel enzymic cycling system.
; Vigeolas, Hélène ; et al
in Plant Journal (The) (2002), 30(2), 221-35
Metabolite assays are required to characterise how metabolism changes between genotypes during development and in response to environmental perturbations. They provide a springboard to identify important ... [more ▼]
Metabolite assays are required to characterise how metabolism changes between genotypes during development and in response to environmental perturbations. They provide a springboard to identify important regulatory sites and investigate the underlying mechanisms. Due to their small size, Arabidopsis seeds pose a technical challenge for such measurements. A set of assays based on a novel enzymic cycling system between glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase have been developed and optimised for use with growing Arabidopsis seeds. In combination with existing assays they provide a suite of high throughput, sensitive assays for the immediate precursors for starch (adenine diphosphate glucose) and lipid (acetyl coenzyme A, glycerol-3-phosphate) synthesis, as well as pyrophosphate, ATP, ADP and most of the glycolytic intermediates. A method is also presented to rapidly quench intact siliques, lyophilise them and then manually separate seeds for metabolite analysis. These techniques are used to investigate changes in overall seed metabolite levels during development and maturation, and in response to a stepwise decrease of the external oxygen concentration. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg)