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See detailStudy of ZnO sol-gel films: Effect of annealing
Ivanova, T.; Harizanova, A.; Koutzarova, T. et al

in Materials Letters (2010), 64(10), 1147-1149

Thin films of zinc oxide were deposited by spin coating method on different substrates. The obtained samples were thermally treated at temperatures from 400 degrees C up to 850 degrees C. The structural ... [more ▼]

Thin films of zinc oxide were deposited by spin coating method on different substrates. The obtained samples were thermally treated at temperatures from 400 degrees C up to 850 degrees C. The structural study was performed by XRD and FTIR techniques in order to observe the effect of the annealing temperatures. The sol-gel ZnO films showed polycrystalline hexagonal structure. The optical transmittance reached 91% and it diminished with increasing annealing temperatures. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of annealing temperatures on properties of sol-gel grown ZnO-ZrO2 films
Ivanova, T.; Harizanova, A.; Koutzarova, T. et al

in Crystal Research And Technology (2010), 45(11), 1154-1160

Mixed ZnO-ZrO2 films have been obtained by sol-gel technology. By using spin coating method, the films were deposited on Si and glass substrates. The influence of thermal annealings (the temperatures vary ... [more ▼]

Mixed ZnO-ZrO2 films have been obtained by sol-gel technology. By using spin coating method, the films were deposited on Si and glass substrates. The influence of thermal annealings (the temperatures vary from 400 degrees C to 750 degrees C) on their structural properties has been studied. The structural behavior has been investigated by the means of XRD and FTIR techniques. The results revealed no presence of mixed oxide phases, the detected crystal phases were related to the hexagonal ZnO and to crystalline ZrO2. The sol-gel ZnO-ZrO2 films showed polycrystalline structure with a certain degree of an amorphous fraction. The optical transmittance reached 91% and it diminished with increasing the annealing temperatures. The optical properties of the sol-gel ZnO-ZrO2 films, deposited on glass substrates are excellent with high transparency and better then those of pure ZrO2 films, obtained at similar technological conditions. (C) 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim [less ▲]

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See detailEnhancement of the power factor of [Bi1.68Ca2O4](RS)[CoO2](1.69) - Ag composites prepared by the spray-drying method
Rivas-Murias, B.; Muguerra, Hervé ULg; Traianidis, M. et al

in Solid State Sciences (2010), 12(8), 1490-1495

[Bi1.68Ca2O4](RS)[CoO2](1.69) (BCCO) sample and Ag-BCCO composites (with 10, 20 or 30 wt% Ag) have been prepared by the spray-drying technique and uniaxially/isostatically packed. Scanning electron ... [more ▼]

[Bi1.68Ca2O4](RS)[CoO2](1.69) (BCCO) sample and Ag-BCCO composites (with 10, 20 or 30 wt% Ag) have been prepared by the spray-drying technique and uniaxially/isostatically packed. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that the Ag particles are well distributed in the BCCO cobaltite matrix at low Ag contents. The Ag particles have an important effect on densification and grain orientation of the samples, with a direct impact on their electrical conductivity. The electrical conductivity is higher for the uniaxial samples and increases with the Ag content up to 20% in weight, while the Seebeck coefficient is hardly affected. These features induce an improvement of the power factor, reaching a maximum value of 2.2 mu W K-2 cm(-1) at similar to 1050 K for the uniaxial sample with 20 wt% Ag. Our results suggest that the spray-drying technique is a promising method to obtain composites with a well-dispersed secondary phase. (C) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailVanadium oxide-based mesoporous films as positive electrode material in Li-ion batteries
Krins, Natacha ULg; Caes, Sébastien ULg; Arrebola, José-Carlos et al

Conference (2009)

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See detailElectrochromic TiO2, ZrO2 and TiO2-ZrO2 thin films by dip-coating method
Ivanova, T.; Harizanova, A.; Koutzarova, T. et al

in Materials Science & Engineering : B (2009), 165(3), 212-216

Sol-gel processing of TiO2, ZrO2 and mixed Ti/Zr oxide thin films has been studied as application of these coatings in electrochromic devices. Their structural transformations as a function of annealing ... [more ▼]

Sol-gel processing of TiO2, ZrO2 and mixed Ti/Zr oxide thin films has been studied as application of these coatings in electrochromic devices. Their structural transformations as a function of annealing temperatures were analyzed by XRD and FTIR techniques. Electrochromic behavior of the three kind materials was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and the basic electrochromic characteristics were determined. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailGrain boundary effects in bulk colossal magneto resistive (CMR) manganites and manganite/insulator composites: electrical and magnetic properties
Vanderbemden, Philippe ULg; Vertruyen, Bénédicte ULg; Ausloos, Marcel ULg et al

in Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials [= JOAM] (2009), 11(9), 1115-1121

In the first part of this paper, we discuss the effects of grain boundaries on the properties of bulk colossal magnetoresistive (CMR) manganites We compare the electrical resistivity and AC magnetic ... [more ▼]

In the first part of this paper, we discuss the effects of grain boundaries on the properties of bulk colossal magnetoresistive (CMR) manganites We compare the electrical resistivity and AC magnetic susceptibility of perovskite La-Ca-Mn-O samples with the same nominal stoichiometry but differing in their microstructure (i) a single grain sample, (ii) a sample containing two grains and (iii) a polycrystalline sample Emphasis is placed on information that can be deduced from the measurements in each case In the second part of the paper, we report the data measured on composite samples containing a CMR phase (La-Ca-Mn-O) and an insulating phase (Mn3O4) The results are discussed in the framework of percolation theory We show how the grain boundaries affect the electrical properties of these materials, and we highlight the crucial role of geometric (demagnetization) effects on the resistance vs magnetic field measurements [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of microstructure on the thermal conductivity of magnetoresistive La0.7Ca0.3MnO3/Mn3O4 manganite/insulating oxide polycrystalline bulk composites
Mucha, J.; Vertruyen, Bénédicte ULg; Misiorek, H. et al

in Journal of Applied Physics (2009), 105(6), 063501

We report the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity kappa(T) of bulk polycrystalline composite samples containing a magnetoresistive manganite (La0.7Ca0.3MnO3) and an electrically insulating ... [more ▼]

We report the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity kappa(T) of bulk polycrystalline composite samples containing a magnetoresistive manganite (La0.7Ca0.3MnO3) and an electrically insulating phase (Mn3O4). The sample porosity is shown to be a significant parameter affecting the experimental data: after porosity correction the curves display the characteristics of an ideal composite. A fit of the kappa(T) curves at low temperature using the Debye model enables the mean free path of phonons scattered on "boundaries" to be determined. The values are on the order of the grain size but are influenced by the grain arrangement and the presence of twins. [less ▲]

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See detailRapid synthesis of submicron crystalline barium zirconate BaZrO3 by precipitation in aqueous basic solution below 100 degrees C
Boschini, Frédéric ULg; Rulmont, André ULg; Cloots, Rudi ULg et al

in Journal of the European Ceramic Society (2009), 29(8), 1457-1462

Pure crystalline BaZrO3 powders can be produced by precipitation in highly basic aqueous solution. The influence of several synthesis parameters is studied. At high OH- concentration ([NaOH] = 20 mol/l ... [more ▼]

Pure crystalline BaZrO3 powders can be produced by precipitation in highly basic aqueous solution. The influence of several synthesis parameters is studied. At high OH- concentration ([NaOH] = 20 mol/l), it is possible to obtain the well-crystallized stoichiometric perovskite phase at relatively low temperature (similar to 80 degrees C), after a short reaction time (15 min) and without requiring any precaution to avoid the presence of CO2. This synthesis method yields spherical particles, whose size can be controlled by changing the concentration of the Ba + Zr solution. No calcination treatment is necessary since the precipitate is crystalline. Suitable choice of the synthesis parameters ([NaOH] = 20 mol/l, [Ba + Zr] = 1 mol/l, reaction time= 15 min) yields a sub-micron precipitate with excellent densification behaviour. Corrosion tests in BaO-CuO melt show that similar to 98% dense BaZrO3 obtained by sintering at 1650 degrees C for 13 h could be used for crucibles in the synthesis of YBa2Cu3O7 superconducting single crystals. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailStructural and electrochemical characterization of mesoporous thin films of Nb2xV2-2xO5 upon lithium intercalation
Krins, Natacha ULg; Lepot, Laurent; Cloots, Rudi ULg et al

in Solid State Ionics (2009), 180(11-13), 848-852

Nb2xV2 - 2xO5 (0 <= x <= 1) powders were prepared by a synthetic route based on the inorganic polymerization of alkoxy-choride precursors and characterized by a combination of X-ray diffraction V-51 and ... [more ▼]

Nb2xV2 - 2xO5 (0 <= x <= 1) powders were prepared by a synthetic route based on the inorganic polymerization of alkoxy-choride precursors and characterized by a combination of X-ray diffraction V-51 and Nb-93 NMR and Raman spectroscopy. Amorphous mesoporous thin films of similar compositions were successfully prepared by a modified Evaporation Induced Self Assembly method using polystyrene-b-polyethyleneoxide diblock copolymer as structuring agent. The electrochemical properties of the mesoporous films upon lithium insertion-deinsertion are investigated by cyclic voltammetry. This study highlights the advantages of such nanoarchitecture in terms of increased capacity to insert lithium. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailInteractions in YBa2Cu3O7-x aqueous suspensions
Dusoulier, Laurent; Cloots, Rudi ULg; Vertruyen, Bénédicte ULg et al

in Materials Chemistry & Physics (2009), 116(2-3), 368-375

Surface charging mechanism of YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) particles in water has been investigated in order to understand their colloidal behaviour and stabilise concentrated suspensions. A broad study relating ... [more ▼]

Surface charging mechanism of YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) particles in water has been investigated in order to understand their colloidal behaviour and stabilise concentrated suspensions. A broad study relating the suspension parameters (pH and zeta potential) vs. the conditions of the suspension performance (atmosphere and time) has been shown and discussed. The zeta potential values remain positive in all the pH range for the highest powder concentration studied (10 g l(-1)), evidencing a large influence of the solid content in the particle charge. The chemistry of YBa2Cu3O7-x in water has been studied through the chemical analysis of the supernatant by inductively coupled plasma (ICP), and the surface analysis of the particles by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The presence of BaCO3, CuO, and the hydrolysed Ba species, such as Ba(OH)(2) and Ba(OH)(+), at the particles surface has been evaluated as a function of the powder concentration. Based on these analyses, the dependence of the colloidal behaviour of YBCO on the presence of Ba soluble species has been determined. A stabilisation mechanism for YBCO particles in aqueous suspension focus on the powders deleterious minimization was proposed. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailMullite coatings on ceramic substrates: Stabilisation of Al2O3-SiO2 suspensions for spray drying of composite granules suitable for reactive plasma spraying
Schrijnemakers, Audrey ULg; Andre, Sophie; Lumay, Geoffroy ULg et al

in Journal of the European Ceramic Society (2009), 29(11), 2169-2175

The present work deals with the preparation of stable alumina + silica suspensions with high solid loading for the production of spray-dried composite powders. These composite powders are to be used for ... [more ▼]

The present work deals with the preparation of stable alumina + silica suspensions with high solid loading for the production of spray-dried composite powders. These composite powders are to be used for reactive plasma spraying whereby the formation of mullite and the coating on a ceramic substrate are achieved in a single step process. Electrostatic stabilisation of alumina and silica suspensions has been studied as a function of pH. Silica suspensions are most stable at basic pH whereas alumina suspensions are stable at acidic pH. The addition of ammonium polymethacrylate (APMA) makes it possible to stabilise alumina and prepare a stable 50 wt% alumina + silica suspension at pH 10. The optimum amounts of dispersant and binder have been determined by zeta potential, viscosity and sedimentation measurements. Spray drying of the suspension yields composite powders whose morphology, size distribution and flowability have been characterized before realizing reactive plasma spraying tests. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All fights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailVanadium oxide-based mesoporous films as positive electrode material in Li-ion batteries
Krins, Natacha ULg; Caes, Sébastien ULg; Arrebola, José-Carlos et al

Conference (2008)

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See detailNeutron diffraction texture analysis and thermoelectric properties of BiCaCoO misfit compounds
Guilmeau, E.; Pollet, M.; Grebille, D. et al

in Materials Research Bulletin (2008), 43(2), 394-400

Sintered, textured and single crystal products of the layered misfit [Bi0.81CaO2](2)[CoO2](1.69) cobaltite have been successfully synthesized and characterized. Based on structure and texture models, the ... [more ▼]

Sintered, textured and single crystal products of the layered misfit [Bi0.81CaO2](2)[CoO2](1.69) cobaltite have been successfully synthesized and characterized. Based on structure and texture models, the orientation distribution of the hot-forged sample was successfully analysed by neutron diffraction. The results gave a clear description of the fiber texture with c-axes of the plate-like grains aligned parallel to the hot-forging direction. In terms of transport properties, the decrease of the electrical resistivity according to the degree of alignment and crystallinity of the materials evidenced the important role of the texturation and the strong anisotropy existing in these misfit layered cobaltites. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailCurie temperature, exchange integrals, and magneto-optical properties in off-stoichiometric bismuth iron garnet epitaxial films
Vertruyen, Bénédicte ULg; Cloots, Rudi ULg; Abell, J. S. et al

in Physical Review b (2008), 78(9), 094429

We have studied the influence of the stoichiometry on the structural, magnetic, and magneto-optical properties of bismuth iron garnet (Bi3Fe5O12) thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition. Films with ... [more ▼]

We have studied the influence of the stoichiometry on the structural, magnetic, and magneto-optical properties of bismuth iron garnet (Bi3Fe5O12) thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition. Films with different stoichiometries have been obtained by varying the Bi/Fe ratio of the target and the oxygen pressure during deposition. Stoichiometry variations influence the Curie temperature T-C by tuning the (Fe)-O-[Fe] geometry: TC increases when the lattice parameter decreases, contrary to what happens in the case of stoichiometric rare-earth iron garnets. The thermal variation of the magnetization, the Faraday rotation, and the Faraday ellipticity have been analyzed in the frame of the Neel two-sublattice magnetization model giving energies of -48 K (4.1 meV), -29 K (2.5 meV), and 84 K (7.3 meV) for the three magnetic exchange integrals j(aa), j(dd), and j(ad), respectively. Magneto-optical spectroscopy linked to compositional analysis by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy shows that Bi and/or Fe deficiencies also affect the spectral variation (between 1.77 and 3.1 eV). Our results suggest that bismuth deficiency has an effect on the magneto-optical response of the tetrahedral Fe sublattice, whereas small iron deficiencies affect predominantly the magneto-optical response of the octahedral sublattice. [less ▲]

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See detailUnusual resistivity hysteresis in a bulk magnetoresistive ferromagnetic/ferrimagnetic composite (La0.7Ca0.3MnO3/Mn3O4): Role of demagnetization effects
Vertruyen, Bénédicte ULg; Cloots, Rudi ULg; Ausloos, Marcel ULg et al

in Applied Physics Letters (2007), 91(6), 062514

The authors report an intriguing resistivity versus magnetic field dependence in polycrystalline composite samples containing a magnetoresistive manganite (ferromagnetic/conducting La0.7Ca0.3MnO3) and a ... [more ▼]

The authors report an intriguing resistivity versus magnetic field dependence in polycrystalline composite samples containing a magnetoresistive manganite (ferromagnetic/conducting La0.7Ca0.3MnO3) and a magnetic manganese oxide (ferrimagnetic/insulating Mn3O4). At 10 K, when the magnetic field is scanned from positive to negative values, the resistance peak occurs at positive magnetic field, instead of zero or negative field as usually observed in polycrystalline manganite samples. The position of the resistance peak agrees well with the cancellation of the internal magnetic field, suggesting that the demagnetization effects are responsible for this behavior. (c) 2007 American Institute of Physics. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of thermal treatment on YBa2Cu3O7-x thick films prepared by electrophoretic deposition on Ni and Ag substrates
Dusoulier, Laurent; Denis, Samuel; Dirickx, Michel et al

in Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings (2007), 1001E

We have studied the sintering parameters of YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) coatings produced by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) on Ag and Ni substrates. The maximal sintering temperature is ~ 930°C due to partial ... [more ▼]

We have studied the sintering parameters of YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) coatings produced by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) on Ag and Ni substrates. The maximal sintering temperature is ~ 930°C due to partial melting and chemical contamination for Ag and Ni substrates respectively. Increasing the sintering duration does not improve significantly the densification. When Ar sintering atmosphere is used, the coating density is strongly increased on Ag substrates while adhesion is poor on Ni substrates. The Ar-sintered YBCO coating deposited on planar Ag substrate displays a significant magnetic shielding effect for low frequency applied magnetic induction. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis of transition metal-doped carbon xerogels by cogelation
Job, Nathalie ULg; Pirard, René ULg; Vertruyen, Bénédicte ULg et al

in Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids (2007), 353(24-25), 2333-2345

The cogelation process, i.e. the co-polymerization of a metal complex with the gel precursors, was used for the synthesis of transition metal-doped resorcinol-formaldehyde gels. The aim of this process is ... [more ▼]

The cogelation process, i.e. the co-polymerization of a metal complex with the gel precursors, was used for the synthesis of transition metal-doped resorcinol-formaldehyde gels. The aim of this process is to anchor the metal to the polymer so that the former does not sinter during the pyrolysis step leading to porous carbon. Cu-, Ni-, Pd- or Pt-loaded gels were prepared by this technique. After drying and pyrolysis, Pd and Pt were obtained as metal nanoparticles (2-5 nm in diameter) inserted in the carbon nodules, when the complexing agent and the synthesis conditions were well chosen. These small metal particles were inaccessible to reactive gases, probably due to carbon deposit at the metal surface during pyrolysis: CO almost did not chemisorb. Oxidation of the support or pyrolysis under reductive atmosphere was applied to the metal-doped gels and carbons in order to make the surface of the metal particles accessible, but these treatments develop the macropores only. The cogelation process is then suitable to prepare metal nanoparticles protected from the outside by encapsulation in the carbon matrix. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis of La0.9Sr0.1Ga0.8Mg0.2O2.85 by successive freeze-drying and self-ignition of a hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose solution
Traina, Karl ULg; Steil, M. C.; Pirard, Jean-Paul ULg et al

in Journal of the European Ceramic Society (2007), 27(12), 3469-3474

The present paper reports the synthesis of La0.9Sr0.1Ga0.8Mg0.2O2.85 perovskite powders by a method combining freeze-drying and self-ignition of an aqueous solution of metallic nitrates containing ... [more ▼]

The present paper reports the synthesis of La0.9Sr0.1Ga0.8Mg0.2O2.85 perovskite powders by a method combining freeze-drying and self-ignition of an aqueous solution of metallic nitrates containing hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose. The precursor powder obtained after self-ignition was submitted to various thermal treatments and the resulting powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm analysis, mercury porosimetry and laser granulometry. It turns out that this synthesis method yields single-phase powders with good homogeneity and sinterability properties. The precursor powder treated at 1200 degrees C presents a coral-like structure which collapses under application of low uniaxial pressure, resulting in a narrow grain size distribution suitable for sintering (98.8% relative density for a pellet sintered at 1400 degrees C during 1 h). The fact that no milling step is necessary is an additional advantage of this method, which shows promising prospects for the synthesis of other multicationic oxides. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrical transport and percolation in magnetoresistive manganite/insulating oxide composites: Case of La0.7Ca0.3MnO3/Mn3O4
Vertruyen, Bénédicte ULg; Cloots, Rudi ULg; Ausloos, Marcel ULg et al

in Physical Review. B (2007), 75(16), 165112

We report the results of electrical resistivity measurements carried out on well-sintered La0.7Ca0.3MnO3/Mn3O4 composite samples with almost constant composition of the magnetoresistive manganite phase ... [more ▼]

We report the results of electrical resistivity measurements carried out on well-sintered La0.7Ca0.3MnO3/Mn3O4 composite samples with almost constant composition of the magnetoresistive manganite phase (La0.7Ca0.3MnO3). A percolation threshold (phi c) occurs when the La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 volume fraction is ~ 0.19. The dependence of the electrical resistivity rho as a function of La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 volume fraction fLCMO can be described by percolationlike phenomenological equations. Fitting the conducting regime (fLCMO > phic) by the percolation power law rho # (fLCMO - phic)^(-t) returns a critical exponent value of 2.0±0.2 at room temperature and 2.6±0.2 at 5 K. The increase of t is ascribed to the influence of the grain boundaries on the electrical conduction process at low temperature. (C) 2007 The American Physical Society. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrical transport and magnetic properties of Mn3O4-La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 ceramic composites prepared by a one-step spray-drying technique
Vertruyen, Bénédicte ULg; Fagnard, Jean-François ULg; Vanderbemden, Philippe ULg et al

in Journal of the European Ceramic Society (2007), 27(13-15), 3923-3926

La0.7Ca0.3MnO3/Mn3O4 composites can be synthesized in one step by thermal treatment of a spray-dried precursor, instead of mixing pre-synthesized powders. Another advantage of this composite system is ... [more ▼]

La0.7Ca0.3MnO3/Mn3O4 composites can be synthesized in one step by thermal treatment of a spray-dried precursor, instead of mixing pre-synthesized powders. Another advantage of this composite system is that a long sintering step can be used without leading to significant modification of the manganite composition. The percolation threshold is reached at ~ 20 vol% of manganite phase. The 77 K low field magnetoresistance is enhanced to ~ 11 % at 0.15 T when the composition is close to the percolation threshold. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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