References of "Verheggen, François"
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See detailThe use of chemical ecology in forensic entomology
Dekeirsschieter, Jessica ULg; Frederickx, Christine ULg; Verheggen, François ULg et al

Conference given outside the academic context (2009)

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See detailAphid-ant mutualism: How do aphids focus ant foraging?
Verheggen, François ULg; Detrain, Claire; Diez, Lise et al

Conference (2009, August)

The mutualistic relationships that occur between myrmecophilous aphids and ants are based on the rich food supply that honeydew represents for ants and on the protection they provide against aphid natural ... [more ▼]

The mutualistic relationships that occur between myrmecophilous aphids and ants are based on the rich food supply that honeydew represents for ants and on the protection they provide against aphid natural enemies. While aphid predators and parasitoids actively forage for oviposition sites by using aphid semiochemicals, scouts of aphid-tending ant species would also benefit from locating honeydew resources by orienting toward aphid pheromone sources. The present study aims to identify the chemical factors that attract ants and that maintain their mutualistic relationships with aphids. The perception and behavioral impact of Aphis fabae alarm pheromone, namely (E)-β-farnesene, on Lasius niger were firstly investigated using electroantennography and a four-arm olfactometer. Aphis fabae honeydew sugar composition was subsequently analyzed while the foraging and recruiting behaviour of L. niger scouts towards each of the identified sugars was studied. Clear electrical depolarisations were observed from L. niger scout antennae to stimulations of A. fabae alarm pheromone. Scouts were significantly attracted toward (E)-β-farnesene in the four-arm olfactometer, suggesting for the first time that the latter compound is a key chemical in the establishment of the mutualism. Aphis fabae honeydew consisted of 9 identified mono-, di- and tri-saccharides and 8 hydrocarbons that could not be identified. The main identified sugars were sucrose, fructose, glucose and melezitose. L. niger scouts showed the following drinking preferences for the tested sugars: melezitose = sucrose = raffinose > glucose = fructose > maltose = trehalose = melibiose = xylose, with a recruitment launched toward the first three sugars. Therefore, ant scouts may use aphid semiochemicals to locate at distance an aphid colony and subsequently estimate honeydew quality by tasting it before recruiting conspecifics and establishing a mutualistic relationship. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst record of the 'bathroom mothmidge' Clogmia albipunctata, a conspicuous element of the Belgian fauna that went unnoticed (Diptera: Psychodidae)
Boumans, Louis; Zimmer, Jean-Yves ULg; Verheggen, François ULg

in Phegea (2009), 37(4), 153-160

The 'bathroom fly' Clogmia albipunctata (Williston, 1893) (Diptera: Psychodidae) is a cosmopolitan species that is commonly found in bathrooms, kitchens, sewage treatment plants and compost heaps. Of ... [more ▼]

The 'bathroom fly' Clogmia albipunctata (Williston, 1893) (Diptera: Psychodidae) is a cosmopolitan species that is commonly found in bathrooms, kitchens, sewage treatment plants and compost heaps. Of circumtropical origin, the species probably spread to synanthropic habitats in northern and central Europe during the past decades. The first documented findings in Belgium are discussed, together with general information on the biology and recognition of the species. [less ▲]

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See detailOrigine et évolution du cannibalisme dans les populations animales : pourquoi manger son semblable ?
Alabi, Taofic; Patiny, Sébastien; Verheggen, François ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2009), 13

Le cannibalisme est issu d’une déformation linguistique de la terminologie Arawak (Amérindiens des Antilles) caribal qui signifie courageux. Christophe Colomb l’emploie pour désigner les Indiens des ... [more ▼]

Le cannibalisme est issu d’une déformation linguistique de la terminologie Arawak (Amérindiens des Antilles) caribal qui signifie courageux. Christophe Colomb l’emploie pour désigner les Indiens des Caraïbes réputés pour être des mangeurs d’hommes. Le cannibalisme est largement répandu au sein du règne animal. Sa pratique au sein de l’espèce humaine remonte au Paléolithique et persiste encore dans certaines sociétés actuelles, bien qu’elle ne répond pas exclusivement à des besoins alimentaires comme chez les autres espèces animales. Au regard de sa large distribution, il y a lieu de s’interroger sur les causes, origines et avantages évolutifs de ce comportement au sein du règne animal. Le cannibalisme est induit soit par des facteurs écologiques directement liés à une insuffisance des ressources alimentaires, à de fortes densités d’individus et à une hétérogénéité structurale de la population, soit par des facteurs sociaux comme des besoins de reproduction, ou des contraintes de soins parentaux face à une progéniture trop nombreuse. Les avantages de ce comportement sont les gains nutritionnel et énergétique, les gains de territoire pour vivre et se développer. Par contre, les inconvénients résident dans la réduction des effectifs et de la variabilité génétique de la population, ainsi que dans la possibilité de transmission de parasites, virus et de maladies. [less ▲]

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See detailTreatment method using biological control
Leroy, Pascal ULg; Capella, Quentin ULg; Verheggen, François ULg et al

Patent (2009)

L’invention porte sur un dispositif de prévention et de lutte contre les insectes ravageurs, en particulier contre les pucerons (aphidiens)) de végétaux. L’invention porte donc également sur la méthode de ... [more ▼]

L’invention porte sur un dispositif de prévention et de lutte contre les insectes ravageurs, en particulier contre les pucerons (aphidiens)) de végétaux. L’invention porte donc également sur la méthode de production de ce dispositif. L’invention porte également sur l’utilisation de ce dispositif à proximité d’un végétal susceptible d’être infesté ou déjà infesté par un insecte ravageur tel que le puceron. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of age-dependent quantitative changes in the male labial gland secretion of Bombus terrestris and Bombus lucorum.
Zacek, Petr; Kalinova, Blanka; Sobotnik, Jan et al

in Journal of Chemical Ecology (2009), 35(6), 698-705

Age-related changes of antennal-active components of male labial gland extracts were studied in two closely related bumblebee species, Bombus terrestris and B. lucorum. In B. terrestris, compounds ... [more ▼]

Age-related changes of antennal-active components of male labial gland extracts were studied in two closely related bumblebee species, Bombus terrestris and B. lucorum. In B. terrestris, compounds eliciting electroantennogram (EAG) responses of virgin queens were ethyl dodecanoate, 2,3-dihydrofarnesal, 2,3-dihydrofarnesol, hexadecan-1-ol, octadeca-9,12,15-trien-1-ol, and geranylcitronellol. Compounds that elicited EAG responses from queens of B. lucorum were ethyl dodecanoate, ethyl tetradec-7-enoate, ethyl tetradec-9-enoate, ethyl hexadec-9-enoate, hexadecan-1-ol, hexadec-7-enal, octadeca-9,12-dien-1-ol, octadeca-9,12,15-trien-1-ol, and octadecan-1-ol. Quantities of these compounds in the labial glands changed significantly over the lifetime of the respective males of the two species. In both species, concentrations of the respective compounds reached their maximum within seven days after eclosion. Subsequently, a rapid decrease in the amount of EAG-active compounds occurred in B. terrestris, whereas in B. lucorum the amount of active compounds stayed approximately constant or decreased at a slow rate. Microscopy showed that in B. terrestris secretory cells of the labial glands undergo apoptosis from the fifth to the tenth day of life, whilst in B. lucorum labial gland cells remain unchanged throughout the life of the males. [less ▲]

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See detailTomato-aphid-hoverfly: A tritrophic interaction incompatible for pest management
Verheggen, François ULg; Capella, Quentin ULg; Schwartzberg, Ezra et al

in Arthropod-Plant Interactions (2009), 3

Trichome-based tomato resistance offers the potential to reduce pesticide use, but its compatibility with biological control remains poorly understood. We evaluated Episyrphus balteatus De Geer (Diptera ... [more ▼]

Trichome-based tomato resistance offers the potential to reduce pesticide use, but its compatibility with biological control remains poorly understood. We evaluated Episyrphus balteatus De Geer (Diptera, Syrphidae), an efficient aphidophagous predator, as a potential biological control agent of Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera, Aphididae) on trichome-bearing tomato cultivars. Episyrphus balteatus’ foraging and oviposition behavior, as well as larval mobility and aphid accessibility, were compared between two tomato cultivars (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. ‘Moneymaker’ and ‘Roma’) and two other crop plants; broad bean (Vicia faba L.) and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Hoverfly adults landed and laid more eggs on broad beans than on three species of Solanaceae. Hoverfly larval movement was drastically reduced on tomato, and a high proportion of hoverfly larvae fell from the plant before reaching aphid prey. After quantifying trichome abundance on each of these four plants, we suggest that proprieties of the plant surface, specifically trichomes, are a key factor contributing to reduced efficacy of E. balteatus as a biological agent for aphid control on tomatoes. [less ▲]

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See detailCadaveric volatile organic compounds released by decaying pig carcases (Sus domesticus L.) in different biotopes.
Dekeirsschieter, Jessica ULg; Verheggen, François ULg; Gohy, Marie et al

in Forensic Science International (2009), 189(1-3), 46-53

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See detailDoes Imidacloprid Seed-Treated Maize Have an Impact on Honey Bee Mortality?
Nguyen, Bach Kim ULg; Saegerman, Claude ULg; Pirard, Catherine et al

in Journal of Economic Entomology (2009), 102(2), 616-623

Beekeepers suspected maize. Zea mays L., treated with imidacloprid to result in substantial loss of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies in Belgium. The objective of this study was to investigate the ... [more ▼]

Beekeepers suspected maize. Zea mays L., treated with imidacloprid to result in substantial loss of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies in Belgium. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential impact of maize grown from imidacloprid-treated seeds on honey bee mortality. A survey of 16 apiaries was carried out, and all maize fields treated or not with imidacloprid were located within a radius of 3,000 m around the observed apiaries. Samples of honey, beeswax, and bees were collected in three colonies per apiary and analyzed for pesticide contain by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We first found significant correlation between the number of colonies per apiary and the mortality rates in an apiary. In addition, this mortality rate was inversely correlated with the surface of maize fields treated and not with imidacloprid, suggesting that this pesticide do not interact with bees fitness. Moreover, a very large number of our samples contained acarcides either prohibited or ineffective against varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman) (Acari: Varroidae), suggesting that the treatment method used by the beekeepers to be inadequate for mite control. Our results support the hypothesis that imidacloprid seed-treated maize has no negative impact on honey bees. [less ▲]

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See detailMutualisme pucerons-fourmis : étude des bénéfices retirés par les colonies d’Aphis fabae en milieu extérieur
Verheggen, François ULg; Diez, Lise; Detrain, Claire et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2009), 13

La relation de coopération entre pucerons-fourmis est un bel exemple de mutualisme dans le règne animal, les premiers cherchant protection et hygiène, les seconds une source de sucres nécessaires à la ... [more ▼]

La relation de coopération entre pucerons-fourmis est un bel exemple de mutualisme dans le règne animal, les premiers cherchant protection et hygiène, les seconds une source de sucres nécessaires à la survie de la colonie. La présente étude s’est intéressée à recenser les bénéfices retirés par Aphis fabae Scopoli (Homoptera, Aphididae) de ses relations de mutualisme avec Lasius niger L. (Hymenoptera : Formicidae). Plusieurs paramètres ont été observés en milieu extérieur sur des plants de fèves des marais infestés initialement par 100 individus en présence ou non d’une colonie de L. niger. En présence de fourmis, les plantes étaient constamment infestées par un nombre de pucerons plus important, et la proportion d’individus ailés y était également similaire ou plus grande, selon la date d’observation. Un nombre moins important de prédateurs aphidiphages sur les plantes en présence de fourmis a permis d’expliquer en partie ces observations. Les nombres moyens de pucerons parasités ne différaient pas que les plantes soient explorées ou non par les fourmis suggérant que L. niger est peu efficace face aux attaques de parasitoïdes. Par contre, très peu de pucerons appartenant à des espèces différentes d’A. fabae ont été observés sur les plants mis en présence des fourmis. Ces observations suggèrent que L. niger adopte un comportement de prédation sur les pucerons avec lesquels elle n’entretient aucune relation mutualiste. Les observations menées n’ont pas permis de mettre en évidence un quelconque effet des fourmis sur la vigueur des plantes hôtes des pucerons, bien que sensiblement moins d’exuvies et de tâches de miellat étaient présentes sur les plantes dont les colonies de pucerons étaient visitées par L. niger. L’ensemble de ces résultats confirme que L. niger améliore les conditions de vie des colonies de pucerons d’Aphis fabae dont elle exploite le miellat, principalement grâce à la protection qu’elle apporte contre les prédateurs et la réduction de la pression de compétition exercée par les autres espèces non myrmécophiles de pucerons. [less ▲]

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See detailSociality in non social aphids : Some experimental investigations
Verheggen, François ULg

Scientific conference (2009)

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See detailSocial enviroment influences aphid production of alarm pheromone
Verheggen, François ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg; De Moraes, Consuelo M et al

in Behavioral Ecology (2009), 20(2), 283-288

In most aphid species, the volatile sesquiterpene (E)-beta-farnesene (E beta f) is released as an alarm pheromone in response to predation and is also emitted continuously at low levels. Some aphid ... [more ▼]

In most aphid species, the volatile sesquiterpene (E)-beta-farnesene (E beta f) is released as an alarm pheromone in response to predation and is also emitted continuously at low levels. Some aphid predators use E beta f as a foraging cue, suggesting that the benefits to aphids of signaling via E beta f must be weighed against the cost of increasing apparency to natural enemies. To determine whether aphids vary E beta f production in response to features of their social environment, we compared the production of E beta f by Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) individuals reared in isolation with that of individuals reared among conspecifics or individuals of a different aphid species, Myzus persicae. Production of E beta f by A. pisum reared in isolation was significantly lower than that of aphids reared among conspecifics or among M. persicae individuals. When we reared A. pisum individuals in isolation but exposed them to odors from an aphid colony, E beta f production was similar to that of aphids reared among conspecifics, suggesting that aphids use a volatile cue to assess their social environment and regulate their production of alarm pheromone. It is likely that this cue is E beta f itself, the only volatile compound previously found in headspace collections of A. pisum colonies. Finally, we examined the attraction of a predatory hoverfly, which uses E beta f as a foraging cue, to groups of aphids reared in isolation or among conspecifics and found that groups comprising individuals reared in isolation were significantly less attractive to the predator, suggesting that the observed variation in E beta f production may be ecologically relevant. [less ▲]

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