References of "Verheggen, François"
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See detailReview: Implementing biostimulants and biocontrol strategies in the agroecological management of cultivated ecosystems
Le Mire, Géraldine ULg; Nguyen, Minh ULg; Fassotte, Bérénice ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (in press)

This review describes the current methods for exploiting and applying plant growth-promoting rhizbacteria (PGPR), elicitors and semiochemical products in contemporary agricultural systems. The future of ... [more ▼]

This review describes the current methods for exploiting and applying plant growth-promoting rhizbacteria (PGPR), elicitors and semiochemical products in contemporary agricultural systems. The future of these biostimulant and biocontrol tools for the sustainable management of agricultural practices is also discussed. Special attention is given to the formulation of these products and the network of interactions taking place in cultivated ecosystems [less ▲]

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See detailOviposition deterring effect of Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) on Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)
Yarou, Boni Barthélémy ULg; Bawin, Thomas ULg; Boullis, Antoine ULg et al

Poster (2016, December 02)

Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is one of the most important pests of tomato, reducing crop yield in greenhouses and fields, in several countries around the world. Because synthetic ... [more ▼]

Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is one of the most important pests of tomato, reducing crop yield in greenhouses and fields, in several countries around the world. Because synthetic insecticides lead to resistance and have adverse effects on natural enemies and producers’ health, there is a need for alternatives. In this study, we assess the oviposition deterring effect of O. basilicum using dual-choice behavioral assays performed in flight tunnels. Two modalities were tested, i.e. (1) a tomato plant associated either with an O. basilicum plant versus a tomato plant associated with a plastic pot only filled with potting soil, and (2) a tomato plant with basil essential oil (EO) formulated in paraffin oil (PO) versus a tomato plant with PO only. A 1 ml cylindrical polyethylene plug loaded with 100 µl of solution (formulated EO or PO) was placed on each plant as a diffuser. Forty-eight hours after the release of unsexed adult individuals randomly sampled from the rearing in the central area of the tunnel, we found that plants and EOs reduced T. absoluta oviposition behavior on a nearby located tomato plant. GC-MS analyses showed that the major constituents include estragol (73.8%), linalool (8.6%), β-elemene (2.9%) in O. basilicum essential oils and E-α-bergamotene (38.9%), methyl eugenol (26.1 %), E-β-ocimene (17.7 % ) in O. basilicum VOCs collected with solid-phase micro-extraction method. These results suggest a valuable potential of O. basilicum and associated essential oils as component of an integrated management strategy against the tomato leafminer. [less ▲]

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See detailSemiochemicals to control wireworms
Verheggen, François ULg

Conference (2016, October 12)

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See detailStudy of the volatile organic compounds in the interaction between banana plants and the fungal disease Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense Tropical Race 4 (FocTR4)
Berhal, Chadi ULg; De Clerck, Caroline ULg; LEVICEK, CAROLINA et al

Conference (2016, October 11)

Banana fruit (Musa sp.) ranks fourth in term of worldwide production, and has economical and nutritional key values. Cavendish is the popular and most dominant variety of the dessert banana group ... [more ▼]

Banana fruit (Musa sp.) ranks fourth in term of worldwide production, and has economical and nutritional key values. Cavendish is the popular and most dominant variety of the dessert banana group. Nowadays, it is endangered by the emergent race of the Panama disease, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense TR4 (Foc TR4). Despite the importance of the Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), which are secondary metabolites with a high vapour pressure, and their role in plant protection, they have never been documented as a way to manage this disease on Cavendish. Thus, the aim of this PhD thesis is to study the VOCs in the specific interaction Cavendish/Foc TR4, as a way to manage this threat. Based on the work previously done with other plants at Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, a protocol was optimized for the extraction of the banana plant’s VOCs. In parallel, models of in-vitro and in-vivo inoculations are under development to distinguish the VOCs emitted by the root zone and those emitted by the aerial part of the plant. The results of the first analysis showed that the majority of the Cavendish VOCs belongs to the terpenes group, as well as ketones and an organic ester. The VOCs specifically emitted during the plant-pathogen interaction will be studied more in depth by evaluating their effect on the plant and the pathogen. At long term, and depending on the results, agro-ecological applications of this knowledge could include breeding for new variety or combining banana with other plants expressing VOCs against Foc TR4, applying VOCs on field to stimulate plant defences or to contain the pathogen. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of a semiochemical-based control method against the walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson
Sarles, Landry ULg; Lognay, Georges ULg; Verhaeghe, Agnès et al

Poster (2016, September 15)

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See detailWill climate change affect insect pheromonal communication?
Boullis, Antoine ULg; Detrain, Claire; Francis, Frédéric ULg et al

in Current Opinion in Insect Science (2016)

Understanding how climate change will affect species interactions is a challenge for all branches of ecology. We have only limited understanding of how increasing temperature and atmospheric CO2 and O3 ... [more ▼]

Understanding how climate change will affect species interactions is a challenge for all branches of ecology. We have only limited understanding of how increasing temperature and atmospheric CO2 and O3 levels will affect pheromone-mediated communication among insects. Based on the existing literature, we suggest that the entire process of pheromonal communication, from production to behavioural response, is likely to be impacted by increases in temperature and modifications to atmospheric CO2 and O3 levels. We argue that insect species relying on long-range chemical signals will be most impacted, because these signals will likely suffer from longer exposure to oxidative gases during dispersal. We provide future directions for research programmes investigating the consequences of climate change on insect pheromonal communication. [less ▲]

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See detailAbility of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) to develop on alternative host plant species
Bawin, Thomas ULg; Dujeu, David; De Backer, Lara ULg et al

in Canadian Entomologist (2016), 148(4), 434-442

The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a widespread devastating pest reported to develop on economically important solanaceous crops. The characterization of its host ... [more ▼]

The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a widespread devastating pest reported to develop on economically important solanaceous crops. The characterization of its host range could help to understand and prevent the dispersion behavior of the insect in the environment. In this study, the ability of T. absoluta to develop on 12 cultivated or non-cultivated plants including Solanaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Fabaceae and Malvaceae species under laboratory conditions was assessed. For each plant species, we monitored the development times of immature stages, survival, sex ratios and adult fecundity rates. All the 6 tested non-solanaceous plants, including Chenopodium, Convolvulus and Malva species, were not able to sustain (i.e. allow growth and development) T. absoluta larvae. Among Solanaceae, Solanum species were the most suitable host plants for the pest, but others could be opportunistically colonized with fewer incidences. T. absoluta appears to be strongly related to solanaceous plants which would predominantly support self-sustaining field populations. Preventing crop infestation by removing potential host plants in the immediate field vicinity and culture rotations with non-solanaceous crops is of primary importance. [less ▲]

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See detailMicroorganisms and semiochemicals to manipulate aphidophagous predators
Verheggen, François ULg

Conference (2016, August)

Semiochemicals provide a powerful way for organisms to communicate and coordinate their behaviors. But they also represent opportunities for other organisms to intercept and exploit such signals. There ... [more ▼]

Semiochemicals provide a powerful way for organisms to communicate and coordinate their behaviors. But they also represent opportunities for other organisms to intercept and exploit such signals. There are now numerous examples of natural enemies eavesdropping the intraspecific communication of their prey to better locate them. Aphid natural enemies, including predators and parasitoids, frequently exhibit innate responses to chemical cues reliably associated with aphids, and there is also abundant evidence that learning of profitable chemical cues frequently occurs. Thenceforth, the efficiency of aphid natural enemies to locate their prey is mainly based on their ability to perceive and orientate toward aphid-associated semiochemicals. Aphid predators were shown to respond to different groups of aphid-related semiochemicals, including aphid-induced plant volatiles; aphid pheromones and the more recently identified bacteria-produced honeydew volatiles. These laboratory studies suggest potentially promising avenues for the deployment of aphid-associated semiochemicals for the management of these pest species. While laboratory experiments are invaluable tools for revealing mechanisms, additional field studies are however needed to test ecological relevance of the observed effects. Although it is now possible to attract naturally occurring aphid predators in a crop field using semiochemicals, future work should more fully explore the broader ecological context in which signaling occurs. The information gained from a deeper understanding of the chemical ecology of aphid-natural enemy interaction will enhance our understanding of the chemical biology and ecology of aphids, and may facilitate the design of novel control strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailThe scent of love: how important are semiochemicals in the sexual behavior of lady beetles?
Fassotte, Bérénice ULg; Francis, Frédéric ULg; Verheggen, François ULg

in Journal of Pest Science (2016), 89(2), 347-358

Chemical signals are involved in the courtship behavior of many invertebrate and vertebrate species. Lady beetles are no exception to this rule; a significant number of published reports highlight the ... [more ▼]

Chemical signals are involved in the courtship behavior of many invertebrate and vertebrate species. Lady beetles are no exception to this rule; a significant number of published reports highlight the role of cuticular chemicals involved in the reproduction of lady beetles, including gender recognition. Recent data have also demonstrated the presence of a volatile female sex pheromone that facilitates male attraction in some species. Here, we present a synthetic overview of the current knowledge about the sexual behavior of lady beetles and associated chemicals for which the function and identification have been provided. Because lady beetles are often reared as biological control agents, the chemical cues involved in their sexual behavior could be used as components in integrated management approaches against soft-bodied hemipterans. In conclusion, this review provides new perspectives and potential developments for sustainable insect management mainly based on the semiochemicals involved in the sexual behavior of lady beetles. A better understanding of these chemical signals would help maximize their presence in areas where their predatory behavior is requested, as a result of the application of formulations inducing behavioral manipulation. [less ▲]

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See detailLes invasions biologiques animales
Verheggen, François ULg

Conference (2016, May 24)

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See detailCan tropical basil be integrated in vegetable crop pest management?
Yarou, Boni Barthélémy ULg; Verheggen, François ULg; Heuskin, Stéphanie ULg et al

Poster (2016, May 17)

To address human and environmental health issues related to the use of synthetic pesticides, it is important to explore other ecological pest management approaches. Within this context, a study was ... [more ▼]

To address human and environmental health issues related to the use of synthetic pesticides, it is important to explore other ecological pest management approaches. Within this context, a study was conducted to evaluate the toxic and repellent effect of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) on Myzus persicae S. (Aphididae). The toxicity of O. gratissimum essential oil (EO) was evaluated on M. persicae comparing 3 concentrations (0.001%; 0.01% and 0.1%) to a control (15% sucrose). Mortality rate and fecundity were assessed for each concentration. The observations were made daily, for 4 days, on 12 replicates per treatment. To test the repellent effect of O. gratissimum plants, 2 treatments were compared: a group of 8 Amaranthus cruentus L. (Amaranthaceae) plants with 1 plant of O. gratissimum in the middle and a group of 9 A. cruentus plants (control). The distribution of aphids was analyzed 12 days after the middle plant infestation (20 aphids per plant) for each treatment (6 replicates per treatment). O. gratissimum EO was found toxic from a concentration of 0.01%, with a mortality rate of 34% versus 12% for the control ; The fecundity felt from 30 larvae after 4 days (control) to 15 larvae for the 3 doses of the EO. The analysis with the generalized linear mixed model with Poisson error distribution followed by Turkey test (5 %) showed that EO is significantly more toxic than the control, both for mortality and fecundity (p <0.001). In association test, the population of M. persicae (15 aphids per plant) was significantly (p<0,001) lower when A. cruentus plants was associated with O. gratissimum plant than with the control (22 aphids per plant). Furthermore, the population increases gradually as one moves away from the infestation point in association test whereas it decreases in the control. With regards to these results, it appears that O. gratissimum has biocide effects on M. persicae. This plant may be used in an integrated pest management strategy in the production of vegetable to reduce the use of synthetic pesticides and avoid chemicals residues. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of a semiochemical-based control method against the walnut husk fly
Sarles, Landry ULg; Heuskin, Stéphanie ULg; Verheaghe, Agnès et al

Conference (2016, May 17)

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See detailTaupins: à la découverte des odeurs de racines
Barsics, Fanny ULg; Delory, Benjamin; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULg et al

in Phytoma : La Défense des Végétaux (2016), 694

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See detailChemical Ecology of Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
Boullis, Antoine ULg; Verheggen, François ULg

in VILCINSKAS, Andreas (Ed.) Biology and Ecology of Aphids (2016)

Aphids are widespread insects considered as crop pest throughout the world. In order to control them, different techniques are known. The study of aphid-related semiochemicals is one topic recently ... [more ▼]

Aphids are widespread insects considered as crop pest throughout the world. In order to control them, different techniques are known. The study of aphid-related semiochemicals is one topic recently studied in integrated pest management, used to control aphid outbreaks. These semiochemicals include those involved in intraspecific communication, in communication among different trophic levels, those which attract or repel aphids, or those which enhance the efficiency of aphid natural enemies. This book chapter summarises the recent findings on aphid chemical ecology, from the discovery of molecules of interest, to their use in IPM methods. [less ▲]

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See detailForaging wireworms are attracted to root-produced volatile aldehydes
Barsics, Fanny ULg; Delory, Benjamin M.; Delaplace, Pierre ULg et al

in Journal of Pest Science (2016)

Soil-dwelling insects are known to react to chemical cues they encounter in the rhizosphere. Whether wireworms (Coleoptera, Elateridae) use root-emitted volatile organic chemicals to localize their host ... [more ▼]

Soil-dwelling insects are known to react to chemical cues they encounter in the rhizosphere. Whether wireworms (Coleoptera, Elateridae) use root-emitted volatile organic chemicals to localize their host plant remains, however, poorly understood. Here, we aimed at identifying chemical cues released by barley roots that attract Agriotes sordidus. In a first behavioral experiment, we assessed the ability of wireworms to orient towards live barley roots, using dual-choice olfactometers suitable for belowground insects. Then, we collected the volatile organic compounds (VOC) produced by barley roots using a dynamic head-space sampling approach. VOC were quantified and identified using gas chromatography—mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The odorant blend is composed of four aldehydes, namely hexanal, (E)-hex-2-enal, (E)-non-2-enal, and (E,Z)-nona-2,6-dienal. In a second set of dual-choice bioassays, wireworms were attracted towards a synthetic blend of these four major compounds. However, the synthetic blend was not as attractive as live roots, which is partially explained by the absence of CO2, commonly known as a strong attractant for soil-dwelling insects. While CO2 indicates the presence of living material in the vicinity, we hypothesize that additional VOC inform about the plant suitability. A better understanding of these belowground signals would contribute to the development of new integrated control strategies against wireworms. [less ▲]

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